BEVERLY HILLS, CA, United States
BEVERLY HILLS, CA, United States

Time filter

Source Type

Iskovich S.,Center for Stem Cell Research | Stein J.,Bone Marrow Transplantation Unit | Yaniv I.,Bone Marrow Transplantation Unit | Farkas D.L.,Spectral Molecular Imaging, Inc. | Askenasy N.,Center for Stem Cell Research
Stem Cells and Development | Year: 2011

The contribution of stem cells derived from adult tissues to the recovery of pancreatic islets from chemical injury is controversial. Analysis of nonhematopoietic differentiation of bone marrow-derived cells has yielded positive and negative results under different experimental conditions. Using the smallest subset of bone marrow cells lacking immuno-hematopoietic lineage markers, we have detected incorporation and conversion into insulin-producing cells. Donor cells identified by genomic markers silence green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression as a feature of differentiation, in parallel to expressing PDX-1 and proinsulin. Here we elaborate potential experimental difficulties that might result in false-negative results. The use of GFP as a reporter protein is suboptimal for differentiation experiments: (a) the bone marrow of GFP donors partially expresses the reporter protein, (b) differentiating bone marrow cells silence GFP expression, and (c) the endocrine pancreas is constitutively negative for GFP. In addition, design of the experiments, data analysis, and interpretation encounter numerous objective and subjective difficulties. Rigorous evaluation under optimized experimental conditions confirms the capacity of adult bone marrow-derived stem cells to adopt endocrine developmental traits, and demonstrates that GFP downregulation and silencing is a feature of differentiation. © Copyright 2011, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2011.


Pais V.,National Institute of Neurology and Neurovascular Diseases | Danaila L.,Spectral Molecular Imaging, Inc. | Pais E.,Spectral Molecular Imaging, Inc.
Ultrastructural Pathology | Year: 2013

The authors analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) neurosurgical samples obtained from patients with cerebral tumors, neurotrauma, cerebral ischemia, Moyamoya disease, encephalitis, etc. Their observations concern a variety of dying cell types by different programmed death pathways, including apoptosis, paraptosis, autophagy, autoschizis, programmed necrosis, as well as combined and coexisting forms. This ample work pointed out not only the role of TEM in cell death diagnosis, but the biological differences in cell behavior and beneficial or detrimental effects of suicides for homeostasis, survival, or normal functioning of a tissue, like the integrated vascular tissue and brain parenchyma. © Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.


Pais V.,National Institute of Neurology and Neurovascular Diseases | Danaila L.,National Institute of Neurology and Neurovascular Diseases | Pais E.,Spectral Molecular Imaging, Inc.
Ultrastructural Pathology | Year: 2013

This study is based on data analysis by light and transmission electron microscopy of the surgical cases in cerebral tumors, cerebrovascular malformations, thromboses in the carotid system, and other injuries such as perivascular hemorrhage. We examined cortical arteries and veins, perivascular areas with old hematic masses, vasculogenic foci, and broken large vessels. We identified, characterized, and compared both undifferentiated cells and well-differentiated cordocytes within periadventitial areas where these cells cooperate very well with precursor/stem cells to perform vital functions for cerebral vasculature with immediate effect on brain parenchyma. This useful cellular cooperation was observed by serial sections pointing out the main role of cordocytes during the entire process of collateral vessel formation after thrombosis and, respectively, in vascular wall repair after ruptures. This is the first cytohistopathological study which illustrates and explains some facets of cordocytes-stem cells cooperation around the vessels of human brain with emphasis on the fundamental role of cordocytes in response to vascular injuries. Our pioneering study will be completed for both basic science and modern medical care by further studies. © 2013 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. All rights reserved.


Pais V.,National Institute of Neurology and Neurovascular Diseases | Danaila L.,National Institute of Neurology and Neurovascular Diseases | Pais E.,Spectral Molecular Imaging, Inc.
Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences | Year: 2014

Aim. This cytohistopathological study was performed for a better knowledge of phenotypes derived from pluripotent stem cells, as well as for precise location of stem cells within the vascular niche in the brain. Methods. We used light and transmission electron microscopy to demonstrate the presence of stem cells in the vascular wall of microvessels in the cerebral and cerebellar cortex, pia mater (considered by us a cordocytic-vascular tissue), adventitia of larger cortical arteries and veins, and around vessels. We investigated multiple vascular segments and brain tissue in a variety of clinical cases, such as cerebral tumors, cerebrovascular malformations, thromboses in the carotid system, and direct laceration. Results. Our morphological and ultrastructural observations pointed out many changing phenotypes, as well as cell interrelationships within the vascular niche, both for repair processes when cordocytes cooperate with mesenchymal stem cells, and pathological processes such as atherogenesis, tumorigenesis, and neurotrauma. Our results underlie the important roles of cordocytes in their interrelations with precursor/stem cells in the arterial adventitia. Conclusion. The cells derived from pluripotent stem cells along different lineages have had different phenotypes as they derived from hematopoietic stem cells or mesenchymal stem cells, with or without epigenetic deregulations or depending on different microen-vironments. Cell interactions, phenotypes, and underlying mechanisms, as well as biological responses to different small molecules or compounds, remain to be determined by future molecular insights within the vascular niche.


