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Pandurangan K.,Meenakshi Academy of Higher Education and Research | Krishnappan V.,Madha Dental College and Hospitals | Subramanian V.,Meenakshi Academy of Higher Education and Research | Subramanyan R.,Sri Lakshminarayana Institute of Medical science
Inflammopharmacology | Year: 2015

Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of four dimethoxy flavone derivatives; 7,2′-dimethoxy flavone, 7,3′-dimethoxy flavone, 7,4′-dimethoxy flavone and 7,8,-dimethoxy flavone and to investigate the possible cellular mechanisms involved. Materials and methods: The acute anti-inflammatory effect of dimethoxy flavones was investigated by carrageenan induced hind paw oedema in rats. Further, the effect of dimethoxy flavones on certain mediators of pain and inflammation like cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and COX-2), pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and TNF-α) and free radical scavenging activity (NO and LPO) were investigated by using in vitro tests. Results: The investigated dimethoxy flavones produced a significant, dose and time dependent reduction of carrageenan induced paw oedema in rats with a maximum inhibition of 52.4 % observed for 7,4′-dimethoxy flavone. Although, the test compounds inhibited both the isoforms of cyclooxygenase, a higher degree of inhibition on COX-2 was evident. A concentration dependent inhibition of other inflammatory cytokines like tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β was identified in the present study. 7,4′-dimethoxy flavone was found to be maximally effective in inhibiting nitrite ion free radical generation and 7,8-dimethoxy flavone was more active in inhibiting lipid peroxidation than the other compounds. Conclusion: The results of the present study reveal the anti-inflammatory action of the investigated dimethoxy flavones. Inhibition of cyclooxygenases, cytokines and reactive oxygen species, observed in subsequent experiments may be suggested as possible mechanisms involved in the action of these compounds. © 2015, Springer Basel.


Vidyalakshmi K.,Madha Dental College | Kamalakannan P.,Meenakshi Medical College and Research Institute MAHER | Viswanathan S.,Meenakshi Medical College and Research Institute MAHER | Ramaswamy S.,Sri Lakshminarayana Institute of Medical science
Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2012

This study was designed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory action of four dihydroxy flavone derivatives; 3,3'-dihydroxy flavone, 5,6-dihydroxy flavone, 3,7-dihydroxy flavone and 6,3'-dihydroxy flavone and to further investigate the multiple cellular mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory effect of these compounds. The effect of dihydroxy flavones on acute inflammation was studied in rats employing carrageenan induced hind paw edema method. Further, the role of proinflammatory cytokines like TNF-α and IL-1β, cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and COX-2), and free radicals in the action of flavone derivatives was investigated using in vitro assays. All the four dihydroxy flavone derivatives exhibited time and dose dependent inhibition of carrageenan induced paw edema. In addition, the investigated compounds inhibited both the isoforms of cyclooxygenase and cytokines in a concentration dependant manner and also suppressed the release of reactive oxygen species. The anti-inflammatory effect of dihydroxy flavones may be through mechanisms that involve an interaction with cyclooxygenases, cytokines and reactive oxygen species. © 2012 Bentham Science Publishers.


Pandurangan K.,Meenakshi Academy of Higher Education and Research | Krishnappan V.,Madha Dental College and Hospitals | Subramanian V.,Meenakshi Academy of Higher Education and Research | Subramanyan R.,Sri Lakshminarayana Institute of Medical science
European Journal of Pharmacology | Year: 2014

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antinociceptive action of certain dimethoxy flavones (DMF, (7,2'-dimethoxy flavone, 7,3'-dimethoxy flavone, 7,4'-dimethoxy flavone and 7,8,-dimethoxy flavone) and the possible mechanisms involved. The antinociceptive effect of dimethoxy flavones was investigated in mice employing acetic acid-induced abdominal writhings, formalin-induced nociception and hot water tail immersion assay procedures. To identify the possible mechanisms involved in the antinociceptive action of these compounds, acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction assay alone was employed. Mice were pretreated with naloxone, yohimbine, ondansetron, haloperidol, bicuculline or glibenclamide before dimethoxy flavone treatment to identify the role of opioid, adrenergic, 5HT3-serotonergic, dopaminergic, gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) receptor or potassium channels, respectively. The investigated dimethoxy flavones produced a significant reduction in the number of abdominal constrictions in acetic acid assay. A dose dependent decrease in paw-licking response time was evident in both the early and late phases of formalin induced nociception. A significant increase in reaction time was also evident after treatment with various dimethoxy flavones in hot water tail immersion assay. Pretreatment with naloxone, ondansetron or glibenclamide significantly attenuated the antinociceptive effect of all the four dimethoxy flavones. Yohimbine pretreatment attenuated the antinociceptive response of 7,3'-dimethoxy flavone, 7,4'-dimethoxy flavone and 7,8-dimethoxy flavone. Pretreatment with haloperidol potentiated the antinociceptive response of all the tested dimethoxy flavones. The antinociceptive effect of 7,2'-dimethoxy flavone and 7,3'-dimethoxy flavone was annulled by bicuculline pretreatment. The results of the present study reveal the antinociceptive effect of dimethoxy flavones involving multiple pathways. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Ramaswamy S.,Sri Lakshminarayana Institute of Medical science | Jaikumar S.,Aarupadai Veedu Medical College
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences | Year: 2010

Trachyspermum ammi fruit have traditionally been used in India as medicinal plant for the treatment of indigestion and dyspepsia and many other gastric disorders. In the present study ethanolic extract of Trachyspermum ammi fruit was used for investigation of antiulcer activity by using pylorus ligation, as antisecretary model and Indomethacin induced ulcer model, ethanol induced ulceration model, cold restraint stress induced ulcer model as cytoprotective model. Animals pretreated with ethanolic extract of Trachyspermum ammi fruit at the dose 100mg/kg and 200mg/kg showed significant decrease in ulcer index and percentage ulcer protection in all models. The results suggests that the extract at 100mg/kg and 200mg/kg showed significant protection (p<0.001) by reducing ulcerative lesions when compared with control group of animals. These findings indicate that Trachyspermum ammi fruit extract shows significant antiulcer activity.


Vidyalakshmi K.,Meenakshi Ammal Dental College | Kamalakannan P.,Meenakshi Medical College | Viswanathan S.,Meenakshi Medical College | Ramaswamy S.,Sri Lakshminarayana Institute of Medical science
Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior | Year: 2010

Objective: This study was designed to evaluate the antinociceptive action of four dihydroxy flavone derivatives; 3,3'-dihydroxy flavone, 5,6-dihydroxy flavone, 3,7-dihydroxy flavone and 6,3'-dihydroxy flavone and to investigate the mechanisms involved. Materials and methods: The antinociceptive effect of dihydroxy flavones was investigated in mice employing acetic acid induced abdominal constrictions, formalin-induced nociception, and hot plate assay procedures. The effects following pretreatment with naloxone, yohimbine, ondansetron, haloperidol, bicuculline and glibenclamide were also studied by acetic acid assay to reveal the involvement of opioid, adrenergic, tryptaminergic, dopaminergic, GABAergic or potassium channels respectively in the antinociceptive action of these compounds. Results: Dihydroxy flavone derivatives significantly reduced the number of abdominal constrictions in acetic acid assay. The paw licking response time during both the early and late phases of formalin-induced nociception was reduced in a dose dependent manner by dihydroxy flavones treatment. A significant increase in reaction time was also evident in hot plate assay after dihydroxy flavones treatment.The antinociceptive effect of dihydroxy flavones in the acetic acid assay was significantly attenuated by pretreatment with either naloxone or bicuculline. However, pretreatment of animals with yohimbine, ondansetron, haloperidol, or glibenclamide did not alter the response. Conclusion: All the four investigated dihydroxy flavones produced dose related antinociception through mechanisms that involve an interaction with opioid and GABAergic pathways. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

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