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Zhang H.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Zhang H.,Naval Submarine Academy | Hou W.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Henrot L.,Sprim Advanced Life science | And 4 more authors.
Journal of the Royal Society Interface | Year: 2015

We present a computational model to study the spatio-temporal dynamics of epidermis homoeostasis under normal and pathological conditions. The model consists of a population kinetics model of the central transition pathway of keratinocyte proliferation, differentiation and loss and an agent-based model that propagates cell movements and generates the stratified epidermis. The model recapitulates observed homoeostatic cell density distribution, the epidermal turnover time and the multilayered tissue structure. We extend the model to study the onset, recurrence and phototherapy-induced remission of psoriasis. The model considers psoriasis as a parallel homoeostasis of normal and psoriatic keratinocytes originated from a shared stem cell (SC) niche environment and predicts two homoeostatic modes of psoriasis: a disease mode and a quiescent mode. Interconversion between the two modes can be controlled by interactions between psoriatic SCs and the immune system and by normal and psoriatic SCs competing for growth niches. The prediction of a quiescent state potentially explains the efficacy of multi-episode UVB irradiation therapy and recurrence of psoriasis plaques, which can further guide designs of therapeutics that specifically target the immune system and/or the keratinocytes. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society.All rights reserved. Source

Cazzola M.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | Anapurapu S.,Sprim Advanced Life science | Page C.P.,Kings College London
Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics | Year: 2012

Background: Respiratory tract infections are common and remain a major source of morbidity, mortality and economic cost worldwide, despite advances in modern medicine. One treatment approach is to non-specifically increase the immune response or augment innate defense mechanisms through the use of bacterial lysates. Polyvalent Mechanical Bacterial Lysate (PMBL) is a bacterial lysate made from a wide range of pathogenic bacteria, including all of the most commonly occurring pathogens of the upper and lower respiratory tract obtained by mechanical lysis. Aim: To test the available evidence that PMBL is able to prevent respiratory tract infections. Methods: A number of studies investigating randomized comparisons of PMBL (active) with placebo or no treatment (control) were selected for analysis. The primary outcome measure was the prevention of exacerbations or acute respiratory tract infection. The results were expressed as relative risk (RR) and the number of patients needed to treat for one to benefit (NNTB). Results: Data from 2557 patients from 15 randomized clinical trials (RCTs) was investigated. PMBL induced a significant reduction of infections vs placebo (RR-0.513; 95% CI;-0.722--0.303; p=0.00). The NNTB was 1.15. The RR was always in favor of PMBL (in recurrent respiratory infections other than COPD, chronic bronchitis and tuberculosis, RR-0.502; 95% CI-0.824--0.181; in children RR-2.204; 95% CI-3.260--1.147; in COPD or chronic bronchitis, RR-0.404; 95% CI-0.864-0.057; in tuberculosis, RR-0.502; 95% CI-0.890--0.114). Conclusions: The results of the present meta-analysis suggest that PBML is effective in both in children and in adults in preventing respiratory tract infections. Our current meta-analysis shows that there is a trend with PBML toward clinically significant results in patients with COPD but it did not quite achieve statistical significance due to the small number of COPD studies. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Li S.,Tongji University | Guerin-Deremaux L.,Roquette Freres | Pochat M.,Roquette Freres | Wils D.,Roquette Freres | And 2 more authors.
Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism | Year: 2010

