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Filipcic A.,University of Ljubljana | Panjan A.,S2P Ltd | Reid M.,Sport Science and Medicine Unit | Crespo M.,International Tennis Federation | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Sports Science and Medicine | Year: 2013

This article discusses the relationship between success of professional male tennis players according to the country and world region from which they originate and the professional tournament structure in men's tennis in that world region and country. The success of a country or world region was defined by the number of players in the top 300 ATP rankings and was calculated for seven time periods between 1975 and 2008. The results showed the correlations between the total number of top 300 ranked players, the total number of tournaments, and the annual tournament prize money of the specific country. The correlations were nearly perfect in the 1975-1990 period (r = 0.93- 0.95; p < 0.01) but only high in the 2005-2008 period (r = 0.60- 0.64; p < 0.01), suggesting that the association between the number of top 300 ranked tennis players and professional tournaments, while still significant, is in decline. These data should inform the policy and investment decisions of regional and national federations, particularly as they relate to domestic professional tennis tournament structures and to explore opportunities to include professional tournaments of neighbour countries in their player's development programs. © Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2013). Source


Campbell A.,Curtin University Australia | Straker L.,Curtin University Australia | O'Sullivan P.,Curtin University Australia | Elliott B.,University of Western Australia | And 2 more authors.
Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise | Year: 2013

PURPOSE: This study aimed to quantify and compare lumbar region kinetics in kick and flat serves performed by elite, adolescent male players with and without a history of low back pain (LBP). Lumbar region kinematics, as well as racquet velocity and the position of the ball at impact, was described to facilitate kinetic data interpretation. METHODS: Twenty Tennis Australia adolescent male players participated; 7 had a history of disabling LBP and confirmed L4/L5 injury and 13 were age-, height-, mass-, and performance-matched controls. The VICON motion analysis system was used to record racquet, upper and lower limb, trunk, and lumbar movement during three "flat" and three "kick" serves. A customized mathematical model calculated lumbar region kinetics/kinematics, racquet velocity, and ball position at impact, and these are reported as if all players were right-handed. A series of 2 × 2 mixed-model ANOVA were used to compare between pain/no pain and kick/flat serves. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in racquet velocity or ball position at impact between pain groups or serve types. The players with LBP reported significantly greater (mean difference = 1.5 N·kg-1) peak left lateral force than the control group. The flat serve was associated with significantly greater flexion moments (mean difference = 2.7 N·kg-1) than the kick serve. CONCLUSIONS: The lumbar region undergoes substantial loading during both the kick and the flat tennis serves, including lateral flexion forces approximately eight times those experienced during running. Given that these left lateral flexion forces are significantly greater in players with a history of disabling LBP and occur simultaneous with peak vertical force and extension and right lateral rotations, this may be an important LBP mechanism in this population. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Sports Medicine. Source


Campbell A.,Curtin University Australia | O'Sullivan P.,Curtin University Australia | Straker L.,Curtin University Australia | Elliott B.,University of Western Australia | And 2 more authors.
Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise | Year: 2014

PURPOSE: This study compared regional lumbar (upper and lower), pelvis, trunk, and lower limb kinematics between elite male adolescent players with and without a history of low back pain (LBP) during the kick and flat serves as well as regional lumbar mobility and serving kinematics relative to the end of range. METHODS: Seven players with a history of LBP and confirmed L4/L5 injury and 13 controls matched for age, height, mass, and performance underwent a three-dimensional motion analysis during serving trials and lumbar mobility assessments. Regional lumbar, pelvis, trunk, and lower limb kinematics were compared between pain/no pain and kick/flat serves using a series of 2 × 2 mixed-model ANOVA, with independent samples t-tests used to compare regional lumbar mobility between pain/no pain. RESULTS: The pain group had significantly reduced lower lumbar mobility in every plane of motion than the no pain group. The pain group demonstrated less right lower lumbar and pelvis/shoulder rotation, greater right pelvic tilt, earlier peak right knee extension velocity during the drive phase of the tennis serves, and greater lower lumbar and pelvis left rotation, upper lumbar left lateral flexion, and anterior pelvis tilt during the forward-swing phase. All players approached their lumbar end of range during the serve. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this investigation suggest that a multidimensional LBP management and prevention strategy is required, including the assessment of regional spinal mobility, the lower limb and upper limb and spinal kinematics, and the integrated work between clinicians and coaches to adapt adverse technique. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Sports Medicine. Source


Vickery W.,University of Newcastle | Dascombe B.,University of Newcastle | Duffield R.,Charles Sturt University | Kellett A.,Sport Science and Medicine Unit | Portus M.,Praxis Sport Science
Journal of Sports Sciences | Year: 2013

As cricket training typically involves separate skill and conditioning sessions, this study reported on the movement demands, physiological responses and reproducibility of the demands of small-sided cricket games. Thirteen amateur, male cricket players (age: 22.8 ± 3.5 years, height: 1.78 ± 0.06 m, body mass: 78.6 ± 7.1 kg) completed two sessions of a generic small-sided cricket game, termed Battlezone; consisting of six repeat 8-over bouts. Heart rate and movement demands were continuously recorded, whilst blood lactate concentration and perceived exertion were recorded after each respective bout. Batsmen covered the greatest distance (1147 ± 175 m) and demonstrated the greatest mean movement speed (63 ± 9 m · min-1) during each bout. The majority of time (65-86%) was spent with a heart rate of between 51-85% HRmax and a blood lactate concentration of 1.1-2.0 mmol · L-1. Rating of perceived exertion ranged between 4.2-6.0. Movement demands and physiological responses did not differ between standardised sessions within respective playing positions (P > 0.05). The reliability for the majority of movement demands and physiological responses were moderate to high (CV: 5-17%; ICC: 0.48-1.00) within all playing positions. These results suggest that the physiological responses and movement characteristics of generic small-sided cricket games were consistent between sessions within respective playing positions. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source


Vickery W.,University of Newcastle | Dascombe B.,University of Newcastle | Duffield R.,Charles Sturt University | Kellett A.,Sport Science and Medicine Unit | Portus M.,Praxis Sport Science
Journal of Sports Sciences | Year: 2013

This study investigated the physiological responses and movement demands associated with modified versions of small-sided games for cricket training, termed 'Battlezone'. Eleven (22.2 ± 3.6 years; 1.80 ± 0.06 m; 81.7 ± 11.4 kg) male, cricket players volunteered to perform each of four modified 8-over scenarios of Battlezone. Modifications to Battlezone included reducing the field size, removal of a fielder, a combination of these modifications and additional rule changes. Heart rate, blood lactate concentration, rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and the movement patterns of participants were measured during each scenario. The total distances covered per 8-over bout ranged from 626 ± 335 m for wicketkeepers to 1795 ± 457 m for medium-fast bowlers; although similar distances (P & 0.05) were covered within positions between the four different scenarios. Between scenarios, the greatest mean speed, heart rate and blood lactate responses occurred when the rules were changed, resulting in increased movement patterns (P < 0.05), most notably for batsmen and wicketkeepers. In contrast, altering the playing field size or player number did not significantly influence (P & 0.05) these responses. These results suggest that the physical demands of cricket-specific training can be increased via rule variations including hit-and-run activities, more so than field size or player number. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

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