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Site: http://phys.org/technology-news/

"Switzerland's excellent result in terms of internet access is tainted by the fact that certain parts of the population are disadvantaged, and by rising concerns about privacy. Internet access is not everything", says Prof. Michael Latzer from the Media Change & Innovation Division of IPMZ at the University of Zurich. After 2011 and 2013, he and his team have now carried out the World Internet Project Switzerland for the third time. The representative survey shows that 88 out of every 100 people in Switzerland use the internet, and 5 more benefit from it by asking relatives or friends to do something for them on the internet. This means that just 7 in every 100 have no internet access at all, and these are generally people with a lower level of education, on a low income or who are unemployed. Due to higher growth rates in Ticino in recent years, regional differences have almost disappeared. There has been a sharp increase in mobile use of the internet, tripling (63%) since 2011 thanks chiefly to smartphones. 14 to 29-year olds are leading this trend, with more than 90% of them using mobile internet, for example for social networking on Facebook. Women lagging behind in terms of access, use and skills A gender gap has reemerged in the past two years, with internet access increasing amongst men but not amongst women. Women are also lagging behind when it comes to using mobile internet (58% compared to 67% of men) and they also use the internet less intensively than their male counterparts. 22 out of 100 women in Switzerland spend less than 5 hours per week online - that figure is twice as high as for men. Women's self-reported internet skills have decreased more dramatically than in the case of men, with 41% of women (2013: 27%) rating their skills as poor or adequate. The corresponding figure was only around one quarter for men. "That's a problem, because at the same time poor internet skills are correlated to users feeling less a part of the information society and taking a less active role in protecting their own data", explains Prof. Michael Latzer. Twice as much time spent online, three times as much mobile internet use At 22 hours a week, the average person in Switzerland is spending more than twice as long online than in 2011. 72% of internet users are also using mobile internet en route - roughly three times as many as in 2011 (26%). E-mails and search engines are used most and have become an established daily routine. While eCommerce is very common, with three quarters of users shopping online for example, this function is used comparatively seldom. Chat functions have exploded (71% of users) thanks above all to WhatsApp, although young people are far more active in this area. The proportion of people playing games online is twice as high amongst those with a lower level of education as amongst university graduates. On the whole, information is still more important than entertainment, where music apps (69%) and TV (on demand: 46%; live: 43%) have experienced especially strong growth. Internet most important source of information for the first time For the first time, the internet is the main source of information for the Swiss population, with print media, radio and TV trailing far behind. Almost two-thirds of the population considers half of the content on the internet to be reliable, particularly content from the SRG (Swiss Radio and Television), newspapers and the government. The content of social online networks is not considered very trustworthy, particularly amongst young people. All sources of information, including websites, are considered less reliable compared with the last study. Public service remit still important even in the internet age Two-thirds of the Swiss population agrees that a public service remit is important even in the internet era (67%). 38% even agree strongly with this statement. The significance attached to the public service remit is higher in Ticino, amongst older people, those with higher incomes and education levels as well as amongst men. There is less agreement with regard to the fulfillment of this remit, with 44% saying that the SRG fulfills this remit very well and 13% agreeing strongly that this is the case. Agreement is lowest amongst 20 to 29-year olds (8% agree strongly) and on the whole amongst men compared with women. Since 2011, searching for political information online (43% of the population) has increased more than taking part in discussions (6%) or in digital protests (5%). By contrast, respondents still prefer to take part in political debates only offline (67%) rather than online (7%). Skepticism concerning increasing democratization through the internet has declined since 2011, but is still predominant overall. The strongest positive effect of the internet is still considered to be a better understanding of politics (42% agreement). In general, fewer of those surveyed feel comfortable sharing all of their political views (45%, down 6 percentage points since 2013). Skepticism surrounding free speech online is also on the rise compared with the last study. Significantly more people than in 2013 believe that it is not safe to share all of their political views online (63%, up 15 percentage points). Nevertheless, in 2015 significantly more internet users consider it right to be allowed to criticize the government freely on the internet (55%, up 9 percentage points). The group most in favor of free speech on the internet is the 20 to 29-year olds. Diminishing trust in own possibilities for control - privacy concerns amongst young people Half of the Swiss population is concerned that companies invade their privacy online. Concern about data privacy breaches by the government is less widespread, at 40%. While this concern has grown considerably amongst 14 to 19-year olds, it remains at a lower level than amongst older people. A large majority (82%) is very concerned about protecting their privacy. Interestingly, it is the oldest and youngest age group, infrequent users and those with poor internet skills who are most likely to believe they can control their privacy online. The World Internet Project (WIP) is a comparative longitudinal study that records the penetration and use of the internet in 30 countries in an international comparison and analyzes social, political and economic implications of the development of the internet. The WIP project for Switzerland has been carried out by the Media Change & Innovation Division of the Institute of Mass Communication and Media Research (IPMZ) at the University of Zurich under the leadership of Prof. Michael Latzer since 2011. It is based on a representative telephone survey of 1,121 persons aged between 14 and 84 and was carried out in May/June 2015 by the LINK Institute. The project team members are Moritz Büchi, Natascha Just and Noemi Festic. The WIP project for Switzerland is supported by the Dean's Office of the Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences at the University of Zurich and by the Swiss Federal Office of Communication (Bakom). All of the reports by topic are available for download at http://www.mediachange.ch Explore further: Children in Switzerland are using mobile phones to go online

