Sree Chitra Thirunal Institute of Medical Sciences and Technology
Thiruvananthapuram, India

The Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical science & Technology , Thiruvananthapuram , in Kerala, India is an Institute of National Importance established in 1973, created with the personal funds and buildings provided by Maharajah Sree Chithira Thirunal Balarama Varma of Travancore, for the benefit of the people of Kerala. At the Satelmond Palace, Poojapura, nearly 11 km away from this Hospital Wing, the Biomedical Technology Wing followed soon, again a gift by the Maharani Sethu Lakshmi Bayi. Now it is an autonomous Institute with National Importance under the administrative control of the Department of Science and Technology, Government of India. Sri. P. N. Haskar, the then Deputy Chairman, Planning Commission, inaugurated the Sree Chitra Thirunal Medical Center in 1976, when patient services including inpatient treatment got underway. The concept of amalgamating medical science and technology within a single institutional framework was regarded as sufficiently important by the Government of India to declare the center as an Institute of National Importance under the Department of Science and Technology by an Act of Parliament in 1980, and named it as Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical science and Technology, Trivandrum.Manmohan Singh, the then Finance Minister of the Government of India, laid the foundation stone of the third dimension of the Institute, Achutha Menon Center for Health Science Studies on June 15, 1992. Dr. Murali Manohar Joshi, the then Honorable Minister of Science and Technology and Human Resource Development, Government of India, dedicated the AMCHSS to the nation on January 30, 2000. The institute focuses on patient care, technology development of industrial significance and health research studies of social relevance. The stress is on development of facilities such as interventional radiology, cardiac electro-physiology, pre-surgical evaluation and surgery for epilepsy, microsurgery and deep brain stimulation for movement disorders, new bio-medical devices and products, evaluation of medical devices to global specifications, new academic programmes and global public health networks. The institute has a bunch of clinicians, scientists and engineers devoted to bio-medical research and developing technologies in health care with emphasis on cardiovascular and neurological diseases. Wikipedia.

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Priya R.K.,Kalasalingam University | Kesavadas C.,Sree Chitra Thirunal Institute of Medical Sciences and Technology | Kannan S.,Kalasalingam University
International Journal of Imaging Systems and Technology | Year: 2013

This article presents an image segmentation technique based on fuzzy entropy, which is applied to magnetic resonance (MR) brain images in order to detect brain tumors. The proposed method performs image segmentation based on adaptive thresholding of the input MR images. The image is classified into two membership functions (MFs) of the fuzzy region: Z-function and S-function. The optimal parameters of these fuzzy MFs are obtained using modified particle swarm optimization (MPSO) algorithm. The objective function for obtaining the optimal fuzzy MF parameters is considered to be the maximum fuzzy entropy. Through a number of examples, The performance is compared with existing entropy based object segmentation approaches and the superiority of the proposed method is demonstrated. The experimental results are compared with the exhaustive search method and Otsu's segmentation technique. The result shows the proposed fuzzy entropy-based segmentation method optimized using MPSO achieves maximum entropy with proper segmentation of infected areas and with minimum computational time. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Imaging Syst Technol, 23, 281-288, 2013 Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

PubMed | Sree Chitra Thirunal Institute of Medical Sciences and Technology, Rajiv Gandhi Center for Biotechnology and Government Dental College
Type: | Journal: Journal of ethnopharmacology | Year: 2016

Andrographolide is a herbal extract traditionally used in South Asian countries for treating inflammatory diseases.To evaluate the efficacy of andrographolide in management of periodontal disease which is a highly prevalent oral disease.Periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PDLF) were cultured from healthy and diseased periodontium using explant culture methods. The safe dose of AG was determined using MTT assay. LPS (lipopolysaccharide) of the most important periodontopathogen, P gingivalis was used to activate NF-B and STAT3 in PDLF. The efficacy of AG in inhibiting NF-B and STAT3 was analyzed using immunofluorescence. Down regulation of expression of target genes of these transcription factors related to inflammation and bone resorption were analyzed using real time PCR.AG up to the concentration of 25M was found to be safe as determined by MTT assay. Statistically significant activation of NF-B and STAT3 in cultured PDLF was observed in diseased group compared to healthy controls before and after LPS challenge. 5M AG pretreatment significantly inhibited activation of NF-B and STAT3 and down regulated expression of inflammatory and bone resorptive genes in cultured PDLF.The findings of the present study propose the adjunctive use of a novel herbal drug andrographolide as a promising host modulation agent for periodontal therapy by inhibiting NF-B and STAT3 activation and inhibition of inflammation and bone resorption related genes.

