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Bhatti G.K.,Panjab University | Bhadada S.K.,Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education & Research | Vijayvergiya R.,Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education & Research | Mastana S.S.,Loughborough University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Diabetes and its Complications | Year: 2016

Objective The present study aimed at estimating the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and prospectively, evaluating cardiovascular events among Asian Indians type 2 diabetic subjects. Methods The sample comprised 1522 type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM) subjects aged 25-91 years, who participated in the North Indian Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease Study (NIDCVD). The participants were screened for hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity and cardiovascular events. Anthropometric, clinical and biochemical measurements were done in all subjects. The prevalence of MetS was estimated in all the subjects according to the harmonized criteria of 2009. Results The prevalence of MetS among urban Indian diabetic subjects was 71.9% and was significantly higher in females (86%) as compared to males (57.9%). To determine the independent predictors of the MetS in diabetic sample, binary logistic regression analyses were performed using demographic and biochemical parameters. Significant differences in the indices of generalized and abdominal obesity and lipids (total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein) were observed (p < 0.01) in male:female and MetS and non-MetS comparisons. Regression analysis for prediction of CAD showed that family history, age, body mass index (BMI), SBP, physical inactivity and hypertension independently and significantly predicted the disease outcome. Binary logistic regression analysis revealed that MetS may be an independent risk/predictor of CAD (odd ratio (OR) = 3.44, CI 1.31-9.01, p = 0.012) along with higher age groups, BMI and hypertension in Indian population. Conclusion The study demonstrated that the high prevalence of MetS and its different components were positively associated with a higher risk of CAD in north Indian diabetic subjects. Nevertheless, MetS is a major health problem in India, comprehensive population studies are warranted for estimation of incidence and prevalence, and education should be provided on its prevention and control to reduce the diabetes-related morbidity and mortality. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Kaur R.P.,Sri Guru Gobind Singh College | Goyal V.,Punjabi University | Sandhu K.N.S.,JSS Academy of Technical Education
Proceedings - 2015 International Conference on Cognitive Computing and Information Processing, CCIP 2015 | Year: 2015

With the introduction of laptops, I-phones and world wide web it has become very easy for everyone to assess the information and so much so that the people have started reading newspapers on the run. The set of websites of Punjabi and Hindi newspapers has been prepared. There are sixty three websites of Punjabi and eighty four websites of Hindi newspapers all over the world. Five software tools have been selected to test the quality of websites. A case study has been done. Using stratified sampling technique, the sample selected for case study is 13(72.2%) of Punjabi and 5(27.78%) of Hindi newspapers. © 2015 IEEE.


Kaur R.P.,Sri Guru Gobind Singh College | Goyal V.,Punjabi University
Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing | Year: 2016

The dependency on websites has increased manifold. More and more websites are being developed in local languages also. However, most users feel that the websites developed in their local languages are not reliable and updated. So, the quality of the websites of Academic institutes which are in local languages have been performed. There are 49 academic institutes in India whose websites are in local languages. Using stratified sampling technique, the sample of websites that are selected for case study are 2 (66.6 %) of Punjabi and 20 (40.8 %) of Hindi. The testing has been performed on the selected websites by implementing a web quality model According to the testing, 12 (54.5 %) websites’ score is less than 50 %, 7 (31.8 %) websites’ score is between 50 and 60 % while only 3 (13.6 %) websites’ score is more than 60 %. © Springer India 2016.


Mahajan N.,DAV College Kanpur | Randhawa M.,Panjab University | Gupta M.,Panjab University | Gill P.S.,Sri Guru Gobind Singh College
Progress of Theoretical and Experimental Physics | Year: 2013

Texture six zero Fritzsch-like as well as non-Fritzsch-like Hermitian lepton mass matrices (144 combinations in all) have been investigated for both Majorana and Dirac neutrinos for their compatibility with current neutrino oscillation data, keeping in mind the hierarchy of neutrino masses. All the combinations considered here for Majorana neutrino masses are ruled out by the existing data in the case of inverted hierarchy and degenerate scenario. For Majorana neutrinos with normal hierarchy, only 16 combinations can accommodate the experimental data. Assuming neutrinos to be Dirac particles, normal hierarchy, inverted hierarchy as well as degenerate neutrinos are ruled out for all combinations of texture 6 zero Hermitian mass matrices. © The Author(s) 2013.


Bhatti G.K.,Panjab University | Bhatti J.S.,Sri Guru Gobind Singh College | Vijayvergiya R.,Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research | Singh B.,Panjab University
Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry | Year: 2016

Angiotensin-1-converting enzyme (ACE) gene has established substantial attention in the recent years as a candidate gene for hypertension, cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association of ACE (I/D) polymorphism with coronary artery disease (CAD) in a north Indian population. A total of 662 subjects (330 CAD patients and 332 healthy controls) were examined for association of ACE gene (I/D) polymorphism and environmental risk factors. The mean age of the CAD patients and control subjects was 60.53 ± 8.6 years and 56.55 ± 7.7 years, respectively (p = 0.000). Anthropometric and demographic data showed BMI values significantly higher among CAD patients and control subjects (26.98 ± 4.9 vs 24.04 ± 4.7, p = 0.000). We observed pronounced central obesity in both CAD patients and controls, even at the lowest BMI values (<23 kg/m2). Dyslipidemia was highly prevalent in CAD patients compared to control subjects. Genotypic data showed significantly higher frequency of DD genotype in CAD patients than that of control subjects (40 vs 28.3 %). No significant difference was observed in the distribution of ID genotypes between CAD patients and control subjects. Logistic regression analysis of data demonstrate that DD genotype was associated with 1.8 fold increased risk of development of CAD in Asian Indians (OR 1.8; 95 % CI 1.22–2.66; p = 0.003). The frequency of D allele was significantly higher in CAD patients (p = 0.001). No significant difference was observed in the clinical and biochemical characteristics of CAD patients and controls when the data was stratified according to the genotypes of ACE gene. In conclusion, DD genotype of ACE gene may be associated with increased risk of CAD in Asian Indian population. © 2016 Association of Clinical Biochemists of India

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