Los Angeles, CA, United States
Los Angeles, CA, United States

Spectrolab is a manufacturer of space solar cells and panels headquartered in Sylmar, California. It is a subsidiary of The Boeing Company, and part of Boeing Defense, Space & Security. Spectrolab was founded in 1956 by Alfred E. Mann, who has gone on to become a billionaire American entrepreneur and philanthropist. Spectrolab was originally a division of Textron. Spectrolab was acquired by Hughes Aircraft Company in 1975 and became a subsidiary of Hughes until its sale to Boeing in 2000. The company states its "NeXt Triple Junction" high efficiency solar cells have a minimum average efficiency of 29.5% to AIAA-2005-111 and AIAA-2005-112 requirements. In 2006 testing at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory demonstrated an efficiency of 40.7% using triple-junction solar cells developed by Spectrolab under concentration.In 2013, testing at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory demonstrated an efficiency of 38.7% without concentration, a new world record at the time of development.Spectrolab claims to have manufactured over 4 million space qualified multi-junction solar cells or solar panels to the industry as of 2013.Spectrolab has recently geared its highly efficient space solar cell technology for terrestrial purposes with great success using concentrators. Spectrolab's terrestrial products are the highest efficient solar cells currently available in the market. Wikipedia.


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News Article | February 21, 2017
Site: www.marketwired.com

TORONTO, CANADA--(Marketwired - Feb. 21, 2017) - BacTech Environmental Corporation ("BacTech" or the "Company"), (CSE:BAC) (OTC PINK:BCCEF) today announced the results of the first 47 samples (35 routines and 12 control samples) from 3 holes drilled on a 60-hole drill program (approximately 600 m in total) at the Company's joint venture Silver- Copper-Tin tailings remediation project at Telamayu, Bolivia. The purpose of the program is to verify earlier work carried out by BacTech's partner, Mining Corporation of Bolivia ("COMIBOL"), the Bolivian state mining company, and to provide material for upcoming metallurgical work. Additional results will be released in batches over the next few weeks. Telamayu is an historic mill town situated next to Atocha, Bolivia. Over the past 80 years, the mill has treated material from 2 local mines (Tasna and Animas). The tailings from the mill make up the Antigua tailings, the subject of these assays, and the much larger Nuevo tailings. Previously, COMIBOL engaged individuals to dig test holes on the tailings (five wells of 1.5mx 1.5mx10m) with bulk samples taken every meter as well as channel samples. The test holes showed a tin grade of 0.97% and a silver content of 408 g/t. Upon completion of the execution of the contract with COMIBOL for the remediation and exploitation of the old tailings of Telamayu, which was subsequently approved by the Bolivian Congress and endorsed by an express law, BacTech had access to documents that COMIBOL's Environment Department had prepared in 2004-2005. These documents present a proposal for the exploitation of the "old tailings dam of Telamayu". Specifically, the documents deal with work to be carried out for the evaluation of the dam's potential, the technical options for metal extraction, the proposed type of plant to be employed and an estimate of the project's profitability. The historical data and grades presented above are relevant to the further exploration of the project, which the Company is currently undertaking with a drill program. BacTech is conducting a tailing evaluation program with approximately 60 holes to be drilled with the Vibracore system with systematic core sampling meter by meter. At present, 65% of the drilling program has been completed and approximately 600 core samples were sent in for chemical analysis. The results from the 3 first holes are as follows (weighted average, uncut): Admittedly, only 8% of the material has been assayed to date, but these values have exceeded our expectations. Samples consist of half NQ-size diamond core that are split on site, prepared at the Spectrolab laboratory, an ISO accredited laboratory at the Technical University of Oruro, Bolivia and assayed for gold, silver, tin and copper by fire assay for silver and by Atomic absorption or total fusion for the base metals. The QA-QC program of the Company includes insertion of certified standards every 20 samples, blanks at least every 20 samples and core duplicates every 20 samples. The remaining half core is retained onsite for verification and reference purposes. The sampling results from this drill program will be the underpinning of a resource estimation following the guidelines established by Canadian National Instrument 43-101 reporting. Once the drilling program has been completed, the Company will immediately begin metallurgical test work to determine the appropriate method for metal recovery. A complete NI 43-101 Preliminary Economic Assessment ("PEA") will then be completed. "It was a bit tricky in the beginning of the drill program as we discovered a cement-like layer up to 1 meter thick that the Vibracore had a hard time getting through. Alterations were made to the program and, at the time of writing, we are in the final stages of the program," said Ross Orr, President and CEO of BacTech. Kamil Khobzi, an engineer and Qualified Person under NI 43-101, who has visited the property, has read and approved this release. Finally, the Company also announced that it has closed a CAD$30,000 tranche of the current financing. The financing is a 5-cent unit consisting of 1 common share of the Company and 1/2 (one half) of a common share purchase warrant. One full warrant plus 10 cents buys an additional common share for 2 years from the closing of this tranche. BacTech Environmental Corporation holds the perpetual, exclusive, royalty-free rights to use the patented BACOX bioleaching technology for the reclamation of tailings and mining waste materials. The Company's principal focus is a high-grade silver/copper/tin tailings project called Telamayu, located in Atocha, Bolivia, in association with COMIBOL, the state mining group. Investigation has begun to identify opportunities in Ecuador. The Company continues to field enquiries globally with respect to additional opportunities for remediation, including licensing transactions for the technology. This news release contains "forward-looking information", which may include, but is not limited to, statements with respect to future tailings sites, sampling or other investigations of tailing sites, the Company's ability to make use of infrastructure around tailings sites or operating performance of the Company and its projects. Often, but not always, forward-looking statements can be identified by the use of words such as "plans", "expects", "is expected", "budget", "scheduled", "estimates", "forecasts", "intends", "anticipates", or believes" or variations (including negative variations) of such words and phrases, or state that certain actions, events or results "may", "could", "would", "might" or "will" be taken, occur or be achieved. Forward-looking statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors which may cause the actual results, performance or achievements of the Company to be materially different from any future results, performance or achievements expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements contained herein are made as of the date of this news release and the Company disclaims, other than as required by law, any obligation to update any forward-looking statements whether as a result of new information, results, future events, circumstances, or if management's estimates or opinions should change, or otherwise. There can be no assurance that forward-looking statements will prove to be accurate, as actual results and future events could differ materially from those anticipated in such statements. Accordingly, the reader is cautioned not to place undue reliance on forward-looking statements. The Canadian Securities Exchange (CSE) has not reviewed and does not accept responsibility for the adequacy or the accuracy of the contents of this release.