Carver G.E.,Omega Optical Inc. | Locknar S.A.,Omega Optical Inc. | Morrison W.A.,Omega Optical Inc. | Farkas D.L.,Spectral Molecular Imaging, Inc.
Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE | Year: 2013

A new approach for generating high-speed multispectral images has been developed. The central concept is that spectra can be acquired for each pixel in a confocal spatial scan by using a fast spectrometer based on optical fiber delay lines. This concept merges fast spectroscopy with standard spatial scanning to create datacubes in real time. The spectrometer is based on a serial array of reflecting spectral elements, delay lines between these elements, and a single element detector. The spatial, spectral, and temporal resolution of the instrument is described, and illustrated by multispectral images of laser-induced autofluorescence in biological tissues. © 2013 Copyright SPIE.


Vasefi F.,Spectral Molecular Imaging, Inc. | MacKinnon N.,Spectral Molecular Imaging, Inc. | Saager R.B.,Beckman Laser Institute | Durkin A.J.,Beckman Laser Institute | And 4 more authors.
Scientific Reports | Year: 2014

Attempts to understand the changes in the structure and physiology of human skin abnormalities by non-invasive optical imaging are aided by spectroscopic methods that quantify, at the molecular level, variations in tissue oxygenation and melanin distribution. However, current commercial and research systems to map hemoglobin and melanin do not correlate well with pathology for pigmented lesions or darker skin. We developed a multimode dermoscope that combines polarization and hyperspectral imaging with an efficient analytical model to map the distribution of specific skin bio-molecules. This corrects for the melanin-hemoglobin misestimation common to other systems, without resorting to complex and computationally intensive tissue optical models. For this system's proof of concept, human skin measurements on melanocytic nevus, vitiligo, and venous occlusion conditions were performed in volunteers. The resulting molecular distribution maps matched physiological and anatomical expectations, confirming a technologic approach that can be applied to next generation dermoscopes and having biological plausibility that is likely to appeal to dermatologists.


Grant
Agency: Department of Health and Human Services | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 209.94K | Year: 2014

DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Melanoma, the fastest growing cancer worldwide, kills more than one person every hour in the United States and costs more than 2.4 billion per year. Yet, if detected at an early stage, it can be easily cured with a tenfold improvement in survival rate and a hundredfold reduction in treatment cost. Current methods have not yielded the breakthroughs needed, either because they are too simple (visual examination of skin, with or with- out digital imaging) or because the required high sensitivity comes at the expense of lowered specificity, even in emerging advanced methods. What is necessary to address these unmet needs is a more sophisticated approach. We propose such an approach, based on analysis of the current state-of-the-art in melanoma diagnosis and feedback from clinicians, as well as concepts from the well-established field of risk management. We concluded that a combination of several imaging methods is needed, brought together onto the same instrument, in a


Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Air Force | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 150.00K | Year: 2015

