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Pelletier J.-P.,University of Montréal | Cooper C.,University of Southampton | Cooper C.,University of Oxford | Peterfy C.,Spire science LLC | And 23 more authors.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases | Year: 2013

Knee osteoarthritis is associated with structural changes in the joint. Despite its many drawbacks, radiography is the current standard for evaluating joint structure in trials of potential disease-modifying osteoarthritis drugs. MRI is a non-invasive alternative that provides comprehensive imaging of the whole joint. Frequently used MRI measurements in knee osteoarthritis are cartilage volume and thickness; others include synovitis, synovial fluid effusions, bone marrow lesions (BML) and meniscal damage. Joint replacement is considered a clinically relevant outcome in knee osteoarthritis; however, its utility in clinical trials is limited. An alternative is virtual knee replacement on the basis of symptoms and structural damage. MRI may prove to be a good alternative to radiography in definitions of knee replacement. One of the MRI parameters that predicts knee replacement is medial compartment cartilage volume/thickness, which correlates with radiographic joint space width, is sensitive to change, and predicts outcomes in a continuous manner. Other MRI parameters include BML and meniscal lesions. MRI appears to be a viable alternative to radiography for the evaluation of structural changes in knee osteoarthritis and prediction of joint replacement.


Bathon J.,Columbia University | Robles M.,Centro Medico Toluca | Ximenes A.C.,Hospital Geral Of Goiania | Nayiager S.,St Augustines Hospital | And 14 more authors.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases | Year: 2011

Objective: To assess the efficacy and safety of abatacept plus methotrexate versus methotrexate alone in early erosive rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods: The AGREE was a 2-year phase IIIb multinational study in early (≤2 years) RA. During the double-blind period (year 1), patients were randomly assigned 1:1 to receive abatacept+methotrexate or methotrexate alone; all patients received open-label abatacept + methotrexate during year 2. Clinical outcomes assessed included 28-joint disease activity score (DAS28) defined remission, low disease activity score (LDAS), American College of Rheumatology (ACR) responses and physical function. Radiographic outcomes were assessed using the Genant-modified Sharp total score (TS). Safety was monitored throughout. Results: Of the 459 patients completing year 1, 433 patients (94.3%) completed year 2. DAS28-defined remission, LDAS, ACR and physical function were sustained through year 2 in the original abatacept+methotrexate group, with 55.2% in remission at 2 years. Upon introduction of abatacept in the methotrexate-alone group, additional patients achieved DAS28-defined remission (44.5% vs 26.9%), LDAS (60.4% vs 43.2%) and improved ACR 70 (49.8% vs 31.7%) for year 2 versus year 1. Less radiographic progression was observed at 2 years in the original abatacept+methotrexate group than the methotrexatealone group (change in TS 0.84 vs 1.75, p<0.001). No new safety issues were seen. Similar rates of serious adverse events, serious infections and autoimmune events were observed in years 1 and 2. Conclusions: The AGREE trial was the first to examine the impact of T-cell co-stimulation modulation with abatacept in patients with early erosive RA. Early treatment with abatacept+methotrexate resulted in greater sustainable clinical, functional and radiographic benefits than methotrexate alone, with acceptable safety and tolerability. Trial Registration: NCT00122382.


Peterfy C.G.,Spire science LLC | Countryman P.,Spire science LLC | Gabriele A.,Hoffmann-La Roche | Shaw T.,Roche Holding AG | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Rheumatology | Year: 2011