PubMed | University of California at San Francisco, Sree Chitra Thirunal Institute of Medical Sciences and Technology and TU Chemnitz
Type: | Journal: Asian journal of psychiatry | Year: 2016

Little is known about internalized stigma of mental illness in India. A reason for this could be the lack of valid assessment instruments adapted for the diverse cultures and languages of the country. One of the most widely used and accepted questionnaires to assess internalized stigma is the 29-item Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) scale. The aim of the present study was to translate and adapt the ISMI to the Malayalam-speaking population of Kerala, India and to assess its content and factorial validity. The content validity of the Malayalam-language ISMI was studied through interviews with 7 experts on stigma in India. Factorial validity was examined by means of a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) based on a cross-sectional survey among 290 patients with mental illness attending follow-up outpatient and primary care clinics in Kerala, India. The expert panel concluded that the items of the translated questionnaire adequately represent internalized stigma in the Malayalam-speaking population of Kerala. The theorized factor structure of the ISMI consisting of five factors showed a suboptimal model fit (WRMR=0.940; TLI=0.971, CFI=0.948; RMSEA=0.059) which improved considerably after removal of the stigma resistance factor and three items with poor factor loadings (WRMR=0.819; TLI=0.982, CFI=0.966; RMSEA=0.051). Although our study identifies some sources of model ill-fit, it shows that a reduced version of the Malayalam-language ISMI can be a valuable tool for the study of internalized stigma in this cultural setting.

Pillai C.K.S.,Regional Research Laboratory Now NIIST | Pillai C.K.S.,Sree Chitra Thirunal Institute of Medical Sciences and Technology
Designed Monomers and Polymers | Year: 2010

The last century witnessed the emergence of polymer science and technology that enabled the generation of knowledge and techniques to control the size, shape, structure, properties and functions of polymers to generate polymers with unprecedented properties and functions. There have been many attempts to apply this information to natural monomers and polymers to achieve the desired property profiles with varying degrees of success which have given/are giving it a new outlook as a possible alternative source for the production of polymers. Novel concepts and techniques such as 'bio-inspired' polymer design, 'synthetically-inspired' material development, etc., are contributing to the development of natural monomers and polymers as a sustainable resource to generate a knowledge-based design methodology to meet the vastly developing requirements of modern materials. This paper reviews these emerging concepts and techniques that integrate materials synthesis, process and manufacturing options with eco efficiency. © 2010 Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden.

Anirudhan A.,Indian Institute of Science | Anirudhan A.,National Institute of Technology Calicut | Anirudhan A.,Sree Chitra Thirunal Institute of Medical Sciences and Technology | Narayanan R.,Indian Institute of Science
Journal of Neuroscience | Year: 2015

An open question within the Bienenstock-Cooper-Munro theory for synaptic modification concerns the specific mechanism that is responsible for regulating the sliding modification threshold (SMT). In this conductance-based modeling study on hippocampal pyramidal neurons, we quantitatively assessed the impact of seven ion channels (R- and T-type calcium, fast sodium, delayed rectifier,A-type, and small-conductance calcium-activated (SK) potassium and HCN) and two receptors (AMPAR and NMDAR) on a calcium-dependent Bienenstock-Cooper-Munro-like plasticity rule. Our analysis with R- and T-type calcium channels revealed that differences in their activation-inactivation profiles resulted in differential impacts on how they altered the SMT. Further, we found that the impact of SK channels on the SMT critically depended on the voltage dependence and kinetics of the calcium sources with which they interacted. Next, we considered interactions among all the seven channels and the two receptors through global sensitivity analysis on 11 model parameters. We constructed 20,000 models through uniform randomization of these parameters and found 360 valid models based on experimental constraints on their plasticity profiles. Analyzing these 360 models, we found that similar plasticity profiles could emerge with several nonunique parametric combinations and that parameters exhibited weak pairwise correlations. Finally, we used seven sets of virtual knock-outs on these 360 models and found that the impact of different channels on the SMT was variable and differential. These results suggest that there are several nonunique routes to regulate the SMT, and call for a systematic analysis of the variability and state dependence of the mechanisms underlying metaplasticity during behavior and pathology. ©2015 the authors.

