Spirogen Ltd.

London, United Kingdom

Spirogen Ltd.

London, United Kingdom
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Brucoli F.,University of West of Scotland | Brucoli F.,University College London | Hawkins R.M.,University College London | James C.H.,University College London | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2013

The binding of nuclear factor Y (NF-Y) to inverted CCAAT boxes (ICBs) within the promoter region of DNA topoisomerase IIα results in control of cell differentiation and cell cycle progression. Thus, NF-Y inhibitory small molecules could be employed to inhibit the replication of cancer cells. A library of pyrrolobenzodiazepine (PBD) C8-conjugates consisting of one PBD unit attached to tri-heterocyclic polyamide fragments was designed and synthesized. The DNA-binding affinity and sequence selectivity of each compound were evaluated in DNA thermal denaturation and DNase I footprinting assays, and the ability to inhibit binding of NF-Y to ICB1 and ICB2 was studied using an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). 3a was found to be a potent inhibitor of NF-Y binding, exhibiting a 10-fold selectivity for an ICB2 site compared to an ICB1-containing sequence, and showing low nanomolar cytotoxicity toward human tumor cell lines. Molecular modeling and computational studies have provided details of the covalent attachment process that leads to formation of the PBD-DNA adduct, and have allowed the preference of 3a for ICB2 to be rationalized. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Rahman K.M.,King's College London | Jackson P.J.M.,King's College London | James C.H.,University College London | Basu B.P.,University College London | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2013

DNA binding 4-(1-methyl-1H-pyrrol-3-yl)benzenamine (MPB) building blocks have been developed that span two DNA base pairs with a strong preference for GC-rich DNA. They have been conjugated to a pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]benzodiazepine (PBD) molecule to produce C8-linked PBD-MPB hybrids that can stabilize GC-rich DNA by up to 13-fold compared to AT-rich DNA. Some have subpicomolar IC 50 values in human tumor cell lines and in primary chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells, while being up to 6 orders less cytotoxic in the non-tumor cell line WI38, suggesting that key DNA sequences may be relevant targets in these ultrasensitive cancer cell lines. One conjugate, 7h (KMR-28-39), which has femtomolar activity in the breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231, has significant dose-dependent antitumor activity in MDA-MB-231 (breast) and MIA PaCa-2 (pancreatic) human tumor xenograft mouse models with insignificant toxicity at therapeutic doses. Preliminary studies suggest that 7h may sterically inhibit interaction of the transcription factor NF-κB with its cognate DNA binding sequence. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Jeffrey S.C.,Seattle Genetics | Burke P.J.,Seattle Genetics | Lyon R.P.,Seattle Genetics | Meyer D.W.,Seattle Genetics | And 17 more authors.
Bioconjugate Chemistry | Year: 2013

A highly cytotoxic DNA cross-linking pyrrolobenzodiazepine (PBD) dimer with a valine-alanine dipeptide linker was conjugated to the anti-CD70 h1F6 mAb either through endogenous interchain cysteines or, site-specifically, through engineered cysteines at position 239 of the heavy chains. The h1F6 239C-PBD conjugation strategy proved to be superior to interchain cysteine conjugation, affording an antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) with high uniformity in drug-loading and low levels of aggregation. In vitro cytotoxicity experiments demonstrated that the h1F6239C-PBD was potent and immunologically specific on CD70-positive renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) cell lines. The conjugate was resistant to drug loss in plasma and in circulation, and had a pharmacokinetic profile closely matching that of the parental h1F6239C antibody capped with N-ethylmaleimide (NEM). Evaluation in CD70-positive RCC and NHL mouse xenograft models showed pronounced antitumor activities at single or weekly doses as low as 0.1 mg/kg of ADC. The ADC was tolerated at 2.5 mg/kg. These results demonstrate that PBDs can be effectively used for antibody-targeted therapy. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Adair J.R.,Ithaka Life science Ltd | Howard P.W.,Spirogen Ltd. | Hartley J.A.,University College London | Williams D.G.,University College London | Chester K.A.,University College London
Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy | Year: 2012

Introduction: There is a great unmet need for effective new treatments in cancer, which continues to be a major cause of death. Antibodydrug conjugates (ADCs) are emerging, after a long gestation, as a class of biopharmaceuticals with the potential to address this need by directing highly potent cytotoxic drugs to their point of action. There is increasing interest in ADCs by major pharmaceutical companies and a growing pipeline of candidates for clinical use. This review summarises progress with development of this new class of drugs. Areas covered: The authors describe separately the antibody and drug elements of ADCs and then examine the technology and consequences of linkage. The work is presented in the light of recent developments in the design, using clinical examples where possible. Expert opinion: Since their emergence as independent drugs, antibodies and chemotherapy are being brought together in effective synergy. The conjunction is timely: many of the technical challenges in preparing antibodies have been addressed; potent new drugs are available and linker technology is advancing apace. ADCs however are not just a sum of their individual parts. The current challenge is in understanding the holistic nature of this exciting class of drugs that promise a new avenue for cancer treatment. Target selection, the interaction of ADC with tumour and off-tumour targets and the internalisation of ADCs, are critical to the effective maturation of ADC technology. Ongoing recent developments in attachment sites and linker chemistry can provide fine-tuning of drug loading, elements of ADC PK and off-target ADC toxicity. © 2012 Informa UK, Ltd.

