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Brescia, Italy

The aim of the study is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment in patients with local prostate cancer recurrence after radiotherapy. From February 2009 to June 2010, 14 patients with prostate cancer recurrence after radiotherapy were selected for HIFU treatment; all patients had a positive TRUS-guided biopsy and the absence of distant metastases was confirmed by computer tomography, PET choline or bone scintigraphy. We classified all patients in 3 groups using D'Amico's classification: 4 patients high risk (PSA >20 ng/ml - 8≤ Gleason Score≤ 10 - clinical stage≥T2c), 8 patients intermediate risk (10 PSAnadir+1.2ng/ml) or after adjuvant therapy introduction. All complications were recorded. Of the 14 patients selected, 12 patients underwent HIFU treatments; 2 patients were excluded because of rectal strictures induced by radiotherapy. At a mean 13 months' follow-up, biochemical success rate was obtained in 1 of the high risk patients and in 5 of the low and intermediate risk patients; 1 man died for a disease not correlated with prostate cancer recurrence. Complications included urinary tract infection, acute urinary retentions, urethral strictures and light stress incontinence. In our experience salvage HIFU is a safe treatment option for local relapse after radiotherapy; its efficacy depends on a careful patient selection.

Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) is a slow-growing tumor that represents 1% of all malignant tumors and is the most frequent endocrine cancer. 1F-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ( 1F-FDG-PET/CT) imaging is an increasingly important imaging tool in oncology and is still under investigation in numerous studies looking into its efficacy and cost-effectiveness. Despite the fact that 1F-FDG-PET/CT has been shown to be a powerful and accurate diagnostic tool in patients affected by DTC with high serum thyroglobulin (Tg) levels and negative radioiodine ( 131I) total body scan, its definitive role is not completely clear, in particular regarding the role of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and Tg value "cutoff" over which is better to perform the study. In this review, these issues are analyzed to clarify controversial aspects and identify established cornerstones. In particular, the literature analysis suggests that levothyroxine withdrawal is preferable in cases of relatively low Tg levels (<10 ng/ml) and good clinical compliance to hypothyroidism. Moreover, recombinant thyrotropin stimulating hormone (rTSH) could be a preferable alternative in patients clinically unable to tolerate therapy withdrawal. A Tg cutoff level over which to perform the study seems to be 10 ng/ml, a reasonable value maintaining high accuracy in terms of a good compromise between sensitivity and specificity.

Malerba M.,University of Brescia | Morjaria J.B.,University of Hull | Radaeli A.,Spedali Civili di Brescia
International Journal of COPD | Year: 2014

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a preventable and treatable disease characterized by airflow limitation that is not fully reversible. Bronchodilator therapy is the cornerstone in COPD treatment. Bronchodilation in COPD is mainly achieved via administration of long-and ultralong-acting β2-agonists and with long-acting muscarinic antagonists. New combinations of bronchodilators with dual-acting muscarinic antagonist and β2-agonist properties have been licensed, and others are currently being developed with the aim of achieving once-daily dosing, and therefore may improve the likelihood of treatment compliance. These combination bronchodilators include glycopyrronium bromide/indacaterol maleate, umeclidinium (UMEC) bromide/vilanterol trifenatate (VI), aclidinium bromide/formoterol and tiotropium bromide/olodaterol (Boehringer Ingelheim, Germany). This review will focus mainly on studies and clinical trials involving the novel fixed-dose combination of UMEC/VI at doses of 125/25 μg and 62.5/25 μg in patients with COPD. Data from large clinical trials involving more than 4,500 COPD patients indicate that UMEC/VI is an effective once-daily treatment in COPD with improved pulmonary function. Future studies assessing the impact of this combination on exacerbations, delay in disease progression, and health status in patients with COPD are warranted. © 2014 Malerba et al.

Caobelli F.,Fondazione Poliambulanza | Pizzocaro C.,Fondazione Poliambulanza | Paghera B.,Spedali Civili di Brescia | Guerra U.P.,Fondazione Poliambulanza
NuklearMedizin | Year: 2013

Quantification of myocardial perfusion scintigraphy is often performed to assist physicians in detecting coronary artery disease (CAD). Modern software and hardware packages provide improvements able to shorten scan time and/or reduce administered activity, without compromising image quality in radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). Recently, multifocal collimators were introduced with dedicated reconstruction software, named IQ-SPECT, able to shorten considerably scan time. The aim of our study was to compare this new protocol to the already validated standard ones. Patients, methods: We enrolled 43 patients with suspected or diagnosed CAD. All patients underwent a two-days protocol radionuclide myocardial perfusion scan at rest and after a standard stress test (exercise or dipyridamole) after administering 99mTc-tetrofosmin. Images were acquired on a 2-head gamma camera and reconstructed with attenuation correction. All the images were scored using a 17-segments model by three experienced physicians, blind to clinical data and to acquisition and processing modality. Results, conclusion: No significant differences were recorded in perfusion scores on paired t-test and Wilcoxon among the full-time images reconstructed with standard protocol or IQSPECT, both overall on a 17-segments evaluation and when considering different territories of distribution. MPI with IQ-SPECT protocol can be acquired at about a quarter scan time without disagreement compared to full time scan acquisition performed with standard protocols. © Schattauer 2013.

Finetti M.,UO Pediatria II | Insalaco A.,Ospedale Pediatrico Bambino Gesu | Cantarini L.,University of Siena | Meini A.,Spedali Civili di Brescia | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Pediatrics | Year: 2014

Objective To evaluate the long-term response and safety of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (anakinra) in recurrent pericarditis. Study design Fifteen patients (12 children, 3 adults) were enrolled in a multicenter retrospective study. All the patients were corticosteroid-dependent and 14 had received colchicine. Anakinra was given at 1-2 mg/kg/d. The primary outcome of the study was a reduction of at least 70% of disease flares after anakinra treatment compared with the pretreatment period. Secondary outcomes were: (1) number of complete or partial responders to anakinra and time for complete response; (2) number of patients who discontinued other ongoing treatments (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroid, colchicine) and time needed for discontinuation; (3) number of relapses during continuous anakinra treatment; and (4) number of relapses during anakinra tapering or discontinuation. Results All patients treated had a complete response within a few days and were able to rapidly withdraw concomitant treatments, including corticosteroids. During daily treatment, no patient had a relapse of the disease; 14 patients started tapering and 6 of them experienced a relapse, with a prompt response after anakinra reintroduction. Overall, after a median follow-up of 39 months (range 6-57), a 95 % reduction of flares was observed compared with pretreatment period. Conclusion The long-term use of anakinra in monotherapy is associated with persistent control of recurrent pericarditis. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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