Sri Guru Gobind Singh College

Chandigarh, India

Sri Guru Gobind Singh College

Chandigarh, India
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Vijayan M.,Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center | Kumar S.,Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center | Bhatti J.S.,Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center | Bhatti J.S.,Sri Guru Gobind Singh College | Reddy P.H.,Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center
Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science | Year: 2017

Stroke is a very common neurological disease, and it occurs when the blood supply to part of the brain is interrupted and the subsequent shortage of oxygen and nutrients causes damage to the brain tissue. Stroke is the second leading cause of death and the third leading cause of disability-adjusted life years. The occurrence of stroke increases with age, but anyone at any age can suffer a stroke. Stroke can be broadly classified in two major clinical types: ischemic stroke (IS) and hemorrhagic stroke. Research also revealed that stroke, vascular dementia (VaD), and Alzheimer's disease (AD) increase with a number of modifiable factors, and most strokes can be prevented and/or controlled through pharmacological or surgical interventions and lifestyle changes. The pathophysiology of stroke, VaD, and AD is complex, and recent molecular and postmortem brain studies have revealed that multiple cellular changes have been implicated, including inflammatory responses, microRNA alterations, and marked changes in brain proteins. These molecular and cellular changes provide new information for developing therapeutic strategies for stroke and related vascular disorders treatment. IS is the major risk factor for VaD and AD. This chapter summarizes the (1) links among stroke-VaD-AD; (2) updates the latest developments of research in identifying protein biomarkers in peripheral and central nervous system tissues; and (3) critically evaluates miRNA profile and function in human blood samples, animal, and postmortem brains. © 2017 Elsevier Inc.

Kumar S.,Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center | Vijayan M.,Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center | Bhatti J.S.,Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center | Bhatti J.S.,Sri Guru Gobind Singh College | Reddy P.H.,Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center
Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science | Year: 2017

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are found in the circulatory biofluids considering the important molecules for biomarker study in aging and age-related diseases. Blood or blood components (serum/plasma) are primary sources of circulatory miRNAs and can release these in cell-free form either bound with some protein components or encapsulated with microvesicle particles, called exosomes. miRNAs are quite stable in the peripheral circulation and can be detected by high-throughput techniques like qRT-PCR, microarray, and sequencing. Intracellular miRNAs could modulate mRNA activity through target-specific binding and play a crucial role in intercellular communications. At a pathological level, changes in cellular homeostasis lead to the modulation of molecular function of cells; as a result, miRNA expression is deregulated. Deregulated miRNAs came out from cells and frequently circulate in extracellular body fluids as part of various human diseases. Most common aging-associated diseases are cardiovascular disease, cancer, arthritis, dementia, cataract, osteoporosis, diabetes, hypertension, and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Variation in the miRNA signature in a diseased peripheral circulatory system opens up a new avenue in the field of biomarker discovery. Here, we measure the biomarker potential of circulatory miRNAs in aging and various aging-related pathologies. However, further more confirmatory researches are needed to elaborate these findings at the translation level. © 2017 Elsevier Inc.

Kaur R.P.,Sri Guru Gobind Singh College | Goyal V.,Punjabi University
Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing | Year: 2016

The dependency on websites has increased manifold. More and more websites are being developed in local languages also. However, most users feel that the websites developed in their local languages are not reliable and updated. So, the quality of the websites of Academic institutes which are in local languages have been performed. There are 49 academic institutes in India whose websites are in local languages. Using stratified sampling technique, the sample of websites that are selected for case study are 2 (66.6 %) of Punjabi and 20 (40.8 %) of Hindi. The testing has been performed on the selected websites by implementing a web quality model According to the testing, 12 (54.5 %) websites’ score is less than 50 %, 7 (31.8 %) websites’ score is between 50 and 60 % while only 3 (13.6 %) websites’ score is more than 60 %. © Springer India 2016.

Gupta M.,Guru Nanak Dev University | Gupta M.,D A V College | Gupta M.,Sri Guru Gobind Singh College | Anu,Union Christian College | And 2 more authors.
Materials Today: Proceedings | Year: 2016

A comparative study on physico-chemical analysis of Cd ferrites nanofabricated by sol-gel method using citric acid as a complexing agent, with/without aqueous ammonia as a combustion process chemical additive (CPCA) has been carried out. Ferrites obtained by two different methods were characterized by various spectroscopic techniques and reveal that CPCA helps in the nanofabrication of ferrites (38 nm) at a lower temperature (500°C), with high surface area (14.5067 m2/g) and novel electro-magnetic parameters(MS = 5.4273 emu/g). © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