Objective. The current validated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scoring method for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in clinical trials, RA MRI Score (RAMRIS), incorporates all metacarpophalangeal (MCP) and wrist joints except MCP-1. The experience with radiographic scoring, however, was that excluding certain bones in the wrist improved the discriminative power for changes over time. In this study, we pool MRI data from randomized controlled clinical trails (RCT) to determine which combination of MCP and wrist joints are most sensitive and discriminative for structural changes over time. Methods. MR images from 4 multicenter RCT, including 522 RA patients, were read by 2 radiologists, using the RAMRIS scoring system for erosion, osteitis, and synovitis. In one RCT, joint-space narrowing (JSN) was assessed cross-sectionally by one radiologist using a previously validated method. Baseline frequencies of erosion, JSN, osteitis, and synovitis of different bones and joints in the hand and wrist were compared. Intraclass correlation coefficients between readers were determined for each location. Finally, 7 different combinations of bone/joint locations were compared for their ability to discriminate subjects showing increases or decreases from baseline greater than or equal to smallest detectable changes (SDC) at Weeks 12 or 24. Results. Frequency of involvement and reliability for assessing change varied by location. As in earlier analyses, excluding certain wrist bones increased the percentage of subjects showing changes greater than or equal to SDC. Conclusion. These findings suggest that excluding wrist bones that do not frequently or reliably demonstrate structural changes improves the discriminative power of the RAMRIS scoring system. The Journal of Rheumatology Copyright © 2011. All rights reserved.


Kremer J.M.,Albany Medical College | Russell A.S.,University of Alberta | Emery P.,University of Leeds | Emery P.,Leeds Teaching Hospitals Trust | And 9 more authors.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases | Year: 2011

Objective: To evaluate abatacept treatment over 3 years in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) refractory to methotrexate (MTX). Methods: Patients randomised to abatacept or placebo (+MTX) during the 1-year double-blind period of the Abatacept in Inadequate responders to Methotrexate (AIM) trial received open-label abatacept (+MTX) in the long-term extension (LTE). Safety was assessed for patients who received ≥1 dose of abatacept, regardless of randomisation group. Efficacy was assessed for patients randomised to abatacept who entered the LTE. Results: 433 and 219 patients were randomised and treated with abatacept or placebo, respectively; 378 and 161 entered the LTE. At year 3, 440/539 patients were ongoing. No unexpected safety events were observed in the LTE. By year 3, incidence rates of adverse event and serious adverse events were 249.8/100 and 15.1/100 patient-years, respectively. Incidence rates were generally stable over time. At year 3, 84.8%, 63.4% and 37.5% of patients achieved American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria of 20, 50 and 70, respectively, compared with 82.3%, 54.3% and 32.4% of patients at year 1. Mean changes in Genant-modified Sharp scores were reduced progressively over 3 years, with significantly greater inhibition during year 3 compared with year 2 (p = 0.022 for total score). Conclusion: In MTX-inadequate responders with RA, abatacept provided consistent safety and sustained efficacy over 3 years. The data suggest an increasing inhibitory disease-modifying effect on radiographic progression.


Tak P.P.,University of Amsterdam | Rigby W.F.,Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center | Rubbert-Roth A.,University of Cologne | Peterfy C.G.,Spire science LLC | And 6 more authors.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases | Year: 2011

Objectives: Rituximab is an effective treatment in patients with established rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The Objective: of the IMAGE study was to determine the effi cacy of rituximab in the prevention of joint damage and its safety in combination with methotrexate (MTX) in patients initiating treatment with MTX. Methods: In this double-blind randomised controlled phase III study, 755 MTX-naïve patients with active RA were randomly assigned to MTX alone, rituximab 2×500 mg + MTX or rituximab 2×1000 mg + MTX. The primary end point at week 52 was the change in joint damage measured using a Genant-modified Sharp score. Results: 249, 249 and 250 patients were randomly assigned to MTX alone, rituximab 2×500 mg + MTX or rituximab 2×1000 mg + MTX, respectively. At week 52, treatment with rituximab 2×1000 mg + MTX compared with MTX alone was associated with a reduction in progression of joint damage (mean change in total modified Sharp score 0.359 vs 1.079; p=0.0004) and an improvement in clinical outcomes (ACR50 65% vs 42%; p<0.0001); rituximab 2×500 mg + MTX improved clinical outcomes (ACR50 59% vs 42%; p<0.0001) compared with MTX alone but did not signifi cantly reduce the progression of joint damage. Safety outcomes were similar between treatment groups. Conclusions: Treatment with rituximab 2×1000 mg in combination with MTX is an effective therapy for the treatment of patients with MTX-naïve RA.