Leite M.S.,California Institute of Technology | Leite M.S.,U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology | Leite M.S.,University of Maryland University College | Woo R.L.,Spectrolab | And 6 more authors.
Applied Physics Letters | Year: 2013

An approach for an all lattice-matched multijunction solar cell optimized design is presented with 5.807 Å lattice constant, together with a detailed analysis of its performance by means of full device modeling. The simulations show that a (1.93 eV)In0.37Al0.63As/(1.39 eV)In0.38Ga0.62As0.57P0.43/(0.94 eV)In0.38Ga0.62As 3-junction solar cell can achieve efficiencies >51% under 100-suns illumination (with Voc = 3.34 V). As a key proof of concept, an equivalent 3-junction solar cell lattice-matched to InP was fabricated and tested. The independently connected single junction solar cells were also tested in a spectrum splitting configuration, showing similar performance to a monolithic tandem device, with Voc = 1.8 V. © 2013 American Institute of Physics.


Leite M.S.,California Institute of Technology | Woo R.L.,Spectrolab | Hong W.D.,Spectrolab | Law D.C.,Spectrolab | Atwater H.A.,California Institute of Technology
Applied Physics Letters | Year: 2011

We have fabricated an In0.52Al0.48 As solar cell lattice-matched to InP with efficiency higher than 14% and maximum external quantum efficiency equal to 81%. High quality, dislocation-free In xAl1-x As alloyed layers were used to fabricate the single junction solar cell. Photoluminescence of InxAl1-x As showed good material quality and lifetime of over 200 ps. A high band gap In0.35 Al0.65 As window was used to increase light absorption within the p-n absorber layer and improve cell efficiency, despite strain. The InAlAs top cell reported here is a key building block for an InP-based three junction high efficiency solar cell consisting of InAlAs/InGaAsP/InGaAs lattice-matched to the substrate. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.


