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Thiruvananthapuram, India

The Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical science & Technology , Thiruvananthapuram , in Kerala, India is an Institute of National Importance established in 1973, created with the personal funds and buildings provided by Maharajah Sree Chithira Thirunal Balarama Varma of Travancore, for the benefit of the people of Kerala. At the Satelmond Palace, Poojapura, nearly 11 km away from this Hospital Wing, the Biomedical Technology Wing followed soon, again a gift by the Maharani Sethu Lakshmi Bayi. Now it is an autonomous Institute with National Importance under the administrative control of the Department of Science and Technology, Government of India. Sri. P. N. Haskar, the then Deputy Chairman, Planning Commission, inaugurated the Sree Chitra Thirunal Medical Center in 1976, when patient services including inpatient treatment got underway. The concept of amalgamating medical science and technology within a single institutional framework was regarded as sufficiently important by the Government of India to declare the center as an Institute of National Importance under the Department of Science and Technology by an Act of Parliament in 1980, and named it as Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical science and Technology, Trivandrum.Manmohan Singh, the then Finance Minister of the Government of India, laid the foundation stone of the third dimension of the Institute, Achutha Menon Center for Health Science Studies on June 15, 1992. Dr. Murali Manohar Joshi, the then Honorable Minister of Science and Technology and Human Resource Development, Government of India, dedicated the AMCHSS to the nation on January 30, 2000. The institute focuses on patient care, technology development of industrial significance and health research studies of social relevance. The stress is on development of facilities such as interventional radiology, cardiac electro-physiology, pre-surgical evaluation and surgery for epilepsy, microsurgery and deep brain stimulation for movement disorders, new bio-medical devices and products, evaluation of medical devices to global specifications, new academic programmes and global public health networks. The institute has a bunch of clinicians, scientists and engineers devoted to bio-medical research and developing technologies in health care with emphasis on cardiovascular and neurological diseases. Wikipedia.

Pillai C.K.S.,Regional Research Laboratory Now NIIST | Pillai C.K.S.,Sree Chitra Thirunal Institute of Medical Sciences and Technology
Designed Monomers and Polymers | Year: 2010

The last century witnessed the emergence of polymer science and technology that enabled the generation of knowledge and techniques to control the size, shape, structure, properties and functions of polymers to generate polymers with unprecedented properties and functions. There have been many attempts to apply this information to natural monomers and polymers to achieve the desired property profiles with varying degrees of success which have given/are giving it a new outlook as a possible alternative source for the production of polymers. Novel concepts and techniques such as 'bio-inspired' polymer design, 'synthetically-inspired' material development, etc., are contributing to the development of natural monomers and polymers as a sustainable resource to generate a knowledge-based design methodology to meet the vastly developing requirements of modern materials. This paper reviews these emerging concepts and techniques that integrate materials synthesis, process and manufacturing options with eco efficiency. © 2010 Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden.

Anirudhan A.,Indian Institute of Science | Anirudhan A.,National Institute of Technology Calicut | Anirudhan A.,Sree Chitra Thirunal Institute of Medical Sciences and Technology | Narayanan R.,Indian Institute of Science
Journal of Neuroscience | Year: 2015

An open question within the Bienenstock-Cooper-Munro theory for synaptic modification concerns the specific mechanism that is responsible for regulating the sliding modification threshold (SMT). In this conductance-based modeling study on hippocampal pyramidal neurons, we quantitatively assessed the impact of seven ion channels (R- and T-type calcium, fast sodium, delayed rectifier,A-type, and small-conductance calcium-activated (SK) potassium and HCN) and two receptors (AMPAR and NMDAR) on a calcium-dependent Bienenstock-Cooper-Munro-like plasticity rule. Our analysis with R- and T-type calcium channels revealed that differences in their activation-inactivation profiles resulted in differential impacts on how they altered the SMT. Further, we found that the impact of SK channels on the SMT critically depended on the voltage dependence and kinetics of the calcium sources with which they interacted. Next, we considered interactions among all the seven channels and the two receptors through global sensitivity analysis on 11 model parameters. We constructed 20,000 models through uniform randomization of these parameters and found 360 valid models based on experimental constraints on their plasticity profiles. Analyzing these 360 models, we found that similar plasticity profiles could emerge with several nonunique parametric combinations and that parameters exhibited weak pairwise correlations. Finally, we used seven sets of virtual knock-outs on these 360 models and found that the impact of different channels on the SMT was variable and differential. These results suggest that there are several nonunique routes to regulate the SMT, and call for a systematic analysis of the variability and state dependence of the mechanisms underlying metaplasticity during behavior and pathology. ©2015 the authors.