News Article | November 25, 2015
Site: http://www.fastcompany.com

In the wake of the Paris attacks, expect extra security at this year’s Macy’s Thanksgiving Day Parade in New York. There will be more uniformed cops than usual, who are more likely to keep their eyes on the crowds than to joke with them. And then there are all the things that attendees probably won’t see: The snipers, the radiation detectors, the helicopters equipped with sensors, and the monitoring centers keeping tabs on the parade on CCTV. For the first time, the New York Police Department (NYPD) is deploying approximately 500 counterterrorism police to the parade from two new units—the Critical Response Command (CRC) and the Strategic Response Group (SRG)—both of which are designed to be a rapid-reaction force in case of terrorist attack. Law enforcement agencies working the parade have to monitor more than a million bystanders stretched across central Manhattan for potential threats while also making sure those bystanders aren’t too panicked by the experience to not return to the city as happy (and big-spending) tourists. Ray Kelly, New York's former police commissioner and a current vice chairman at K2 Intelligence, a corporate investigation consultancy, told Fast Company that "No other city has done more than New York City to protect itself. The city has remained in a heightened state of readiness since 9/11, (and) with the advancements and investments in security and intelligence technology, there are protective measures that will be in place, but not seen. There will be an increased number of private and public sector cameras in key locations and radiation, biological, and chemical detection equipment. Undercover officers will be in the crowds, listening for conversations of a suspicious nature or anything out of the ordinary." In an email, the NYPD’s deputy commissioner of Public Information did not respond to specific queries about the department’s presence at the parade but noted that "This year there will be a larger visible presence" at the parade that will include both the CRC and SRG. There are no credible threats against New York City, added the official. At a press conference, NYPD Chief of Department James O’Neill told local news station WABC that security "will include extra uniform police officers, traffic agents plus additional mobile cameras, helicopters, K-9 (and) mounted units." Police Commissioner William Bratton also urged the public to be patient with the stepped-up police presence at the parade, adding "Just the very large crowds, work with us. Work with us on the crowd management and crowd control. And if there is something that they see makes them feel uncomfortable, certainly make us aware of it." New York State’s government is getting in on the act, too. The State Division of Homeland Security and Emergency Services released an app shortly before Thanksgiving called See Something, Send Something, which asks users to photograph evidence of what they call "suspicious activity." The photograph and an accompanying report are then sent to the New York State Intelligence Center—a "fusion center," where different law enforcement agencies collaborate on anti-terrorism efforts. The NYPD also released a mobile app of its own in 2013. Visitors are sure to notice all the police helicopters patrolling the skies of Manhattan and Brooklyn. These choppers include equipment used for large-scale events such as the Pope's visit this summer that includes high-resolution cameras capable of reading license plates of cars and trucks down in the streets. In New York, residents were alarmed by a recent Islamic State propaganda video that included images of the city and of Times Square. The video shows a suicide bomber preparing for an attack interspersed with pictures of Times Square. But the NYPD insists that there is no specific threat against the city. The NYPD has long had an intelligence unit that works overseas, with a major focus on terrorist threats to the city. In addition, they also operate Special Forces-style rapid response units called Hercules Units that often do surprise deployments around the city. To provide security for the parade and Wednesday night's setting up of character floats, the police department is believed to be using radiation detectors nestled inside vehicles that are intended to be mobile dirty bomb detectors, helicopters fitted with an array of sensors, and more conventional tools as well. Update: This article has been updated to include additional comment by Ray Kelly.

Adam F.M.,Pfizer | Bish G.,Pfizer | Calo F.,Pfizer | Carr C.L.,Pfizer | And 15 more authors.
Organic Process Research and Development | Year: 2011

The development and implementation of a scalable process for the manufacture of the Toll-like receptor (TLR7) agonist PF-4171455 (1) is described. Initial routes used to synthesise 1 in milligram quantities were unsuitable for large-scale synthesis to provide bulk material. As part of the transfer between Medicinal Chemistry and Research-API, collaboration provided a fit for purpose route for the kilo-scale synthesis of 1. Key aspects of the synthesis included (i) a safe and practical synthesis of a key nitropyridone intermediate 7 over four steps, (ii) a sequential regioselective chlorination to selectively functionalise 7 and (iii) use of a carbamate as a tethered carbonyl group, allowing an efficient regiospecific synthesis of 1. © 2011 American Chemical Society. Source

Hay D.A.,Pfizer | Adam F.M.,Pfizer | Bish G.,Pfizer | Calo F.,Pfizer | And 9 more authors.
Tetrahedron Letters | Year: 2011

A flexible route which enables access to derivatives of 4-amino-1,3-dihydroimidazo[4,5-c]pyridin-2-ones is described. Issues of selectivity, reaction safety, and low yields in original routes are overcome with the key improvements to the route, including a Negishi cross-coupling and use of a carbamate as a protecting group and intrinsic carbonyl source. The new route enables variation of C-6 and N-1 substituents © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Tran T.-D.,Pfizer | Pryde D.C.,Pfizer | Jones P.,Pfizer | Adam F.M.,Pfizer | And 20 more authors.
Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters | Year: 2011

The synthesis and structure-activity relationships of a series of novel interferon inducers are described. Pharmacokinetic studies and efficacy assessment of a series of 8-oxo-3-deazapurine analogues led to the identification of compound 33, a potent and selective agonist of the TLR7 receptor with an excellent in vivo efficacy profile in a mouse model. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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