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Thiruvananthapuram, India

Simi S.M.,Sree Gokulam Medical College | Nandakumar G.,Government Medical College | Anish T.S.,Government Medical College
Indian Journal of Dermatology | Year: 2013

Context: White lesions in the oral cavity may be benign, pre-malignant or malignant. There are no signs and symptoms which can reliably predict whether a leukoplakia will undergo malignant change or not. Many systemic conditions appear initially in the oral cavity and prompt diagnosis and management can help in minimizing disease progression and organ destruction. Aim : The aim of the paper was to study the clinical and histopathological patterns of white lesions in the oral cavity presented at the study setting and to study the factors associated with the histopathological patterns of the lesions. Settings and Design: A hospital based cross-sectional study of patients with white lesions in the oral cavity attending the Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Medical College, Thiruvananthapuram was done. Materials and Methods: After taking a detailed history, microscopic examination of Potassium hydroxide smear and an oral biopsy with histopathologial examination was done. Results : Out of the 50 patients in the study, clinically the diagnoses made were Lichen planus (32 patients; 64%), Frictional Keratosis (4;8%), Dysplasia (2;4%), Oral Hairy Leukoplakia (1;2%), Pemphigus Vulgaris (2;4%), Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus (1;2%), Oral Submucous fibrosis (3;6%) and Oral Candidiasis alone (5;10%). Out of the 45 patients who had undergone biopsy, 25 (55.6%) had Lichen planus, 9 (20%) had Frictional Keratosis and mild Dysplasia was found in 4 (8.9%) patients. Conclusion : The measure of agreement between the clinical and pathological diagnosis was only 32%. Older age, difficulty in opening the mouth, consumption of non-smoked tobacco, site of the lesion (gingival, floor of mouth or lingual vestibule) and presence of tenderness on the lesion were significantly associated with Dysplasia. Source

Mathew M.,Government Medical College | Abish A.,Sree Gokulam Medical College | Kuriakose A.,Government Medical College | Isaiah J.R.,Government Medical College | And 2 more authors.
Asian Journal of Psychiatry | Year: 2013

Objective: Diabetes mellitus and depression are major public health problems and are significantly linked with each other. This research study intends to assess for undiagnosed depression and its predictors among adult diabetic patients. Methods: A cross-sectional study was done among 100 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus attending the diabetic clinic of a tertiary care hospital. Depression was assessed using Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Chi-square test was performed and odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were obtained. Mann Whitney U and Pearson correlation tests were done. Logistic regression was carried out to determine the predictors of depression and adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were obtained. Results: The prevalence of depression was 49% (95% CI 39.1-58.9%). The predictors of depression were female gender, elevated fasting blood sugar (FBS) level, physical disability and lack of physician's advice about lifestyle modifications. FBS values were significantly higher in depressed individuals as compared to the non-depressed (p value 0.002). A positive correlation (r= 0.38, p value 0.01) was obtained between PHQ-9 scores and the FBS values of the diabetic subjects. Conclusions: Subjects with diabetes are highly prone for comorbid depression. Physicians should be sensitive towards the need for assessing for possible depression and its risk factors in diabetic patients. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

Patil A.,Karnataka Institute of Medical science | Chandramohan K.,Karnataka Institute of Medical science | Shivaprakash M.,Sree Gokulam Medical College | Nadgir S.,Karnataka Institute of Medical science | Lakshminarayana S.,Collaborating Center
Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology | Year: 2013

Rhizomucor variabilis is a rare cause of human infections. We report a case of primary cutaneous zygomycosis in an immunocompetent host. Although microscopy reveals the fungal aetiology, the need for species identification is highlighted to better understand the species and establish an epidemiological pattern as it is reported from restricted geographical locations. Source

Sajitha G.R.,Kannur University | Augusti K.T.,Kannur University | Jose R.,Sree Gokulam Medical College
Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry | Year: 2016

Heavy metal pollution is a global public health challenge due to its stable and persistent environmental contamination. Of these lead is considered to be one of the most common ubiquitous and industrial pollutants and at low concentration it exerts extensive damages to the tissues. Daily feeding of lead acetate solution (Dose: 10 mg/kg/day) to normal rats for a month adversely altered the parameters of blood, serum and tissues, viz; RBC, WBC, Hb, ɗ- ALAD (Delta amino levulinic acid dehydratase), Pb content, lipids, oxidized lipids (TBARS), vitamins C and E and GSH levels and activities of AST, ALT and antioxidant enzymes viz; catalase, GR, Gpx and SOD. In order to study whether antioxidants have any effect to counteract the toxicity of lead we have selected comparatively better active allium fractions for the study viz: polar fraction of garlic (PFG) and polar fraction of onion (PFO). On feeding of these active fractions of garlic and onion oils i.e. their polar fractions and vitamin E (Dose 100 mg/kg/day) separately for a month along with or without lead acetate to rats each nutraceutical and vitamin E counteracted the adverse effects of Pb significantly (p ≤ 0.05). Their effects are in the order of PFG > PFO > Vitamin E. All these results point out that garlic and onion oils contain natural disulfoxide compounds which act as antioxidant and anti toxic to lead compounds. Their comparative differences in action may be due to the presence and position of double bonds and disulfide oxide bonds in their molecules. i.e., in PFG the allyl disulfide oxide group is present and in PFO saturated methyl and propyl groups and unsaturated propenyl group are present in place of allyl groups. The former group confers a better antioxidant activity on PFG, while the latter groups confer a lesser activity on PFO. © 2016 Association of Clinical Biochemists of India Source

Mohammadi S.F.,Karnataka Institute of Medical science | Patil A.B.,Karnataka Institute of Medical science | Nadagir S.D.,Karnataka Institute of Medical science | Nandihal N.,Karnataka Institute of Medical science | Lakshminarayana S.A.,Sree Gokulam Medical College
Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology | Year: 2013

Objectives: To know the incidence of bacterial meningitis in children below five years of age. To compare conventional culture and antigen detection methods ( Latex agglutination test). Materials and Methods: 100 CSF samples of clinically suspected meningitis cases in children below 5 years of age were included. The samples were subjected to cell count, Gram stain, culture and LAT. The organisms isolated in the study were characterized according to standard procedures. Results: Of the 100 cases studied, 31 cases were diagnosed as ABM by Gram stain, culture and latex agglutination test as per WHO criteria. The hospital frequency of ABM was 1.7%. 15 (48.38) cases were culture positive. Gram stain was positive in 22(70.96) cases and LAT in 17(54.83) cases. Haemophilus influenzae was the most common causative agent of acute bacterial meningitis followed by S.pneumoniae. Case fatality rate was 45.16%.The sensitivity and specificity of LAT was 66.66% and 87.91% respectively. Conclusion : Bacterial meningitis is a medical emergency and early diagnosis and treatment is life saving and reduces chronic morbidity. LAT was more sensitive compared to conventional Gram stain and Culture technique in identifying the fastidious organisms like H.influenzae, S.pneumoniae and Group B Streptococcus. However, the combination of Gram stain, Culture and LAT proved to be more productive than any of the single tests alone. Source

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