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Perugia, Italy

Savi E.,Allergy Unit | Peveri S.,Allergy Unit | Incorvaia C.,Allergy Pulmonary Rehabilitation | Dell'Albani I.,Stallergenes | And 3 more authors.
Clinical and Molecular Allergy | Year: 2013

Background: The introduction of component-resolved diagnosis was a great advance in diagnosis of allergy. In particular, molecular allergy techniques allowed investigation of the association between given molecular profiles and clinical expression of allergy. We evaluated the possible correlation between the level of specific IgE (sIgE) to single components of Phleum pratense and clinical issues such as the severity of allergic rhinitis (AR) and the presence or absence of asthma. Methods: The study included 140 patients with rhinitis and/or asthma caused by sensitization to grass pollen. sIgE to Phl p 1, Phl p 5, Phl p 7, and Phl p 12 from Phleum pratense were measured, and the correlation between the stage of AR according to Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) guidelines and the presence of asthma was studied by multivariate logistic regression in terms of sIgE and ARIA stage, while univariate logistic regression was used for IgE and a dichotomic classification of asthma as present or absent. Results: Ten patients had intermittent AR, 48 had mild persistent AR, and 82 had severe persistent AR. Asthma was present in 86 patients and absent in 54. A significant correlation was found between severe persistent AR and presence of asthma (p < 0.01). The only significant correlation between clinical data and sIgE values was that of low values of sIgE to Phl p 5 and absence of asthma (p < 0.01). Conclusions: This preliminary finding suggests that low values of sIgE to Phl p 5 are correlated with the absence of asthma in patients with grass-pollen induced allergy. The data, provided they are confirmed by further studies, could be useful when selecting patients who are candidates for allergen immunotherapy, since a higher risk of asthma could be used as a selection criterion for using this approach. © 2013 Savi et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Gelardi M.,University of Bari | Caimmi D.,University of Pavia | Incorvaia C.,Allergy Pulmonary Rehabilitation | Caimmi S.,University of Pavia | And 12 more authors.
Pediatric Allergy and Immunology | Year: 2012

The pathogenesis of rhinosinusitis (RS) is related to inflammation, caused by infections in the acute form of the disease but also by other agents in the chronic forms. Cytology allows to evaluate the defensive components, such as hair cells and muciparous cells, while the presence in the nasal mucosa of eosinophils, mast cells, bacteria and/or fungal hyphae, or spores indicates the nasal pathology. The anatomic and physiologic characteristics of the otorhinosinusal system account for the frequent concomitant involvement of the different components. The pivotal pathophysiologic sites are the ostiomeatal complex, the spheno-ethmoidal recess, and the Eustachian tube. The latter is the link with acute otitis media (AOM), which is the most common disease in infants and children and has major medical, social, and economic effects. Moreover, because of the strict relationship between upper and lower airways, nasal sinus disease may contribute to asthma and sinusitis may be considered as an independent factor associated with frequent severe asthma exacerbations. Concerning the role of allergy, the available data do not permit to attribute a central role to atopy in sinusitis and thus allergy testing should not be a routine procedure, while an allergologic evaluation may be indicated in children with OM, especially when they have concomitant rhinitis. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

Yacoub M.-R.,San Raffaele Scientific Institute | Colombo G.,San Raffaele Scientific Institute | Marcucci F.,Spin Off ATRP Srl | Caminati M.,University of Pavia | And 4 more authors.
Inflammation and Allergy - Drug Targets | Year: 2012