Sheelakumari R.,Biomedical Technology Wing | Madhusoodanan M.,Biomedical Technology Wing | Radhakrishnan A.,Biomedical Technology Wing | Ranjith G.,Devices Testing Laboratory | Thomas B.,Sree Chitra Thirunal Institute of Medical Sciences and Technology
American Journal of Neuroradiology | Year: 2016

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Iron-mediated oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. This study aimed to assess iron deposition qualitatively and quantitatively by using SWI and microstructural changes in the corticospinal tract by using DTI in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventeen patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and 15 age-and sex-matched controls underwent brainMRimaging with SWI and DTI. SWI was analyzed for both signal-intensity scoring and quantitative estimation of iron deposition in the anterior and posterior banks of the motor and sensory cortices and deep gray nuclei. The diffusion measurements along the corticospinal tract at the level of pons and medulla were obtained by ROI analysis. RESULTS: Patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis showed reduced signal-intensity grades in the posterior bank of the motor cortex bilaterally. Quantitative analysis confirmed significantly higher iron content in the posterior bank of the motor cortex in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. In contrast, no significant differences were noted for the anterior bank of the motor cortex, anterior and posterior banks of the sensory cortex, and deep nuclei. Receiver operating characteristic comparison showed a cutoff of 35μg Fe/g of tissue with an area under the curve of 0.78 (P =.008) for the posterior bank of the motor cortex in discriminating patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis from controls. Fractional anisotropy was lower in the pyramidal tracts of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis at the pons and medulla on either side, along with higher directionally averaged mean diffusivity values. The combination of SWI and DTI revealed an area under the curve of 0.784 for differentiating patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis from controls. CONCLUSIONS: Measurements of motor cortex iron deposition and diffusion tensor parameters of the corticospinal tract may be useful biomarkers for the diagnosis of clinically suspected amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Indulekha C.L.,Rajiv Gandhi Center for Biotechnology | Sanalkumar R.,Rajiv Gandhi Center for Biotechnology | Thekkuveettil A.,Sree Chitra Thirunal Institute of Medical Sciences and Technology | James J.,Rajiv Gandhi Center for Biotechnology
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications | Year: 2010

Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is altered in response to different physiological and pathological stimuli. GFAP+ve/nestin+ve radial glial like Type-1 progenitors are considered to be the resident stem cell population in adult hippocampus. During neurogenesis these Type-1 progenitors matures to GFAP-ve/nestin+ve Type-2 progenitors and then to Type-3 neuroblasts and finally differentiates into granule cell neurons. In our study, using pilocarpine-induced seizure model, we showed that seizure initiated activation of multiple progenitors in the entire hippocampal area such as DG, CA1 and CA3. Seizure induction resulted in activation of two subtypes of Type-1 progenitors, Type-1a (GFAP+ve/nestin+ve/BrdU+ve) and Type-1b (GFAP+ve/nestin+ve/BrdU-ve). We showed that majority of Type-1b progenitors were undergoing only a transition from a state of dormancy to activated form immediately after seizures rather than proliferating, whereas Type-1a showed maximum proliferation by 3 days post-seizure induction. Type-2 (GFAP-ve/nestin+ve/BrdU+ve) progenitors were few compared to Type-1. Type-3 (DCX+ve) progenitors showed increased expression of immature neurons only in DG region by 3 days after seizure induction indicating maturation of progenitors happens only in microenvironment of DG even though progenitors are activated in CA1 and CA3 regions of hippocampus. Also parallel increase in growth factors expression after seizure induction suggests that microenvironmental niche has a profound effect on stimulation of adult neural progenitors. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Priya R.K.,Kalasalingam University | Kesavadas C.,Sree Chitra Thirunal Institute of Medical Sciences and Technology | Kannan S.,Kalasalingam University
International Journal of Imaging Systems and Technology | Year: 2013

This article presents an image segmentation technique based on fuzzy entropy, which is applied to magnetic resonance (MR) brain images in order to detect brain tumors. The proposed method performs image segmentation based on adaptive thresholding of the input MR images. The image is classified into two membership functions (MFs) of the fuzzy region: Z-function and S-function. The optimal parameters of these fuzzy MFs are obtained using modified particle swarm optimization (MPSO) algorithm. The objective function for obtaining the optimal fuzzy MF parameters is considered to be the maximum fuzzy entropy. Through a number of examples, The performance is compared with existing entropy based object segmentation approaches and the superiority of the proposed method is demonstrated. The experimental results are compared with the exhaustive search method and Otsu's segmentation technique. The result shows the proposed fuzzy entropy-based segmentation method optimized using MPSO achieves maximum entropy with proper segmentation of infected areas and with minimum computational time. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Imaging Syst Technol, 23, 281-288, 2013 Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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