Bhatti G.K.,Panjab University | Bhadada S.K.,Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education & Research | Vijayvergiya R.,Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education & Research | Mastana S.S.,Loughborough University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Diabetes and its Complications | Year: 2016

Objective The present study aimed at estimating the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and prospectively, evaluating cardiovascular events among Asian Indians type 2 diabetic subjects. Methods The sample comprised 1522 type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM) subjects aged 25-91 years, who participated in the North Indian Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease Study (NIDCVD). The participants were screened for hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity and cardiovascular events. Anthropometric, clinical and biochemical measurements were done in all subjects. The prevalence of MetS was estimated in all the subjects according to the harmonized criteria of 2009. Results The prevalence of MetS among urban Indian diabetic subjects was 71.9% and was significantly higher in females (86%) as compared to males (57.9%). To determine the independent predictors of the MetS in diabetic sample, binary logistic regression analyses were performed using demographic and biochemical parameters. Significant differences in the indices of generalized and abdominal obesity and lipids (total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein) were observed (p < 0.01) in male:female and MetS and non-MetS comparisons. Regression analysis for prediction of CAD showed that family history, age, body mass index (BMI), SBP, physical inactivity and hypertension independently and significantly predicted the disease outcome. Binary logistic regression analysis revealed that MetS may be an independent risk/predictor of CAD (odd ratio (OR) = 3.44, CI 1.31-9.01, p = 0.012) along with higher age groups, BMI and hypertension in Indian population. Conclusion The study demonstrated that the high prevalence of MetS and its different components were positively associated with a higher risk of CAD in north Indian diabetic subjects. Nevertheless, MetS is a major health problem in India, comprehensive population studies are warranted for estimation of incidence and prevalence, and education should be provided on its prevention and control to reduce the diabetes-related morbidity and mortality. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Bhatti J.S.,Sri Guru Gobind Singh College | Bhatti G.K.,Panjab University | Mastana S.S.,Loughborough University | Ralhan S.,Hero DMC Heart Institute | And 2 more authors.
Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry | Year: 2010

Genetic susceptibility may be responsible for high prevalence of type 2 diabetes worldwide. A common missense single nucleotide polymorphism, K121Q in the ectoenzyme nucleotide pyrophosphate phosphodiesterase (ENPP1) gene, has recently been associated with type 2 diabetes in Italian, South Indian, and American populations. The objective of this study was to investigate the possible role of K121Q polymorphism in ENPP1 gene with type 2 diabetes in North Indians. The genotype of the ENPP1/PC-1 K121Q polymorphism was determined using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis for 328 T2DM patients and 326 non-diabetic participants. Anthropometric and clinical characteristics (Body mass index (BMI), glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), Creatinine, HbA1c, and insulin levels) were measured using standard protocols. Their Chi-square analyses were used to test the significance differences in genotypic and allelic frequencies. Association studies were undertaken using the t test and logistic regression analyses. Our results revealed there was no significant difference in the genotypic distribution between T2DM patients and control subjects. The KK and KQ genotype frequencies were similar in T2DM cases and controls (60.7 and 39.3% in T2DM and 59.8 and 40.2% in controls). No subjects with the QQ genotype were found. Binary logistic regression analysis of data did not show any association of K121Q polymorphism with type 2 diabetes (OR; 0.97, 95% CI; 0.7-1.32, P = 0.82). No significant correlation among the BMI, WHR, BP, TG, TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, Glucose, HbA1c, Creatinine, and insulin indices (HOMA-IR) was observed in the individuals carrying KK and KQ genotypes. In conclusion, our results showed that ENPP1/PC-1 K121Q polymorphism is not associated with type 2 diabetes and related quantitative metabolic traits in North Indian Punjabi population. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Mahajan N.,DAV College Kanpur | Randhawa M.,Panjab University | Gupta M.,Panjab University | Gill P.S.,Sri Guru Gobind Singh College
Progress of Theoretical and Experimental Physics | Year: 2013

Texture six zero Fritzsch-like as well as non-Fritzsch-like Hermitian lepton mass matrices (144 combinations in all) have been investigated for both Majorana and Dirac neutrinos for their compatibility with current neutrino oscillation data, keeping in mind the hierarchy of neutrino masses. All the combinations considered here for Majorana neutrino masses are ruled out by the existing data in the case of inverted hierarchy and degenerate scenario. For Majorana neutrinos with normal hierarchy, only 16 combinations can accommodate the experimental data. Assuming neutrinos to be Dirac particles, normal hierarchy, inverted hierarchy as well as degenerate neutrinos are ruled out for all combinations of texture 6 zero Hermitian mass matrices. © The Author(s) 2013.