Sureshbabu S.,Sree Chitra Thirunal Institute of Medical Sciences and Technology | Komath M.,Sree Chitra Thirunal Institute of Medical Sciences and Technology | Shibli S.M.A.,Kerala University | Varma H.K.,Sree Chitra Thirunal Institute of Medical Sciences and Technology
Materials Research Innovations | Year: 2011

The biomimetic method is a cost effective, low temperature route for coating hydroxyapatite on titanium bone implants so as to provide an osteointegrating interface. However, biomimetic coatings have the limitations of poor adhesion and lower growth rates. This work investigates the role of a prelayer of calcium pyrophosphate made through sol-gel technique in growing adherent and thick layer of biomimetic hydroxyapatite over titanium surface. Cleaned titanium substrates were dip coated in a calcium-phosphate-citrate sol and calcined at 650°C to form an adherent calcium phosphate layer. These were then subjected to biomimetic processing in 1 5 simulated body fluid for 7-14 days. The prelayer and the biomimetic layer were analysed for micromorphology (using SEM) and chemical phase (using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy). Thickness measurements were performed on an optical profilometer and the adhesion was assessed through a microcombi scratch tester. The prelayer showed petal-like morphology, whereas globular particles were seen in the biomimetic growth. The prelayer had a thickness of 3-6 μm and was found to contain calcium pyrophosphate, with calcium titanate at the interface. The phase in the biomimetic layer was identified to be hydroxyapatite, with a growth rate of 5 3 7mu;m/day. The scratch test gave the delamination load for this layer to be 6 23 N. Results show that it is possible to obtain adherent hydroxyapatite layer on the titanium surface at a faster rate by combining the sol-gel coating and the biomimetic growth technique. © W. S. Maney & Son Ltd. 2011.

Indulekha C.L.,Rajiv Gandhi Center for Biotechnology | Sanalkumar R.,Rajiv Gandhi Center for Biotechnology | Thekkuveettil A.,Sree Chitra Thirunal Institute of Medical Sciences and Technology | James J.,Rajiv Gandhi Center for Biotechnology
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications | Year: 2010

Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is altered in response to different physiological and pathological stimuli. GFAP+ve/nestin+ve radial glial like Type-1 progenitors are considered to be the resident stem cell population in adult hippocampus. During neurogenesis these Type-1 progenitors matures to GFAP-ve/nestin+ve Type-2 progenitors and then to Type-3 neuroblasts and finally differentiates into granule cell neurons. In our study, using pilocarpine-induced seizure model, we showed that seizure initiated activation of multiple progenitors in the entire hippocampal area such as DG, CA1 and CA3. Seizure induction resulted in activation of two subtypes of Type-1 progenitors, Type-1a (GFAP+ve/nestin+ve/BrdU+ve) and Type-1b (GFAP+ve/nestin+ve/BrdU-ve). We showed that majority of Type-1b progenitors were undergoing only a transition from a state of dormancy to activated form immediately after seizures rather than proliferating, whereas Type-1a showed maximum proliferation by 3 days post-seizure induction. Type-2 (GFAP-ve/nestin+ve/BrdU+ve) progenitors were few compared to Type-1. Type-3 (DCX+ve) progenitors showed increased expression of immature neurons only in DG region by 3 days after seizure induction indicating maturation of progenitors happens only in microenvironment of DG even though progenitors are activated in CA1 and CA3 regions of hippocampus. Also parallel increase in growth factors expression after seizure induction suggests that microenvironmental niche has a profound effect on stimulation of adult neural progenitors. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Saini J.,Sree Chitra Thirunal Institute of Medical Sciences and Technology | Chatterjee S.,Sree Chitra Thirunal Institute of Medical Sciences and Technology | Thomas B.,Sree Chitra Thirunal Institute of Medical Sciences and Technology | Kesavadas C.,Sree Chitra Thirunal Institute of Medical Sciences and Technology
Acta Radiologica | Year: 2011