Green M.A.,University of New South Wales | Keevers M.J.,University of New South Wales | Thomas I.,RayGen Resources Pty Ltd | Lasich J.B.,RayGen Resources Pty Ltd | And 2 more authors.
Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications | Year: 2015

Increasing sunlight conversion efficiency is a key driver for on-going solar electricity cost reduction. For photovoltaic conversion, the approach most successful in increasing conversion efficiency is to split sunlight into spectral bands and direct each band to a dedicated solar cell of an appropriate energy bandgap to convert this band efficiently. In this work, we demonstrate conversion of sunlight to electricity in a solar collector with an efficiency value above 40% for the first time, using a small 287-cm2 aperture area test stand, notably equipped with commercial concentrator solar cells. We use optical band-pass filtering to capture energy that is normally wasted by commercial GaInP/GaInAs/Ge triple junction cells and convert this normally wasted energy using a separate Si cell with higher efficiency than physically possible in the original device. The 287-cm2 aperture area sunlight-concentrating converter demonstrating this independently confirmed efficiency is a prototype for a large photovoltaic power tower system, where sunlight is reflected from a field of sun-tracking heliostats to a dense photovoltaic array mounted on a central tower. In such systems, improved efficiency not only reduces costs by increasing energy output for a given investment in heliostats and towers but also reduces unwanted heat generation at the central tower. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Friedman D.J.,National Renewable Energy Laboratory | King R.R.,Spectrolab | Swanson R.M.,Sunpower Inc | McJannet J.,Institute for Energy Efficiency | Gwinner D.,National Renewable Energy Laboratory
IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics | Year: 2013

In this editorial, we report on the conclusions of a concentrator photovoltaics (CPV) industry group convened in July 2012 to develop pathways to large-scale CPV deployment, specifically targeting the installation of 100 GW of CPV in the United States by 2030. The group identified technical and financial barriers to this goal and developed a corresponding set of recommendations for overcoming these barriers. These recommendations focus on technical improvements at the system and cell levels and on activities needed to support the commercialization. © 2011-2012 IEEE.


Cotal H.,Spectrolab | Frost J.,Spectrolab
Conference Record of the IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference | Year: 2010

Information on the temperature of a packaged III-V multijunction solar cell mounted on a heat sink, operating under concentrated light is often not readily available. Availability of such information would facilitate the design of different receiver module configurations in a concentrating photovoltaic system (CPV). To this end, a heat transfer model is developed from finite difference techniques to predict the temperature from various parts of a concentrator cell assembly (CCA). The CCA consists of a solar cell mounted on a direct-bonded copper ceramic substrate with bypass diode. Temperatures of the solar cell with applied conformal coating are modeled as well as the temperature difference, ΔT, between the various layers within the CCA. Isotherm contour plots are generated for the cell under different conditions. It is found that the solar cell temperature in the CCA without conformal coating is 32 °C when illuminated at 50 W/cm2 with the CCA back surface temperature at 25 °C. When the CCA is bonded to a surface with thin bondline of a silicone-based thermal adhesive of 2 W/m K under the same intensity and back surface temperature, the cell rises to 37.3 °C. Further, the effects of the thermal adhesive thickness as well as the adhesive thermal conductivity on the solar cell temperature are examined. An effective thermal resistance of the CCA is determined to help in the design of a CPV system. The results from the model are validated against conservation of energy where the heat input from solar radiation on the solar cell is equal to the heat rate by conduction minus the converted electrical power of the cell. © 2010 IEEE.


King R.R.,Spectrolab | Bhusari D.,Spectrolab | Larrabee D.,Spectrolab | Liu X.-Q.,Spectrolab | And 8 more authors.
Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications | Year: 2012

