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Gerych D.,Sports Research Institute of Czech Armed Forces | Gerych D.,Charles University | Tvrznik A.,Sports Research Institute of Czech Armed Forces | Prokesova E.,Sports Research Institute of Czech Armed Forces | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Mechanics in Medicine and Biology | Year: 2013

The aim of this study was to determine changes of peak pressure, maximal force, and contact area in five foot regions with two different insoles during walking and running, thereby obtaining data contributing to optimization of footwear and reduction of lower leg injury. Twenty-six male soldiers participated in the study. Peak pressure, maximal force, and contact area were measured in five foot regions (lateral and medial heel, midfoot, lateral and medial forefoot, big toe, and toes 2, 3, 4, and 5) with two different insoles (conventional vs. custom molded shock-absorbing insoles) during a walking speed of 5 km/h and running speeds of 8 and 12 km/h using the Pedar-X tensometric system (Novel, St. Paul, MN). Measurements revealed that the shock-absorbing insoles significantly (p < 0.05) attenuated the peak pressures in heel and forefoot region and increased the contact area in the midfoot region which indicates a successful redistribution of forces that arise during the contact phase in walking and running. Shock-absorbing insoles hence may contribute to better plantar pressure distribution during walking and running, and effectively prevent lower leg injuries. © 2013 World Scientific Publishing Company.

Jelen K.,Charles University | Soumar L.,Sports Research Institute of Czech Armed Forces | Fanta O.,Charles University
Neuroendocrinology Letters | Year: 2011

OBJECTIVE: Operators movements are one of the areas where variability is undesirable. Vehicle driving is probably the most frequent operator movement in society where errors can result in serious social, medical and economic consequences. In this article we focused on the influence of moderate alcohol intoxication (less then 1.0 g/kg) on right hand movement variability during manual gear selection and on driving ability. METHODS: The test took place in a laboratory setup in a passenger vehicle simulator. Simulated traffic lights were used to stop the car and hand movement was measured by kinematical analysis with the use of a motion capture system. RESULTS: Large variability in blood alcohol concentrations were observed as well as large intra-individual hand movement variability and reaction time to visual stimulus. DISCUSSION: The findings are somewhat ambiguous. Research outcomes did not confirm the hypothesis about the impact of moderate alcohol intoxication on movement variability. On the other hand, in some cases the observed data indicate critical behavior regarding safe driving and response to particular traffic situations. © 2011 Neuroendocrinology Letters.

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