De S.,Sri Guru Gobind Singh College | Sinha S.,Indian Institute of Science
Nonlinear Dynamics | Year: 2015

We investigate the spatiotemporal behaviour of a network where the local dynamics at the nodes (sites) is governed by piecewise linear maps. The local maps we consider exhibit the interesting and potentially useful property of robust chaos. We study the coupled system of such maps with varying fraction of random non-local connections, where the random links may be static, or may change over time. While this system is always unsynchronized under regular connections, synchronized chaos emerges when some of the links are rewired randomly. Further, increasing the frequency of link changes and fraction of random links significantly enhances the range of synchronization. Additionally, dynamic random links are also found to suppress unbounded dynamics in parameter regimes where blow-ups occurred under regular coupling. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Bhatti G.K.,Panjab University | Bhatti J.S.,Sri Guru Gobind Singh College | Kiran R.,Panjab University | Sandhir R.,Panjab University
Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology | Year: 2011

Organophosphate (OP) insecticides have been reported to induce oxidative stress due to lipid peroxidation and alteration in defense mechanisms. It is known that calcium content in erythrocytes plays a very important in normal physiology of cells. Erythrocytes are a very convenient model to understand the susceptibility of membrane to oxidative damage induced by various xenobiotic compounds. The aim of present study was to investigate the effects of ethion induced oxidative damage, alterations in membrane bound enzymes and Ca 2+ homeostasis and a possible protective role of vitamin E. Adult male albino rats of Wistar strain were orally administered ethion and vitamin E daily for 28days. Animals were randomly divided into four groups: control; ethion treated (2.7mg/kgbw/day); vitamin E treated (50mg/kg of bw/day); ethion+vitamin E treated. The animals were sacrificed after 7, 14, 21 and 28days. Erythrocyte membranes were prepared and analyzed for protein, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and membrane bound ATPases. Furthermore, Ca 2+ homeostasis as function of time and concentration was evaluated in erythrocytes. The results from the present study show that in vivo administration of ethion resulted in oxidative damage to erythrocyte membranes as evident by increased lipid peroxidation. The increased LPO following ethion intoxication was accompanied by significant decrease in the activities of Na +/K +-ATPase, Mg 2+-ATPase and Ca 2+-ATPase and disturbed Ca 2+homeostasis in erythrocytes. Furthermore, vitamin E treatment had a beneficial effect by decreasing lipid peroxidation; partially restoring activities of membrane bound ATPases and Ca 2+ homeostasis. The present study suggests that ethion exerts its toxic effect by increasing LPO, altering the activity of membrane bound enzymes and disturbing Ca 2+ homeostasis. Vitamin E treatment ameliorated the toxic effects of ethion suggesting its role as a potential antioxidant. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Bhatti J.S.,Sri Guru Gobind Singh College | Sidhu I.P.S.,Sri Guru Gobind Singh College | Bhatti G.K.,Panjab University
Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry | Year: 2011

Excessive generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) can induce oxidative damage to vital cellular molecules and structures including DNA, lipids, proteins, and membranes. Recently, melatonin has attracted attention because of their free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible protective role of melatonin against atrazine-induced oxidative stress in rat erythrocytes in vivo. Adult male albino rats of Wistar strain were randomly divided into four groups. Control group received isotonic saline; melatonin (10 mg/kg bw/day) group; atrazine (300 mg/kg of bw/day) group; atrazine + melatonin group. Oral administration of atrazine and melatonin was given daily for 21 days. Oxidative stress was assessed by determining the glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) level, and alteration in antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) in the erythrocytes of normal and experimental animals. A significant increase in the MDA levels and decrease in the GSH was observed in the atrazine treated animals (P < 0.05). Also, significant increase in the activities of SOD, CAT, GPx, and GST were observed in atrazine treated group compared to controls (P < 0.05). Moreover, significant decrease in protein, total lipids, cholesterol, and phospholipid content in erythrocyte membrane were demonstrated in atrazine treated rats. Administration of atrazine significantly inhibits the activities of G-6-PD and membrane ATPases such as Na+/K+-ATPase, Mg 2+-ATPase, and Ca2+-ATPase (P < 0.05). Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) examination of erythrocytes revealed morphological alterations in the erythrocytes of atrazine treated rats. Furthermore, supplementation of melatonin significantly modulates the atrazine-induced changes in LPO level, total lipids, total ATPases, GSH, and antioxidant enzymes in erythrocytes. In conclusion, the increase in oxidative stress markers and the concomitant alterations in antioxidant defense system indicate the role of oxidative stress in erythrocytes of atrazine-induced damage. Moreover, melatonin shows a protective role against atrazine-induced oxidative damage in rat erythrocytes. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

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