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Roux S.,Montpellier SupAgro | Roux S.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Courel M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Birlouez-Aragon I.,Spectralys Innovation | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Food Engineering | Year: 2016

A continuous pilot plant for liquid sterilization was used to compare ohmic heating and steam injection on liquid infant formula under the same conditions of pre-heating and holding. Samples were collected at different holding times and temperatures and analyzed for reactions of thermal degradation. Two substrates were measured: soluble proteins and vitamin C and different intermediate or advanced products of Maillard reaction were monitored: furosine, carboxymethyllysine (CML), FAST index (Fluorescence of Advanced Maillard products and Soluble Tryptophan) and color (ΔL*, Δa* and Δb*). Pseudo-zero order kinetics was established for the Maillard products or global markers and Arrhenius parameters could be calculated. Equivalent markers contents were obtained after ohmic heating and steam injection showing equivalent quality of the infant formula for both sterilization technologies. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd Source


Damjanovic Desic S.,University of Zagreb | Birlouez-Aragon I.,Spectralys Innovation
Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

Infant formulas are highly sensitive to the Maillard reaction during manufacturing, while this reaction induces significant loss in protein nutritional value and safety. The indicators mostly used to monitor the reaction during heat treatment are furosine, carboxymethyllysine and hydroxymethylfurfural, but analysis of these molecules is time-consuming and expensive. The FAST method, based on simple fluorescence measurements on clear milk supernatant, is a good alternative for Maillard reaction monitoring in milk products. The aim of this study was to determine the respective sensitivity of the various indicators of heat damage to infant formula, including the FAST index. A realistic infant formula model was developed, to compare the reaction kinetics at different temperatures (80-110 °C) for lactulosyllysine, measured as furosine, hydroxymethylfurfural and carboxymethyllysine. By comparing the Arrhenius plots of the three Maillard products to that of the FAST index, the latter was identified as the most sensitive indicator for infant formula quality monitoring during heat treatment. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Seljasen R.,Norwegian Institute for Agricultural And Environmental Research Bioforsk | Kristensen H.L.,University of Aarhus | Lauridsen C.,University of Aarhus | Wyss G.S.,Research Institute of Organic Agriculture | And 3 more authors.
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2013

The aim of this review is to provide an update on factors contributing to quality of carrots, with special focus on the role of pre- and postharvest factors and processing. The genetic factor shows the highest impact on quality variables in carrots, causing a 7-11-fold difference between varieties in content of terpenes, β-carotene, magnesium, iron and phenolics as well as a 1-4-fold difference in falcarindiol, bitter taste and sweet taste. Climate-related factors may cause a difference of up to 20-fold for terpenes, 82% for total sugars and 30-40% for β-carotene, sweet taste and bitter taste. Organic farming in comparison with conventional farming has shown 70% higher levels for magnesium and 10% for iron. Low nitrogen fertilisation level may cause up to 100% increase in terpene content, minor increase in dry matter (+4 to +6%) and magnesium (+8%) and reduction in β-carotene content (-8 to -11%). Retail storage at room temperature causes the highest reduction in β-carotene (-70%) and ascorbic acid (-70%). Heat processing by boiling reduces shear force (-300 to -1000%) and crispiness (-67%) as well as content of phenolics (-150%), terpenes (-85%) and total carotenes (-20%) and increases the risk of furan accumulation. Sensory and chemical quality parameters of carrots are determined mainly by genetic and climate-related factors and to a minor extent by cultivation method. Retail temperature and storage atmosphere as well as heating procedure in processing have the highest impact in quality reduction. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry. Source


Tessier F.J.,Polytechnic Institute of LaSalle Beauvais | Birlouez-Aragon I.,Spectralys Innovation
Amino Acids | Year: 2012

In food science the Maillard reaction is well known to cause degradation of amino acids and an overall decrease in the nutritional value of foods that have been subjected to heat in processing. There has been evidence more recently of the endogenous formation of some Maillard reaction products (MRPs) in biological systems and their association with pathophysiological conditions including diabetes, renal disease and cardiovascular disease. Several studies have suggested that dietary MRPs increase the in vivo pool of MRPs after intestinal absorption and contribute to the development of diabetes and related complications. This review focuses on the animal and human studies which have assessed the eventual implications of dietary MRPs on human health, highlighting the different diets tested, the experimental designs and the biomarkers selected to estimate the health effects. The results of these studies are compared to those of the recently published ICARE study. In this latter study an accurate determination of the MRP content of the diets was achieved, allowing the calculation of the contribution of individual food groups to daily MRP intakes in a regular western diet. © Springer-Verlag 2010. Source


The invention relates to a method for the spectroscopic analysis of at least one sample, using a method for analysing spectroscopic data based on a multi-channel statistical model, said method comprising: the illumination of said or each sample to be analysed by a plurality of luminous excitation rays with respective wavelengths; the acquisition and the pre-treatment of frontal fluorescence spectra, each spectrum corresponding to a respective luminous excitation ray; for each sample, the calculation of a score vector by applying said multi-channel statistical model to the pre-treated spectra; and the determination of at least one parameter selected from a quality indicator of said or each sample and a parameter characterising a method that has been applied to said or each sample, from said score vector; the method being characterised in that the average spectral distance between the luminous excitation rays is at least 50 nm, over a spectral range of at least 100 nm. The invention also relates to an appliance for implementing such a method.

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