Boyesen P.,Diakonhjemmet Hospital | McQueen F.M.,University of Auckland | Gandjbakhch F.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Lillegraven S.,Diakonhjemmet Hospital | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Rheumatology | Year: 2011

Objective. The aim of this multireader exercise was to assess the reliability and sensitivity to change of the psoriatic arthritis magnetic resonance imaging score (PsAMRIS) in PsA patients followed for 1 year. Methods. MRI was acquired from 12 patients with PsA before initiation of treatment and after 12 months. MR images were scored according to PsAMRIS (for synovitis, tenosynovitis, periarticular inflammation, bone marrow edema, bone erosion, and bone proliferation) under standardized conditions, in unknown chronological order. Intraobserver/interobserver reliability was examined by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and sensitivity to change by standardized response means (SRM). Results. The interobserver reliability of PsAMRIS was high for synovitis, tenosynovitis, periarticular inflammation, and bone edema status and change scores (interobserver ICC 0.87-0.97). The intraobserver reliability was moderate to high (ICC 0.60-0.98) for status and change scores, except for change in periarticular inflammation (ICC 0.33). PsAMRIS sensitivity to change was moderate for synovitis, tenosynovitis, and periarticular inflammation (SRM 0.5-0.8), while poor (SRM 0.1-0.3) for bone marrow edema, erosion, and bone proliferation. Rare occurrence and minimal change contributed to poor SRM and change-score ICC for bone parameters. Conclusion. This multireader exercise, performed under standardized conditions, confirmed PsAMRIS to have high interobserver and intraobserver reliability for hand PsA. Measures of inflammation were sensitive to change, implying that PsAMRIS may be a valuable tool for monitoring change in inflammation during PsA clinical trials. The Journal of Rheumatology Copyright © 2011. All rights reserved.


Deodhar A.,Oregon Health And Science University | Dore R.K.,MD Inc. | Schechtman J.,Sun Valley Arthritis Center Ltd. | Shergy W.,Rheumatology Associates of North Alabama | And 8 more authors.
Arthritis Care and Research | Year: 2010

Objective. Periarticular osteoporosis is one of the earliest radiographic signs of bone damage in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Denosumab, an investigational fully human monoclonal antibody that binds to RANKL, inhibits bone erosion and systemic bone loss in clinical studies of patients with RA. In this hand bone mineral density (BMD) substudy, we investigated the effects of denosumab on hand BMD and its correlation with hand erosion scores. Methods. Patients receiving methotrexate for erosive RA were randomized in a 1:1:1 ratio to receive subcutaneous placebo, denosumab 60 mg, or denosumab 180 mg at 0 and 6 months. Measurements included BMD (by dual x-ray absorptiometry [DXA]) of both hands (0, 1, 6, and 12 months), magnetic resonance images of the hands/wrists (0 and 6 months), and radiographs of the hands/wrists and feet (0, 6, and 12 months). Results. There were 56 patients (13 placebo, 21 denosumab 60 mg, and 22 denosumab 180 mg). Mean changes in hand BMD at 6 and 12 months were: +0.8% and +1.0%, respectively, for denosumab 60 mg; +2.0% and +2.5%, respectively, for denosumab 180 mg; and -1.2% and -2.0%, respectively, for placebo. Erosion scores remained near baseline in the denosumab groups and increased from baseline in the placebo group. A negative correlation was observed between hand BMD and erosion scores. Conclusion. In patients with RA, denosumab provided protection against erosion, and not only prevented bone loss but increased hand BMD as measured by DXA. © 2010, American College of Rheumatology.


Peterfy C.G.,Spire science LLC | DiCarlo J.C.,Spire science LLC | Olech E.,University of Nevada, Las Vegas | Bagnard M.-A.,Roche Holding AG | And 2 more authors.
Arthritis Research and Therapy | Year: 2012

