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Harris T.L.,Scripps Research Institute | Wenthur C.J.,Scripps Research Institute | Diego-Taboada A.,University of Hull | Diego-Taboada A.,Sporomex Ltd. | And 4 more authors.
Chemical Communications | Year: 2016

3,4-Diaminopyridine has shown promise in reversing botulinum intoxication, but poor pharmacokinetics and a narrow therapeutic window limit its clinical utility. Thus, we developed a pH-dependent oral delivery platform using club moss spore exines. These exine microcapsules slowed 3,4-diaminopyridine absorption, limited its seizure activity, and enabled delivery of doses which prolonged mouse survival after botulism neurotoxin A intoxication. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2016.

Barrier S.,University of Hull | Barrier S.,Sporomex Ltd. | Lobbert A.,University of Hull | Boasman A.J.,University of Hull | And 6 more authors.
Green Chemistry | Year: 2010

Sporopollenin, which is a naturally occurring and highly resilient organic polymer constituting the external shell of spores and pollen grains, has been converted into a primary amine form with a loading of 0.58 ±0.04 mmol.g-1 by reductive amination with ammonia and lithium aluminium hydride successively. The presence of the amine and precursor amide groups were established by combustion elemental analysis, ICP-OES, FTIR, solid-state NMR and reactivity of the primary amine group to salt formation and nucleophilic addition and substitution with phenyl isothiocyanate and benzene sulfonyl chloride, respectively. This relatively simple conversion has served to provide further information regarding the presence and reactivity of carboxylic acid functions on this relatively uncharted polymer and offers aminosporopollenin as a new material for potential solid-phase applications. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Archibald S.J.,University of Hull | Atkin S.L.,University of Hull | Atkin S.L.,Sporomex Ltd. | Bras W.,British Petroleum | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Materials Chemistry B | Year: 2014

Sporopollenin exine capsules (SECs) derived from plant spores and pollen grains have been proposed as adsorption, remediation and drug delivery agents. Despite many studies there is scant structural data available. This X-ray absorption investigation represents the first direct structural data on the interaction of metals with SECs and allows elucidation of their structure-property relationships. Fe K-edge XANES and EXAFS data have shown that the iron local environment in SECs (derived from Lycopodium clavatum) reacted with aqueous ferric chloride solutions is similar to that of ferrihydrite (FeOOH) and by implication ferritin. Fe Kα XRF micro-focus experiments show that there is a poor correlation between the iron distribution and the underlying SEC structure indicating that the SEC is coated in the FeOOH material. In contrast, the Fe Kα XRF micro-focus experiments on SECs reacted with aqueous ferrous chloride solutions show that there is a very high correlation between the iron distribution and the SEC structure, indicating a much more specific form of interaction of the iron with the SEC surface functional groups. Fe K-edge XANES and EXAFS data show that the FeII can be easily oxidised to give a structure similar to, but not identical to that in the FeIII case, and that even if anaerobic conditions are used there is still partial oxidation to FeIII. © 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Diego-Taboada A.,University of Hull | Diego-Taboada A.,Sporomex Ltd. | Cousson P.,University of Hull | Raynaud E.,University of Hull | And 12 more authors.
Journal of Materials Chemistry | Year: 2012

Microcapsules were obtained conveniently from Lycopodium clavatum spores possessing either a single layered shell of sporopollenin (exine) or double layered shell of sporopollenin and cellulose with an inner layer (intine). These microcapsules were further modified by converting their surface hydroxyl groups (alcohols, phenols carboxylic acids) into salts (Na + and K +), acetates and methyl ethers accordingly. All of these new types of microcapsules were found to sequester efficiently edible oils from oil-in-water emulsions with the acetylated forms being the most efficient to sequester oils in near quantitative fashion. The latter could be recycled without losing efficiency to recover oil. Oils could also be released from the microcapsules in a stepwise manner by repeated rubbing. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Thomasson M.J.,University of Hull | Thomasson M.J.,Sporomex Ltd. | Baldwin D.J.,University of Hull | Diego-Taboada A.,Sporomex Ltd. | And 6 more authors.
Electrochemistry Communications | Year: 2010

Electrochemical oxidation of hollow sporopollenin particles immobilised on an electrode surface is investigated in aqueous acidic solution. Redox activity is demonstrated to occur via a mixture of 2e--2H+ and 2e--1H+ processes, likely due to the oxidation of conjugated phenolics embedded within the surface-shell of the polymer particles. Charge transport over the surface is suggested to be fast based on comparison with an approximate physicochemical model. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

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