The influence of dietary fiber on determinants of metabolic syndrome is controversial. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of NUTRIOSE supplementation on insulin resistance and the determinants of metabolic syndrome in overweight men. In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study, we supplemented the diets of overweight Chinese men with 250 mL of fruit juice that contained NUTRIOSE (Test group: n = 60, age = 30.4 ± 4.3 years, body mass index (BMI) = 24.5 ± 0.2 kg·m-2) or a maltodextrin placebo (Control group: n = 60, age = 31.6 ± 4.1 years, BMI = 24.5 ± 0.3 kg·m-2) at a dosage of 17 g twice daily for 12 weeks. Daily caloric intake, body composition, blood chemistry, and blood pressure were evaluated every 4 weeks during the trial. Test subjects consumed fewer calories per day and had greater reductions in body weight, BMI, body fat percentage, and waist circumference than Control subjects. All markers of glucose metabolism improved in the Test group, with increases in adiponectin and reductions in glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance, glycosylated hemoglobin, and glycated albumin (all p < 0.01). Similarly, all lipid measures improved with increases in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and reductions in total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides (all p < 0.01). No changes were observed in systolic blood pressure between groups. Most components of glucose metabolism and the lipid profile were significantly better in the Test than in the Control subjects. No adverse events or gastrointestinal complaints were reported in either group. Supplementation with NUTRIOSE for 12 weeks is well tolerated, lowers insulin resistance, and improves determinants of metabolic syndrome in overweight men. Source

Guerin-Deremaux L.,Roquette Freres | Pochat M.,Roquette Freres | Reifer C.,Sprim Advanced Life science | Wils D.,Roquette Freres | And 2 more authors.
Nutrition Research | Year: 2011

Strong evidence supports the ability of dietary fibers to improve satiety. However, large variations in the physical and chemical characteristics of dietary fiber modulate the physiologic responses. We hypothesized that a nonviscous soluble dietary fiber may influence satiety. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study in 100 overweight healthy adults in China investigated the effect of different dosages of dietary supplementation with a dextrin, NUTRIOSE (ROQUETTE frères, Lestrem, France), on short-term satiety over time. Subjects were randomized by body mass index and energy intake and then assigned to receive either placebo or 8, 14, 18, or 24 g/d of NUTRIOSE mixed with orange juice (n = 20 volunteers per group). On days -2, 0, 2, 5, 7, 14, and 21, short-term satiety was evaluated with a visual analog scale, and hunger feeling status was assessed with Likert scale. NUTRIOSE exhibits a progressive and significant impact on short-term satiety, which is time and dosage correlated. Some statistical differences appear for the group 8 g/d from day 5, and from day 0 for the groups 14, 18, and 24 g/d. The hunger feeling status decreases significantly from day 5 to the end of the evaluation for the group 24 g and from day 7 for the groups 14 and 18 g. By day 5, the group 24 g showed significantly longer time to hunger between meals compared with placebo. These results suggest that dietary supplementation with a soluble fiber can decrease hunger feeling and increase short-term satiety over time when added to a beverage from 8 to 24 g/d with time- and dose-responses relationship. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. Source

Ya W.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Reifer C.,Sprim Advanced Life science | Miller L.E.,Sprim Advanced Life science
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology | Year: 2010

Objective: We assessed the effectiveness of vaginal probiotic capsules for recurrent bacterial vaginosis (BV) prevention. Study Design: One hundred twenty healthy Chinese women with a history of recurrent BV were assigned randomly to daily vaginal prophylaxis with 1 capsule (Probaclac Vaginal; Nicar Laboratories, Inc, Blainville, Quebec, Canada) that contained 8 billion colony-forming units of Lactobacillus rhamnosus, L acidophilus, and Streptococcus thermophilus (n = 58 women) or 1 placebo capsule (n = 62 women) for 7 days on, 7 days off, and 7 days on. Results: Probiotic prophylaxis resulted in lower recurrence rates for BV (15.8% [9/57 women] vs 45.0% [27/60 women]; P < .001) and Gardnerella vaginalis incidence through 2 months (3.5% [2/57 women] vs 18.3% [11/60 women]; P = .02). Between the 2- and 11-month follow-up period, women who received probiotics reported a lower incidence of BV and G vaginalis. Aside from vaginal discharge and malodor, no adverse events were reported in either study group. Conclusion: Short-term probiotic prophylaxis is well tolerated and reduces BV recurrence and G vaginalis risk through 11 months after treatment. © 2010 Mosby, Inc. Source

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