Introduction: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been shown to be superior to radiography (XR) for assessing synovitis, osteitis, and bone erosion in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), particularly in clinical trials. However, relatively little has been reported on the ability of MRI to evaluate articular cartilage loss, or joint-space narrowing (JSN), in the hands and wrists. In a previous study, we adapted the nine-point Genant-modified Sharp XR-JSN score for use with MRI (MRI-JSN). In this study, we compare MRI-JSN with XR-JSN by using images from two multicenter clinical trials.Methods: Baseline XR and 1.5-Tesla MR images of one hand and wrist from each of 47 subjects with RA enrolled in one of two multicenter clinical trials were evaluated by using the XR-JSN and MRI-JSN methods by a single radiologist experienced in the two methods. Radiographs and MR images were read independently on different occasions.Results: In total, 575 of 611 joints were compared (one metacarpophalangeal joint of the thumb and 35 proximal interphalangeal joints were outside the MRI field of view and could not be assessed). The 22 (47%) subjects showed JSN with both XR and MRI, and 25 (53%) subjects showed no JSN with either method. No subject showed JSN with only one or the other method. MRI showed high agreement with XR (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.83). Sensitivity of MRI for JSN, by using XR as the gold standard, was 0.94; specificity was 0.91; accuracy was 0.91; positive predictive value was 0.64; and negative predictive value was 0.99.Conclusions: This validation exercise suggests that MRI JSN scoring may offer a viable alternative to XR JSN scoring in multicenter clinical trials of RA. However, the relative longitudinal sensitivity of MRI to change and the ability to discriminate therapeutic effect on JSN were not evaluated in this study. © 2012 DiCarlo et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Tak P.P.,University of Amsterdam | Rigby W.,Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center | Rubbert-Roth A.,University of Cologne | Peterfy C.,Spire science LLC | And 6 more authors.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases | Year: 2012

Background: In the IMAGE study, rituximab plus methotrexate (MTX) inhibited joint damage and improved clinical outcomes at 1 year in MTX-naïve patients with early active rheumatoid arthritis. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess joint damage progression and clinical outcomes over 2 years. Methods: Patients (n=755) were randomised to receive rituximab 2x500 mg+MTX, 2x1000 mg+MTX or placebo+MTX. The placebo-controlled period continued to week 104. Two-year end points were defined as secondary or exploratory and included change in total Genant-modified Sharp score (mTSS), total erosion score and joint space narrowing score from baseline to week 104. Clinical efficacy and physical function end points were also assessed. Results: At 2 years, rituximab 2x1000 mg+MTX maintained inhibition of progressive joint damage versus MTX alone (mTSS change 0.41 vs 1.95; p<0.0001 (79% inhibition)), and a higher proportion of patients receiving rituximab 2x1000 mg+MTX had no radiographic progression over 2 years compared with those receiving MTX alone (57% vs 37%; p<0.0001). Contrary to 1-year results, exploratory analysis of rituximab 2x500 mg+MTX at 2 years showed that progressive joint damage was slowed by ∼61% versus placebo+MTX (mTSS, exploratory p=0.0041). Improvements in clinical signs and symptoms and physical function seen after 1 year in rituximab-treated patients versus those receiving placebo were maintained at year 2. Safety profiles were similar between groups. Conclusions: Treatment with rituximab 2x1000 mg+MTX was associated with sustained improvements in radiographic, clinical and functional outcomes over 2 years. Clinical trials.gov identifier NCT00299104.


Peterfy C.,Spire science LLC | Ostergaard M.,Copenhagen University | Conaghan P.G.,University of Leeds
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases | Year: 2013

The success of modern rheumatoid arthritis (RA) therapies and treatment strategies has led to extended placebo phases being unethical in RA randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Modern trials therefore increasingly involve active comparator designs, and this together with some technical issues has meant difficulties in differentiating structural progression using traditional radiographic outcome measures. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been demonstrated to assess damage more sensitively than radiographs, but importantly it can measure the upstream drivers of erosions and cartilage loss, synovitis and osteitis. An increasing number of recent RCTs using the RA MRI scoring system (RAMRIS) have demonstrated the ability of MRI to discriminate progression and treatment effect. Consistency of erosion progression determination was seen across the majority of these studies. In most studies, MRI demonstrated reduction in synovitis and osteitis at early (12 week) timepoints, and MRI predicted subsequent radiographic findings. Often small numbers of patients were required to demonstrate such changes. The time is right for regulatory authorities to include MRI as an alternative to radiographic data in support of claims of inhibition of progression of structural damage in RA trials.

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