Multijunction III-V concentrator cells of several different types have demonstrated solar conversion efficiency over 40% since 2006, and represent the only third-generation photovoltaic technology to enter commercial power generation markets so far. The next stage of solar cell efficiency improvement, from 40% to 50%-efficient production cells, is perhaps the most important yet, since it is in this range that concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) systems can become the lowest cost option for solar electricity, competing with conventional power generation without government subsidies. The impact of 40% and 50% cell efficiency on cost-effective geographic regions for CPV systems is calculated in the continental US, Europe, and North Africa. We take a systematic look at a progression of multijunction cell architectures that will take us up to 50% efficiency, using modeling grounded in well-characterized solar cell materials systems of today's 40% cells, discussing the theoretical, materials science, and manufacturing considerations for the most promising approaches. The effects of varying solar spectrum and current balance on energy production in 4-junction, 5-junction, and 6-junction terrestrial concentrator cells are shown to be noticeable, but are far outweighed by the increased efficiency of these advanced cell designs. Production efficiency distributions of the last five generations of terrestrial concentrator solar cells are discussed. Experimental results are shown for a highly manufacturable, upright metamorphic 3-junction GaInP/GaInAs/Ge solar cell with 41.6% efficiency independently confirmed at 484 suns (48.4 W/cm 2) (AM1.5D, ASTM G173-03, 25 °C), the highest demonstrated for a cell of this type requiring a single metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy growth run. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Jones R.K.,Spectrolab | Ermer J.H.,Spectrolab | Fetzer C.M.,Spectrolab | King R.R.,Spectrolab
Japanese Journal of Applied Physics | Year: 2012

Multijunction solar cells have evolved from their original development for space missions to displace silicon cells in high concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) systems. Today's three-junction lattice-matched production cells have efficiency of 39-39.5% under high concentration, and there appears to be little opportunity for further efficiency gain with this three-junction technology. Future generations of CPV cells will exploit more than three junctions, with metamorphic subcells, or both technical approaches to achieve efficiencies >45%. As new designs seek closer current matching and further spectral splitting, atmospheric variability will necessitate careful modeling to optimize energy output. These new cells will also be higher cost, which will favor higher CPV system concentration. © 2012 The Japan Society of Applied Physics.


King R.R.,Spectrolab | Bhusari D.,Spectrolab | Boca A.,Spectrolab | Larrabee D.,Spectrolab | And 5 more authors.
Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications | Year: 2011

The potential for new 4-, 5-, and 6-junction solar cell architectures to reach 50% efficiency is highly leveraging for the economics of concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) systems.The theoretical performance of such next-generation cells, and experimental results for 3- and 4-junction CPV cells, are examined here to evaluate their impact for real-world solar electricity generation. Semiconductor device physics equations are formulated in terms of the band gap-voltage offset Woc Eg/q) - Voc, to give a clearer physical understanding and more general analysis of the multiple subcell band gaps in multijunction cells. Band gap-voltage offset is shown experimentally to be largely independent of band gap Eg for a wide range of metamorphic and lattice-matched semiconductors from 0.67 to 2.1 eV. Its theoretical Eg dependence is calculated from that of the radiative recombination coefficient, and at a more fundamental level using the Shockley-Queisser detailed balance model, bearing out experimental observations. Energy production of 4-, 5-, and 6-junction CPV cells, calculated for changing air mass and spectrum over the course of the day, is found to be significantly greater than for conventional 3-junction cells. The spectral sensitivity of these next-generation cell designs is fairly low, and is outweighed by their higher efficiency. Lattice-matched GaInP/GaInAs/Ge cells have reached an independently confirmed efficiency of 41.6%, the highest efficiency yet demonstrated for any type of solar cell. Light I-V measurements of this record 41.6% cell, of next-generation upright metamorphic 3-junction cells with 40% target production efficiency, and of experimental 4-junction CPV cells are presented. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Chiu P.T.,Spectrolab | Law D.C.,Spectrolab | Woo R.L.,Spectrolab | Singer S.B.,Spectrolab | And 7 more authors.
IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics | Year: 2014

Spectrolab has demonstrated a 2.2/1.7/1.4/1.05/0.73 eV 5J cell with an efficiency of 37.8% under 1 sun AM1.5G spectrum and 35.1% efficiency for 1 sun AM0. The top three junctions and bottom two junctions were grown on GaAs and InP substrates, respectively, by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy. The GaAs-and InP-based cells were then direct bonded to create a low-resistance, high-transmissive interface. Both the space and terrestrial cells have high 1 sun Voc between 4.75 and 4.78 V. Initial tests of the terrestrial cells at concentration are promising with efficiencies increasing up to 10× concentration to a maximum value close to 41%. © 2011-2012 IEEE.

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