Background: Tumefactive demyelination (TD) is a relatively uncommon entity which mimics other focal intracranial lesions. Conventional radiological findings in tumefactive demyelination have been well described. However, DTI and MRS findings in TD have not been studied in detail. Purpose: To evaluate the usefulness of conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), multivoxel 1H spectroscopy (MRS) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in diagnosis and follow-up of TD of the brain. Material and Methods: Clinical and imaging findings of 18 patients were reviewed. MR imaging data which included conventional imaging as well as MRS and DTI were reviewed. At TE 135ms MRS various metabolite ratios were calculated at different depths of the demyelinating lesions. At TE 30 ms, glutamate-glutamine (GLX-2.1-2.5 ppm) was compared in the lesion to the contralateral normal side. DTI data were available for 15 patients and Dav (mean diffusivity) and trace values were recorded from central and peripheral layers of the index lesion. Histopathological (9 patients) and therapeutic response (9 patients) on follow-up imaging were taken as the diagnostic criterion. In addition, the follow-up MRI scans available were also reviewed. Results: Characteristic peripheral 'broken ring' type of contrast enhancement was noted in 12 cases. Two or three concentric distinct zones were noted on imaging with distinct metabolic and structural signature in most cases. On TE 135ms, the central part showed variable Choline (Cho) and significantly low N-Acetyl Aspartate (NAA). DTI demonstrated high Dav and very low trace value in this zone. The intermediate area showed higher Cho and lower NAA compared to contralateral normal side. The outermost layer, which corresponded to the contrast enhancing areas on MRI, showed high Cho, lower NAA, and restricted diffusion on DTI. The GLX increase was noted in tumefactive lesions. Lactate was observed in all patients and it appeared higher at the center compared to the periphery of lesions. Follow-up imaging showed shrinkage of index lesions, disappearance of contrast enhancement, and diffusion restriction. MRS showed, persistent abnormalities on follow-up imaging. Conclusion: Tumefactive demyelinating lesions reveal different microstructural changes at different depths of the lesion and this unique feature may be useful in differentiating them from other focal lesions of brain.

PubMed | M.M., Devices Testing Laboratory and Sree Chitra Thirunal Institute of Medical Sciences and Technology
Type: Journal Article | Journal: AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology | Year: 2016

Iron-mediated oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. This study aimed to assess iron deposition qualitatively and quantitatively by using SWI and microstructural changes in the corticospinal tract by using DTI in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.Seventeen patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and 15 age- and sex-matched controls underwent brain MR imaging with SWI and DTI. SWI was analyzed for both signal-intensity scoring and quantitative estimation of iron deposition in the anterior and posterior banks of the motor and sensory cortices and deep gray nuclei. The diffusion measurements along the corticospinal tract at the level of pons and medulla were obtained by ROI analysis.Patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis showed reduced signal-intensity grades in the posterior bank of the motor cortex bilaterally. Quantitative analysis confirmed significantly higher iron content in the posterior bank of the motor cortex in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. In contrast, no significant differences were noted for the anterior bank of the motor cortex, anterior and posterior banks of the sensory cortex, and deep nuclei. Receiver operating characteristic comparison showed a cutoff of 35g Fe/g of tissue with an area under the curve of 0.78 (P = .008) for the posterior bank of the motor cortex in discriminating patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis from controls. Fractional anisotropy was lower in the pyramidal tracts of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis at the pons and medulla on either side, along with higher directionally averaged mean diffusivity values. The combination of SWI and DTI revealed an area under the curve of 0.784 for differentiating patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis from controls.Measurements of motor cortex iron deposition and diffusion tensor parameters of the corticospinal tract may be useful biomarkers for the diagnosis of clinically suspected amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

PubMed | Sree Chitra Thirunal Institute of Medical Sciences and Technology
Type: | Journal: Indian heart journal | Year: 2016

A 5-year-old boy was diagnosed to have supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS). On evaluation of CT angiogram, there was associated bovine aortic arch (BAA). Association of BAA with SVAS has not been previously reported in literature, and to best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of SVAS with BAA. Recent studies show BAA as a marker for aortopathy. SVAS is also an arteriopathy. In light of this, SVAS can also possibly be a manifestation of aortopathy associated with BAA.

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