Antonow D.,University of London | Thurston D.E.,University of London | Thurston D.E.,Spirogen Ltd.
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2011

Pyrrolobenzodiazepines (PBD) are an important class of sequence-selective DNA-interactive agents that bind covalently to guanine bases within the minor groove of DNA. The PBD monomers are remarkable in possessing a 3-dimensional shape that allows them to fit perfectly within the minor groove of DNA, partly due to the longitudinal twist created by the chiral center at their C11a-position. A PBD produced synthetically, semisynthetically, or isolated from natural sources can exist as a mixture of two or even three forms or can exist predominantly as just one. Various biochemical and structural studies on PBD-DNA adducts have suggested that the molecules locate themselves with their N10-position pointing toward the floor of the minor groove. A further important feature of the PBDs is that they interact selectively with specific DNA sequences. A significant effort has also been made to increase the base-pair span and sequence-selectivity of PBD molecules so that they might be used as gene-targeting agents in biological experiments and possibly as therapeutic agents.

Rahman K.M.,University College London | Rosado H.,University College London | Moreira J.B.,University College London | Feuerbaum E.-A.,University College London | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy | Year: 2012

Objectives: Pyrrolobenzodiazepine (PBD) dimers, tethered through inert propyldioxy or pentyldioxy linkers, possess potent bactericidal activity against a range of Gram-positive bacteria by virtue of their capacity to cross-link duplex DNA in sequence-selective fashion. Here we attempt to improve the antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity profile of PBD-containing conjugates by extension of dimer linkers and replacement of one PBD unit with phenyl-substituted or benzo-fused heterocycles that facilitate non-covalent interactions with duplex DNA. Methods: DNase I footprinting was used to identify high-affinity DNA binding sites. A staphylococcal gene microarray was used to assess epidemic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus 16 phenotypes induced by PBD conjugates. Molecular dynamics simulations were employed to investigate the accommodation of compounds within the DNA helix. Results: Increasing the length of the linker in PBD dimers led to a progressive reduction in antibacterial activity, but not in their cytotoxic capacity. Complex patterns of DNA binding were noted for extended PBD dimers. Modelling of DNA strand cross-linking by PBD dimers indicated distortion of the helix. A majority (26 of 43) of PBD-biaryl conjugates possessed potent antibacterial activity with little or no helical distortion and a more favourable cytotoxicity profile. Bactericidal activity of PBD-biaryl conjugates was determined by inability to excise covalently bound drug molecules from bacterial duplex DNA. Conclusions: PBD-biaryl conjugates have a superior antibacterial profile compared with PBD dimers such as ELB-21. We have identified six PBD-biaryl conjugates as potential drug development candidates. © The Author 2012.

Hartley J.A.,University College London | Hartley J.A.,Cancer Research UK Research Institute | Hamaguchi A.,University College London | Coffils M.,University College London | And 12 more authors.
Cancer Research | Year: 2010

The pyrrolobenzodiazepines (PBD) are naturally occurring antitumor antibiotics, and a PBD dimer (SJG-136, SG2000) is in phase II trials. Many potent PBDs contain a C2-endo-exo unsaturated motif associated with the pyrrolo C-ring. The novel compound SG2202 is a PBD dimer containing this motif. SG2285 is a water-soluble prodrug of SG2202 in which two bisulfite groups inactivate the PBD N10-C11 imines. Once the bisulfites are eliminated, the imine moieties can bind covalently in the DNA minor groove, forming an interstrand cross-link. The mean in vitro cytotoxic potency of SG2285 against human tumor cell lines is GI50 20 pmol/L. SG2285 is highly efficient at producing DNA interstrand cross-links in cells, but they form more slowly than those produced by SG2202. Cellular sensitivity to SG2285 was primarily dependent on ERCC1 and homologous recombination repair. In primary B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia samples, the mean LD50 was significantly lower than in normal age-matched B and T lymphocytes. Antitumor activity was shown in several human tumor xenograft models, including ovarian, non-small cell lung, prostate, pancreatic, and melanoma, with cures obtained in the latter model with a single dose. Further, in an advanced-stage colon model, SG2285 administered either as a single dose, or in two repeat dose schedules, was superior to irinotecan. Our findings define SG2285 as a highly active cytotoxic compound with antitumor properties desirable for further development. ©2010 AACR.

SPIROGEN Ltd | Date: 2011-03-07

Compounds of formula (I): Z-CO-A-BNH-Z (I) wherein: Z is H or an amino protecting group; Z is OH, a protected or activated hydroxyl group or Cl; A is an optionally substituted C_(5-6 )arylene group; and B is an optionally substituted C_(5-6 )arylene group.

Compounds and method of synthesis of compounds of formula III:R^(15) is optionally substituted C_(1-12) alkyl; R^(10) and R^(16) together form a double bond between N10 and C11, or R^(10) is H and R^(16) is OH; R^(7) is independently selected from H, R, OH, OR, SH, SR, NH_(2), NHR, NRR, nitro, Me_(3)Sn and halo, and the compound is a dimer with each monomer being of formula (III), where the R^(8) groups of each monomers form together a dimer bridge.

SPIROGEN Ltd | Date: 2011-04-15

Conjugates and compounds for making conjugates which are PBD molecules linked via the N10 position are disclosed, along with the use of the conjugates for treating proliferative diseases, including cancer.

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