The most common allergic diseases, and especially the respiratory disorders such as rhinitis and asthma, are closely related to the allergic inflammation elicited by the causative allergen. This makes inflammation the main target of anti-allergic therapies. Among the available treatments, allergen specific immunotherapy (AIT) has a patent effect on allergic inflammation, which persists also after its discontinuation, and is the only therapy able to modify the natural history of allergy. The traditional, subcutaneous route of administration was demonstrated to modify the allergen presentation by dendritic cells (DCs) that in turn correct the phenotype of allergen-specific T cells, switching from the Th2-type response, typical of allergic inflammation and characterized by the production of IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, IL-17, and IL-32 cytokines to a Th1-type response. This immune deviation is related to an increased IFN-gamma and IL-2 production as well as to the anergy of Th2 or to tolerance, the latter being related to the generation of allergen-specific T regulatory (Treg) cells, which produce cytokines such as IL-10 and TGF-beta. Anti-inflammatory mechanisms observed during sublingual AIT with high allergen doses proved to be similar to subcutaneous immunotherapy. Data obtained from biopsies clearly indicate that the pathophysiology of the oral mucosa, with particular importance for mucosal DCs, plays a crucial role in inducing tolerance to the administered allergen. © 2012 Bentham Science Publishers.

Marcucci F.,Spin Off ATRP Srl | Sensi L.,Spin Off ATRP Srl | Incorvaia C.,Allergy Pulmonary Rehabilitation | Dell'Albani I.,Stallergenes | And 2 more authors.
Clinical and Molecular Allergy | Year: 2012

Background: Grass pollen is a major cause of respiratory allergy worldwide and contain a number of allergens, some of theme (Phl p 1, Phl p 2, Phl p 5, and Phl 6 from Phleum pratense, and their homologous in other grasses) are known as major allergens. The administration of grass pollen extracts by immunotherapy generally induces an initial rise in specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE) production followed by a progressive decline during the treatment. Some studies reported that immunotherapy is able to induce a de novo sensitisation to allergen component previously unrecognized.Methods: We investigated in 30 children (19 males and 11 females, mean age 11.3 years), 19 treated with sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) by a 5-grass extract and 11 untreated, the sIgE and sIgG4 response to the different allergen components.Results: Significant increases (p < 0.001) were detected for Phl p 1, Phl p 2, Phl p 5, and Phl p 6, while sIgE levels induced in response to Phl p 7 and Phl p 12 were low or absent at baseline and unchanged following SLIT treatment; no new sensitisation was detected. As to IgG4, significant increases were found for Phl p2 and Phl p 5, while the increase for Phl p 12 was not significant. In the control group, no significant increase in sIgE for any single allergen component was found.Conclusions: These findings confirm that the initial phase of SLIT with a grass pollen extract enhances the sIgE synthesis and show that the sIgE response concerns the same allergen components which induce IgE reactivity during natural exposure. © 2012 Marcucci et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Incorvaia C.,Allergy Pulmonary Rehabilitation | Fuiano N.,Pediatric Allergy | Frati F.,Spin Off ATRP Srl | Marcucci F.,Spin Off ATRP Srl
Recent Patents on Inflammation and Allergy Drug Discovery | Year: 2014

Allergic diseases are common worldwide and are prevalently caused by an inflammatory pathophysiology induced by the exposure to the specific allergen(s). The development of inflammation requires the involvement of regulatory cells that include antigen presenting cells and T lymphocytes, respectively orientating and orchestrating the immunological response, and the activity of cells such as mast cells and basophils, that release the typical mediators of allergic reactions, and eosinophils, which sustain the protracted inflammation. Differently from other sites of contact with allergen(s) such as respiratory or gastrointestinal tissues, the oral mucosa, based on the abundance of dendritic cells and their interaction with T cells, apparently works as a tolerogenic site concerning the response to allergen molecules. The other pivotal aspect of the oral mucosa is the minimal presence of inflammatory cells, especially eosinophils and mast cells. These characteristics play a crucial role in the sublingual administration of allergen immunotherapy, which in fact is easier to tolerate than injective immunotherapy, taking into account recent studies highlighting the important role of the Waldeyer's ring in developing tolerance to the sublingually administered allergen. Some patents addressing the identification of therapeutic agents for allergic inflammation are also summarized. © 2014 Bentham Science Publishers.

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