Tempfer H.,Paracelsus Medical University |
Tempfer H.,Spinal Cord Injury and Tissue Regeneration Center Salzburg |
Kaser-Eichberger A.,Paracelsus Medical University |
Korntner S.,Paracelsus Medical University |
And 17 more authors.
Histochemistry and Cell Biology | Year: 2015
Tendons lack sufficient blood supply and represent a bradytroph tissue with prolonged healing time under pathological conditions. While the role of lymphatics in wound/defect healing in tissues with regular blood supply is well investigated, its involvement in tendon defects is not clear. We here try to identify the role of the lymphatic system in a tendon lesion model with morphological methods. A rat Achilles tendon lesion model (n = 5) was created via surgical intervention. Two weeks after surgery, animals were killed and lesioned site removed and prepared for polarization microscopy (picrosirius red) and immunohistochemistry using the lymphatic markers PROX1, VEGFR3, CCL21, LYVE-1, PDPN, and the vascular marker CD31. Additionally, DAPI was applied. Untreated tendons served as controls, confocal laser-scanning microscopy was used for documentation. At the lesion site, polarization microscopy revealed a structural reintegration while immunohistochemistry detected band-like profiles immunoreactive for PDPN, VEGFR3, CCL21, LYVE1, and CD31, surrounding DAPI-positive nuclei. PROX1-positive nuclei were detected within the lesion forming lines and opposed to each other. These PROX1-positive nuclei were surrounded by LYVE-1- or VEGFR3-positive surfaces. Few CD31-positve profiles contained PROX1-positive nuclei, while the majority of CD31-positive profiles lacked PROX1-positive nuclei. VEGFR3-, PDPN-, and LYVE-1-positive profiles were numerous within the lesion site, but absent in control tissue. Within 2 weeks, a structural rearrangement takes place in this lesion model, with dense lymphatic supply. The role of lymphatics in tendon wound healing is unclear, and proposed model represents a good possibility to study healing dynamics and lymphangiogenesis in a tissue almost completely lacking lymphatics in physiological conditions. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
PubMed | Victor Babes University of Medicine and Pharmacy Timisoara, Salzburg General Hospital and Spinal Cord Injury and Tissue Regeneration Center Salzburg
Type: | Journal: SpringerPlus | Year: 2014
The aim of this study was to develop a method for standard laparoscopic access to the pudendal nerve in pigs to implant an electrode for chronic neuromodulation studies.Using routine laparoscopic surgical techniques, the pudendal nerve was located in 10 female pigs using standardized anatomical landmarks. A tined lead electrode was placed in parallel to the exposed pudendal nerve, and acute unilateral electrical stimulation was performed consecutively on both pudendal nerves. Bladder pressure and perineal skeletal muscle response was monitored during stimulation.Standard access to the pudendal nerve was successfully established in the pig model with surgical times of approximately 45minutes for bilateral electrode placement. Acute unilateral stimulation did not evoke bladder responses but resulted in reliable stimulation-dependent activity of the perineal skeletal muscles. The structural integrity of the pudendal nerves was confirmed in all cases.These results illustrate the effectiveness of laparoscopy for standardised, safe nerve localisation and electrode implantation at the pudendal nerve in pigs. Laparoscopic implantation represents an alternative approach for performing electrode implantation under optical guidance versus the standard approach of percutaneous, neuro-physiological monitored implantation. In the future, pudendal neuromodulation may be used as a supplement to sacral neuromodulation or as a standalone therapeutic approach, depending on the underlying bladder dysfunction.