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Korponai J.,West Transdanubian District Water Authority | Korponai J.,University of West Hungary | Magyari E.K.,HAS NHMUS Research Group for Paleontology | Buczko K.,Hungarian Natural History Museum | And 6 more authors.
Hydrobiologia | Year: 2011

This study explores changes in cladoceran composition in a high mountain lake of the Retezat (Lake Brazi), the South Carpathian Mountains of Romania, during the Late Glacial-Early Holocene (14,500-11,600 cal. yr. bp) transition using a paleolimnological approach. The lake had a species poor cladoceran community throughout this period. Daphnia longispina, Chydorus sphaericus and Alona affinis were the most common, showing marked fluctuations in their relative abundances through time. Distinct faunal response to warming at the Younger Dryas (YD)/Preboreal transition was recorded by increasing fossil densities and distinct community composition change: Alona affinis became dominant while numbers of Chydorus sphaericus dramatically decreased. In the Early Holocene, the productivity of Lake Brazi seem to have increased as reflected by higher numbers of Cladocera due to appearance of new species (Alona rectangula, A. quadrangularis and A. guttata) which are common in productive waters. Significant negative correlation was found between average dorsal length of daphnid ephippia and the NGRIP δ18O isotope values. Given the absence of fish predation, changes in Daphnia ephippia size were taken to indicate climatic change: larger ephippium size inferred cold conditions during the Late Glacial, while smaller size reflected climate warming during the Early Holocene. We conclude that Cladocera fossils are good indicators of climatic change that happened during the transition from the Late Glacial to the Holocene. We found that climatic conditions can be tracked either by size distribution of Daphnia ephippia (larger ephippium size under colder climate) and/or by community change of cladocerans. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Peterson D.E.,University of California at Berkeley | Finger K.L.,University of California at Berkeley | Iepure S.,Speleological Institute Emil Racovitza | Mariani S.,Gruppo Speleologico CAI Fabriano | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Cave and Karst Studies | Year: 2013

Rich, diverse assemblages comprising a total (live + dead) of twenty-one ostracod species belonging to fifteen genera were recovered from phreatic waters of the hypogenic Frasassi Cave system and the adjacent Frasassi sulfidic spring and Sentino River in the Marche region of the northeastern Apennines of Italy. Specimens were recovered from ten sites, eight of which were in the phreatic waters of the cave system and sampled at different times of the year over a period of five years. Approximately 6900 specimens were recovered, the vast majority of which were disarticulated valves; live ostracods were also collected. The most abundant species in the sulfidic spring and Sentino River were Prionocypris zenkeri, Herpetocypris chevreuxi, and Cypridopsis vidua, while the phreatic waters of the cave system were dominated by two putatively new stygobitic species of Mixtacandona and Pseudolimnocythere and a species that was also abundant in the sulfidic spring, Fabaeformiscandona ex gr. F. fabaeformis. Pseudocandona ex gr. P. eremita, likely another new stygobitic species, is recorded for the first time in Italy. The relatively high diversity of the ostracod assemblages at Frasassi could be attributed to the heterogeneity of groundwater and associated habitats or to niche partitioning promoted by the creation of a chemoautotrophic ecosystem based on sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Other possible factors are the geologic age and hydrologic conditions of the cave and karst aquifer system that possibly originated in the earlymiddle Pleistocene when topographic uplift and incision enabled deep sulfidic waters to reach the local carbonate aquifer. Flooding or active migration would have introduced the invertebrates that now inhabit the Frasassi Cave system.

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