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Le Bourget-du-Lac, France

Civade R.,IRSTEA | Dejean T.,SPYGEN | Valentini A.,SPYGEN | Roset N.,Rhone Alpes Regional Direction | And 6 more authors.

In the last few years, the study of environmental DNA (eDNA) has drawn attention for many reasons, including its advantages for monitoring and conservation purposes. So far, in aquatic environments, most of eDNA research has focused on the detection of single species using species-specific markers. Recently, species inventories based on the analysis of a single generalist marker targeting a larger taxonomic group (eDNA metabarcoding) have proven useful for bony fish and amphibian biodiversity surveys. This approach involves in situ filtering of large volumes of water followed by amplification and sequencing of a short discriminative fragment from the 12S rDNA mitochondrial gene. In this study, we went one step further by investigating the spatial representativeness (i.e. ecological reliability and signal variability in space) of eDNA metabarcoding for large-scale fish biodiversity assessment in a freshwater system including lentic and lotic environments. We tested the ability of this approach to characterize large-scale organization of fish communities along a longitudinal gradient, from a lake to the outflowing river. First, our results confirm that eDNA metabarcoding is more efficient than a single traditional sampling campaign to detect species presence, especially in rivers. Second, the species list obtained using this approach is comparable to the one obtained when cumulating all traditional sampling sessions since 1995 and 1988 for the lake and the river, respectively. In conclusion, eDNA metabarcoding gives a faithful description of local fish biodiversity in the study system, more specifically within a range of a few kilometers along the river in our study conditions, i.e. longer than a traditional fish sampling site. © 2016 Civade et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Source

Treguier A.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Treguier A.,Agrocampus Ouest | Treguier A.,CNRS Ecosystems, Biodiversity, and Evolution Laboratory | Paillisson J.-M.,CNRS Ecosystems, Biodiversity, and Evolution Laboratory | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Applied Ecology

Summary: The introduction of non-native species is a major threat to biodiversity. While eradication programs of well-established invaders are costly and hazardous for non-target species, the early detection of a non-native species at low density is critical for preventing biological invasions in recipient ecosystems. Recent studies reveal that environmental DNA (eDNA) is a powerful tool for detecting target species in aquatic ecosystems, but these studies focus mostly on fish and amphibians. We examine the reliability of using eDNA to detect the presence of an invasive freshwater crustacean species, the red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii. Species-specific primers and probes were designed; their specificity was tested using in silico PCR simulations and against tissues of other crayfish species. Limits of detection and quantification were specified for the target DNA sequence by means of quantitative PCR amplifications on dilution series of known amount of P. clarkii DNA. The method was applied to water samples collected in 158 ponds in a French Nature Park, and results were compared to a traditional method using food-baited funnel traps. Environmental DNA had a better detection efficiency but predominantly led to divergent results compared with the trapping method. While habitat features partly explained the failure of crayfish detection by trapping, detection by eDNA was problematic at low crayfish abundances. When P. clarkii was detected, the estimated concentrations of crayfish DNA in water samples were always below the limit of quantification for the target DNA sequence. Synthesis and applications. The combination of environmental DNA (eDNA) and conventional trapping methods is recommended to monitor the invasion by P. clarkii in small waterbodies such as ponds. However, the risk of mortality for non-target species, notably amphibians, has to be carefully evaluated before large-scale deployment of traps. Contrary to fish and amphibians, a low amount of extracellular DNA in water is suspected to be the major limitation for crayfish detection by molecular approaches. Current advancements in PCR technology, together with optimization of the water sampling method, promise upcoming developments of eDNA detection for aquatic invertebrate species. © 2014 British Ecological Society. Source

Eva B.,SPYGEN | Harmony P.,Griffith University | Thomas G.,WWF Greater Mekong | Francois G.,WWF Laos | And 3 more authors.
Global Ecology and Conservation

Pressures on freshwater biodiversity in Southeast Asia are accelerating, yet the status and conservation needs of many of the region's iconic fish species are poorly known. The Mekong is highly species diverse and supports four of the six largest freshwater fish globally, three of which, including Mekong giant catfish (Pangasianodon gigas), are Critically Endangered. Emerging environmental DNA (eDNA) techniques have potential for monitoring threatened freshwater biodiversity, yet have not been applied in complex and biodiverse tropical ecosystems such as the Mekong. We developed species-specific primers for amplifying Mekong giant catfish DNA. In situ validation demonstrated that the DNA amplification was successful for all samples taken in reservoirs with known presence of Mekong giant catfish independent of fish density. We collected water samples from six deep pools on the Mekong, identified through Local Ecological Knowledge, in Cambodia, Lao PDR, and Thailand. DNA was extracted and amplified from these samples using the designed primers and probes. Mekong giant catfish DNA was detected from one sample from the species' presumed spawning grounds on the Mekong mainstream, near the border between northern Thailand and Lao PDR. eDNA sampling using species-specific primers has potential for surveying and monitoring poorly known species from complex tropical aquatic environments. However accounting for false absences is likely to be required for the method to function with precision when applied to extremely rare species that are highly dispersed within a large river system. We recommend that such approach be utilised more widely by freshwater conservation practitioners for specific applications. The method is best suited for baseline biodiversity assessments or to identify and prioritise locations for more rigorous sampling. Our methods are particularly relevant for systems or species with limited baseline data or with physical characteristics that logistically limit the application of conventional methods. Such attributes are typical of large tropical rivers such as the Mekong, Congo, or Amazon. © 2016. Source

Giampaoli S.,Foro Italico University of Rome | Berti A.,Carabinieri | Di Maggio R.M.,Geoscienze Forensi Italia | Pilli E.,University of Florence | And 7 more authors.
Forensic Science International

The identification of the source of a specific soil sample is a crucial step in forensic investigations. Rapid advances in next generation sequencing (NGS) technology and the strong reduction of the cost of sequencing have recently opened new perspectives. In the present work a metabarcoding approach has been successfully applied to forensic and environmental soil samples, allowing the accurate and sensitive analysis of microflora (mfDNA), plants, metazoa, and protozoa DNA. The identification of the biological component by DNA metabarcoding is a strong element for the discrimination of samples geologically very similar but coming for distinct environments. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source

Valentini A.,SPYGEN | Taberlet P.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Taberlet P.,University Grenoble alpes | Miaud C.,CNRS Center of Evolutionary and Functional Ecology | And 25 more authors.
Molecular Ecology

Global biodiversity in freshwater and the oceans is declining at high rates. Reliable tools for assessing and monitoring aquatic biodiversity, especially for rare and secretive species, are important for efficient and timely management. Recent advances in DNA sequencing have provided a new tool for species detection from DNA present in the environment. In this study, we tested whether an environmental DNA (eDNA) metabarcoding approach, using water samples, can be used for addressing significant questions in ecology and conservation. Two key aquatic vertebrate groups were targeted: amphibians and bony fish. The reliability of this method was cautiously validated in silico, in vitro and in situ. When compared with traditional surveys or historical data, eDNA metabarcoding showed a much better detection probability overall. For amphibians, the detection probability with eDNA metabarcoding was 0.97 (CI = 0.90-0.99) vs. 0.58 (CI = 0.50-0.63) for traditional surveys. For fish, in 89% of the studied sites, the number of taxa detected using the eDNA metabarcoding approach was higher or identical to the number detected using traditional methods. We argue that the proposed DNA-based approach has the potential to become the next-generation tool for ecological studies and standardized biodiversity monitoring in a wide range of aquatic ecosystems. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

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