Hearing and Speech Center
Hearing and Speech Center
Rana A.A.,Feinstein Institute for Medical Research |
Lucs A.V.,Feinstein Institute for Medical Research |
DeVoti J.,Feinstein Institute for Medical Research |
Blanc L.,Feinstein Institute for Medical Research |
And 8 more authors.
Immunologic Research | Year: 2015
The epithelium is part of an integrated immune system where cytokines, toll-like receptors and their ligands, and extracellular vesicles play a crucial role in initiating an innate immune response. IL-36γ is a pro-inflammatory member of the IL-1 family that is mainly expressed by epithelial cells, but regulation of its expression and release are only beginning to be understood. Previous studies reported that IL-36γ is abundant in recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, a rare but devastating disease caused by human papillomaviruses (HPV) types 6 and 11, in which papillomas recurrently grow in and block the airway. Despite the overexpression of IL-36γ, papilloma tissues show no evidence of inflammation, possibly due to suppression of its release by HPVs. We have used primary human foreskin keratinocytes as a model to study IL-36γ regulation in normal epithelial cells. Low doses of poly(I:C) mediate expression and release of IL-36γ without inducing the cell death reported by those using high doses. PKR, an enzyme required for inflammasome activation, does not contribute to controlled release of IL36γ. The keratinocytes secrete IL-36γ in two forms, soluble and in extracellular vesicles. We conclude that there are two separately regulated pathways for the controlled secretion of IL-36γ from keratinocytes, which could contribute to the modulation of both local and systemic immune responses to viruses and other pathogens. © 2015, The Author(s).
Caporali S.A.,Applied Research Team |
Schmidt E.,Applied Research Team |
Eriksson A.,Karolinska University Hospital |
Skold B.,Karolinska University Hospital |
And 4 more authors.
Journal of the American Academy of Audiology | Year: 2013
Background: In spite of early identification and intervention efforts achieved by Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI) programs, many infantswith hearing loss experience delays in early vocabulary development in comparison to peers with normal hearing (Mayne, Yoshinaga-Itano, Sedey, 2000a; Mayne, Yoshinaga-Itano, Sedey, Carey, 2000b; Moeller et al, 2007a, 2007b). One of the several factors that may contribute to individual differences in outcomes is inconsistent hearing aid use in this age group. This may be associated with the physical fit when using traditional behind-the-ear (BTE) hearing aids, since they are relatively large in comparison with the small and soft ear of an infant. Receiver-in-the-ear (RITE) hearing aids may be advantageous for use in pediatric fittings, since they are very tiny and lightweight and therefore sit comfortably on a small soft ear. Purpose: To evaluate the use of a RITE hearing aid with an instant ear-tip especially developed for infants in terms of physical fit, stability, safety, and security of the device, as well as the use of retention tools (remedies for keeping the hearing aid securely on the ear) with this age group. Research Design: A longitudinal study with hearing impaired infants fitted with RITE hearing aids was performed. Study Sample: Eighteen infants with mild to moderate/severe hearing loss participated in the study. The age range was 2-36 mo. Sixteen infants had worn hearing aids prior to their participation in the study. Intervention: Each hearing impaired infant was fitted with the RITE hearing aid and an instant ear-tip, the size of which was chosen by the audiologist. The infants used the device for a period of 2-5 mo. Data Collection and Analysis: Audiologists and parents completed questionnaires at every visit (5-7 visits in total). Responses were obtained using a category rating scale (Stevens, 1975) from 0 to 10. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and nonparametric statistics. Results: Sixteen of the 18 children completed the study. At the end of the study, 11 of the 16 children were using the instant ear-tip, whereas five children were fitted with the receiver mounted in a custom earmold. The audiologists rated the RITE solution to provide a safe, stable, and secure fit. The general trend was that ratings improved over time. At the final follow-up session, all median ratings were between 8 and 10. Conclusions: Based on the positive results obtained in the study, the use of an appropriately designed RITE hearing aid is recommended for infants.
PubMed | Winthrop University, Childrens Hospital at Montefiore and Hearing and Speech Center
Type: | Journal: Journal of perinatology : official journal of the California Perinatal Association | Year: 2017
Feeding neonates orally while on nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) is a common practice. We hypothesize that pressurized airflow provided by nCPAP will alter the swallowing mechanism in neonates, increasing the risk of aspiration during oral feeding.Infants receiving nCPAP with a RAM cannula and tolerating at least 50% of their feeding orally were included in the study (one term; six preterm infants). Each participant underwent a videofluoroscopic swallow study while on nCPAP and off nCPAP. A non-parametric signed-rank test was used for paired data.The incidence of deep penetration (P=0.03) and aspiration (P=0.01) decreased significantly off-nCPAP compared with on-nCPAP. However, the incidence of mild penetration (P=0.65) and nasopharyngeal reflux (P=0.87) remained the same under both conditions.Oral feeding while on-nCPAP significantly increases the risk of laryngeal penetration and tracheal aspiration events. We recommend caution when initiating oral feedings on nCPAP.Journal of Perinatology advance online publication, 5 January 2017; doi:10.1038/jp.2016.229.
Landsberger D.M.,New York University |
Vermeire K.,University of Antwerp |
Vermeire K.,Hearing and Speech Center |
Claes A.,University of Antwerp |
And 2 more authors.
Ear and Hearing | Year: 2016
Objectives: Although it has been shown previously that changes in temporal coding produce changes in pitch in all cochlear regions, research has suggested that temporal coding might be best encoded in relatively apical locations. The authors hypothesized that although temporal coding may provide useable information at any cochlear location, low rates of stimulation might provide better sound quality in apical regions that are more likely to encode temporal information in the normal ear. In the present study, sound qualities of single electrode pulse trains were scaled to provide insight into the combined effects of cochlear location and stimulation rate on sound quality. Design: Ten long-term users of MED-EL cochlear implants with 31-mm electrode arrays (Standard or FLEXSOFT) were asked to scale the sound quality of single electrode pulse trains in terms of how "Clean," "Noisy," "High," and "Annoying" they sounded. Pulse trains were presented on most electrodes between 1 and 12 representing the entire range of the long electrode array at stimulation rates of 100, 150, 200, 400, or 1500 pulses per second. Results: Although high rates of stimulation are scaled as having a Clean sound quality across the entire array, only the most apical electrodes (typically 1 through 3) were considered Clean at low rates. Low rates on electrodes 6 through 12 were not rated as Clean, whereas the low-rate quality of electrodes 4 and 5 were typically in between. Scaling of Noisy responses provided an approximately inverse pattern as Clean responses. High responses show the trade-off between rate and place of stimulation on pitch. Because High responses did not correlate with Clean responses, subjects were not rating sound quality based on pitch. Conclusions: If explicit temporal coding is to be provided in a cochlear implant, it is likely to sound better when provided apically. In addition, the finding that low rates sound clean only at apical places of stimulation is consistent with previous findings that a change in rate of stimulation corresponds to an equivalent change in perceived pitch at apical locations. Collectively, the data strongly suggest that temporal coding with a cochlear implant is optimally provided by electrodes placed well into the second cochlear turn. © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc.