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Friet M.,Spectro Analytical Instruments GmbH
Hydrocarbon Engineering | Year: 2010

Positive material identification (PMI) has become accepted practice in the process and equipment supply industries. The obvious way of achieving PMI is elemental analysis of the material. The deal technique should be fast, simple to use on site and preferably non-destructive, so as not to compromise the integrity of the component under test. The ability to test components while the plant is operational, which may mean surface temperatures of several hundred degrees, would be an added bonus. The new SPECTRO xSORT handheld XRF spectrometer and the SPECTROTEST mobile OES metal analyzer both employ the latest technology in their respective techniques and together provide a comprehensive solution for PMI. As an added safety feature, the SPECTRO xSORT recognizes if no sample is present a fraction of a second after a measurement is started by the operator. If not, the shutter is closed immediately and the analysis aborted. Source

Schulz O.,Spectro Analytical Instruments GmbH
Hydrocarbon Engineering | Year: 2010

There has been increasing pressure in the last decade to move to alternative sustainable fuels such as biofuel in Europe and the US. The term biofuels encompasses a diverse range of products such as biogas, bio ethanol and biodiesel. There are a number of advantages of biofuels, such as reduced emissions, no aromatics, possible lubricity benefits, ability to be blended with conventional fuels and overall a less toxic material. The use of sugar and other plant materials to manufacture alcohols as 100% fuels or as extenders to produce bio gasoline has been actively applied in countries such as Brazil, and more recently, Sweden, for many years. The growing market for biofuels leads to an increasing demand for dependable and efficient atomic spectrometric methods for elemental analysis, to accommodate for the large number of samples to be analyzed in the context of process control, research and development. Source

Hassler J.,Ifenstr. 16 | Matschat R.,BAM Federal Institute of Materials Research and Testing | Richter S.,BAM Federal Institute of Materials Research and Testing | Barth P.,3M | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry | Year: 2016

In supplementary work to the one published earlier, experiments with SF6, NF3, CF4 and H2 as new modifier gases for the matrix studied were performed. Our investigations were continued to improve the described analytical method and to achieve additional insights into the mechanism of analyte release. Our new survey is split in two parts. At first fluorinating modifiers were used to investigate the behaviour of a variety of trace elements (Ag, Al, As, Au, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, P, Pb, Sb, Se, Si, Sn, Te, Ti, Zn and Zr). Most of them (exceptions Au, Se, and Te) could be effectively released from the copper matrix by thermo-halogenation reactions and by partial sub-sample evaporation. Using SF6 and NF3 as modifier gases, low limits of quantification (LOQs) were achieved for the 19 well released trace elements (typical ≤0.1 mg kg-1). Most elements (exceptions Ag, Mg, and Ni) could be calibrated by using aqueous calibration solutions without any sample pretreatment. For the trace determination of Se, Te, and Au, a further analytical method of ETV-ICP OES is described in the second part based on thermo-hydrogenation reactions by using a hydrogen/argon mixture as a modifier gas. The determination of Se and Te with very high analytical performance (LOQ < 0.1 mg kg-1) can either be carried out in a second analytical step succeeding the halogenation procedure, or the sub-sample is directly treated with H2 without previous halogenation procedure whereby the sub-sample can either be partially or totally evaporated. In this case some other analytes (Ag, Au, As, Bi, Cd, Fe, Mg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sn, and Zn) can additionally be quantified simultaneously with Se and Te. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2016. Source

Willmann M.,University of Cologne | Gerlach N.,University of Cologne | Buer B.,University of Cologne | Polatajko A.,University of Cologne | And 8 more authors.
Frontiers in Plant Science | Year: 2013

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) form a mutually beneficial symbiosis with plant roots providing predominantly phosphorus in the form of orthophosphate (Pi) in exchange for plant carbohydrates on low P soils. The goal of this work was to generate molecular-genetic evidence in support of a major impact of the mycorrhizal Pi uptake (MPU) pathway on the productivity of the major crop plant maize under field and controlled conditions. Here we show, that a loss-of-function mutation in the mycorrhiza-specific Pi transporter gene Pht1;6 correlates with a dramatic reduction of above-ground biomass and cob production in agro-ecosystems with low P soils. In parallel mutant pht1;6 plants exhibited an altered fingerprint of chemical elements in shoots dependent on soil P availability. In controlled environments mycorrhiza development was impaired in mutant plants when grown alone. The presence of neighboring mycorrhizal nurse plants enhanced the reduced mycorrhiza formation in pht1;6 roots. Uptake of 33P-labeled orthophosphate via the MPU pathway was strongly impaired in colonized mutant plants. Moreover, repression of the MPU pathway resulted in a redirection of Pi to neighboring plants. In line with previous results, our data highlight the relevance of the MPU pathway in Pi allocation within plant communities and in particular the role of Pht1;6 for the establishment of symbiotic Pi uptake and for maize productivity and nutritional value in low-input agricultural systems. In a first attempt to identify cellular pathways which are affected by Pht1;6 activity, gene expression profiling via RNA-Seq was performed and revealed a set of maize genes involved in cellular signaling which exhibited differential regulation in mycorrhizal pht1;6 and control plants. The RNA data provided support for the hypothesis that fungal supply of Pi and/or Pi transport across Pht1;6 affects cell wall biosynthesis and hormone metabolism in colonized root cells. © 2013 Willmann, Gerlach, Buer, Polatajko, Nagy, Koebke, Jansa, Flisch and Bucher. Source

Margui E.,University of Girona | Zawisza B.,University of Silesia | Skorek R.,University of Silesia | Theato T.,Spectro Analytical Instruments GmbH | And 3 more authors.
Spectrochimica Acta - Part B Atomic Spectroscopy | Year: 2013

This study was aimed to achieve improved instrumental sensitivity and detection limits for multielement determination of V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Se, Pb and Cd in liquid samples by using different X-ray fluorescence (XRF) configurations (a benchtop energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer, a benchtop polarised energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer and a wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer). The preconcentration of metals from liquid solutions consisted on a solid-phase extraction using carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as solid sorbents. After the extraction step, the aqueous sample was filtered and CNTs with the absorbed elements were collected onto a filter paper which was directly analyzed by XRF. The calculated detection limits in all caseswere in the low ng mL-1 range. Nevertheless, results obtained indicate the benefits, in terms of sensitivity, of using polarized X-ray sources using different secondary targets in comparison to conventional XRF systems, above all if Cd determination is required. The developed methodologies, using the aforementioned equipments, have been applied for multielement determination in water samples from an industrial area of Poland. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

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