ABSTRACT: The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate the feasibility of a flexible, low-cost, integrated and sensitive broad spectrum optical property characterization system. We propose a hyperspectral imager designed for operation in the 300nm 2000nm spectral region with state-of-the-art spectral and spatial resolution through the use of a high density array of high finesse (F = 1000) tunable microcavity filters. The system combines a high performance-cost ratio, rugged design for field use, compact, light and flexible design for a wide variety of broad spectrum optical property characterization measurements. The system will be capable of many different measurement geometries including multiplexed confocal detection, surface contact detection and analyzing the absorption spectra of liquids and gases. Additionally, the system will be highly miniaturized, allowing spectral and spatial data collection and imaging in difficult to reach locations, e.g. endoscope applications.; BENEFIT: Cancer of the skin is the most common type of cancer in the US, with more than one million Americans diagnosed every year. Melanoma is responsible for approximately 75% of all deaths from skin cancer; it is also the fastest growing cancer in the U.S. and worldwide, its incidence increasing 20-fold since 1935, to 1 in 74 people in 2000. The American Cancer Society projects over 10,000 deaths annually from skin cancer. Early detection remains the only effective means of fighting melanoma, but at present dermatologists rely primarily on visual examinations of patients to identify suspicious skin tissues. Unfortunately, melanomas can mimic benign lesions that are overwhelmingly more common, and misdiagnosis of melanoma can occur with deadly consequences. Decision making in minimally invasive surgery currently relies on the (subjective) assessment of tissue health by the surgeon (in real time) and a pathologist (off-line). This process needs to be accelerated and made more reliable for better patient health outcomes. Early detection (+ excision) of the Melanoma is the only effective treatment (survival decreases 20-fold and treatment costs increase 100-fold from earliest to latest stage). Misdiagnosis is a leading malpractice suit reason (13% of all malpractice claims, ~$1M per award). The diagnostic market alone is estimated at over $2 billion. The early screening market is estimated at more $3 billion. It is clear from these numbers that there is a viable market and indeed huge demand for a highly effective early diagnostic tool such as our Liquid Crystal Tunable Arrayed Microcavity (LCAM) technology. The LCAM technology has multiple applications, end-user markets, and potential revenue streams. We anticipate a wide variety of customers for LCAM including Medical research centers, University Biomedical Engineering departments and independent cancer research centers. Applications for LCAM technology will also extend to studying wound healing, chemical detection in gases and liquids and many other basic laboratory spectroscopy applications (Raman, fluorescence and confocal imaging) all in a highly miniaturized, rugged package.


Grant
Agency: Department of Health and Human Services | Branch: National Institutes of Health | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 1.36M | Year: 2015

DESCRIPTION provided by applicant Melanoma the fastest growing cancer worldwide kills more than one person every hour in the United States and costs more than $ billion per year Yet if detected at an early stage it can be easily cured with a tenfold improvement in survival rate and a hundredfold reduction in treatment cost Current methods have not yielded the breakthroughs needed either because they are too simple visual examination of skin with or with out digital imaging or because the required high sensitivity comes at the expense of lowered specificity even in emerging advanced methods What is necessary to address these unmet needs is a more sophisticated approach We propose such an approach based on analysis of the current state of the art in melanoma diagnosis and feedback from clinicians as well as concepts from the well established field of risk management We concluded that a combination of several imaging methods is needed brought together onto the same instrument in a synergetic multimode set Under other funding we developed a research prototype multimode dermoscope with powerfully diagnostic hyperspectral imaging as its central method This proposal outlines how we plan to turn this device SkinSpect into a useful clinical tool for better earlier and more reliable diagnosis of melanoma The entire Spectral Molecular Imaging Inc SMI team has the extensive experience needed and will be joined by prestigious groups at University of California Irvine Beckman Laser Institute and Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center bringing valuable expertise contributions in key areas Our diagnostic instrument combines hyperspectral polarization and fluorescence imaging of pigmented skin lesions nevi integrated in a high resolution non invasive dermoscopic imaging system We can extract three dimensional physiological and morphological diagnostic measures including lesion depth Breslow thickness and the concentration and distribution of skin nevus components such as melanin collagen and oxy deoxy hemoglobin We will focus on the accuracy with which we can quantitate features important for lesion modeling and diagnosis with emphasis on improving specificity Building on our previously developed research prototype we will manufacture and technically validate an improved clinical prototype Phase I and will evaluate this system in three clinical trials Phase II We will characterize the system with tissue phantoms test algorithms for compositional mapping and human volunteers build SkinSpect clinical prototypes under FDA type tight design controls optimize comprehensive tissue analysis software using clinical trial data demonstrate relative efficacy of each of the imaging modes including some competing ones versus our full multimode combination The desired overall outcome is a truly advanced yet cost effective instrument to be adopted by clinicians fighting melanoma for saving lives productivity and costs PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE Melanoma is a serious cancer eliciting an unacceptably high price in lives one person per hour in the US productivity lost and treatment costs An advanced high tech approach to its best management early detection is needed and we have created one by bringing several methods including one developed for satellite imaging into a single instrument a multimode imaging device for skin examination and analysis Spectral Molecular Imaging Inc has developed advanced approaches to characterize skin lesions has solved problems that have prevented prior devices from accurately measuring tissue composition and has put together a very strong multi site team to carry out commercialization in a small business driven industrial academic clinical collaboration


Patent
Spectral Molecular Imaging, Inc. | Date: 2014-10-03

A solid state detection system includes a degenerate photo-parametric amplifier (PPA), wherein the PPA comprises a photo diode, and a periodically pulsed light source, wherein the photo-parametric, amplifier (PPA) is synchronized to the pulsed light source with a phase locked loop that generates a pump waveform for the PPA at twice the frequency of the excitation pulse rate.

Loading Spectral Molecular Imaging, Inc. collaborators
Loading Spectral Molecular Imaging, Inc. collaborators