Agency: Department of Health and Human Services | Branch: National Institutes of Health | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 223.20K | Year: 2016
Gout affects millions of people in the US and the economic burden due to the disease is comparable to other chronic conditions such as Parkinsonandapos s disease or migraine Accurate identification of crystal identity is essential to pursue an appropriate form of treatment Patients who have gout attacks seek care at hospitals outpatient centers urgent care or the ER with hot swollen and painful joints therefore gout symptoms can be confused with other forms of arthritis Conclusive diagnosis requires observation of synovial aspirates by polarized light microscopy PLM to confirm the presence of negatively or positively birefringent crystals In practice PLM analysis as a billable service requires a microscope equipped with compensated polarization optics and a Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments CLIA for the laboratory Certification by pathologists or rheumatologists is done by professional organizations followed by credentialing and the hospital or lab that performs the analysis and subject to hospital policy about who may report PLM findings For all intensive purposes PLM is therefore only feasible in major healthcare centers and central laboratories in selected rheumatology practices Therefore clinicians on the front line may be unable to diagnose gout during their clinical encounter or they depend on presumptive diagnosis based on clinical symptoms that lack sensitivity and specificity The new American College of Rheumatology gout classification criteria are an attempt to address this problem but truly a facile and automated point of care testing for gout and pseudogout is needed in primary care settings to inform the diagnosis and treatment of these diseases Point of care Raman device POCR is an existing prototype that is developed at Case Western Reserve University CWRU with past NIH R and R to identify MSU and CPPD crystals in synovial fluid The method involves a simple and facile sample preparation to isolate crystals in a disposable cartridge that is then inserted in a compact cost efficient and automated device which identifies the crystal species based on fingerprint molecular spectroscopy By design the method should be able to be performed by the non specialist with minimal training POCR was evaluated using synovial fluid samples from symptomatic patients N and there was more than agreement between the diagnoses of POCR and PLM conducted by a certified technician pathologist During a prior R Akkus Singer clinical synovial sample analyses were performed by researchers The current version of the device needs a moderate number of modifications and customization to ready it for use by clinicians This Phase I SBIR will demonstrate that diagnosis of gout pseudogout by POCR as executed by the non specialist staff at point of service will agree with the diagnosis by PLM conducted by certified operators During first aim the prototype developed in CWRU will be transferred to Spectral Energies LLC who will refine it to make a clinically executable prototype The clinical prototype will be used and evaluated by clinical staff in the second aim The diagnostic outcome of synovial fluid analysis on freshly collected samples by POCR in the hands of non expert clinical staff will be compared to PLM analysis performed as standard of care The Phase I study will provide us with a clinically applicable POCR and pave the way for a multi site clinical assessment of the device in a follow up Phase II study that aims to demonstrate that POCR enables the diagnosis of gout in settings which are not equipped with PLM and CLIA certified laboratories and accredited operators Conclusive diagnosis of gout mandates identification of crystals in joint fluid microscopically by a certified operator who is not available in many healthcare settings Therefore gout is underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed often The project will develop a point of care device for facile and automated identification of gout in the clinic
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Air Force | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 149.92K | Year: 2015
ABSTRACT:The objective of the proposed Phase-I research effort is to demonstrate the feasibility of 10-kHz, 2D fuel/air (F/A) ratio and heat release rate (HRR) measurements in laboratory burners at elevated pressures by using pulse-burst-laser (PBL)-based sensor suite. The novelty is the use of advanced PBL technology to generate the desired laser pulses with sufficient pulse energy/intensity at high-repetition-rate for performing three state-of-the-art spectroscopic techniques laser-induced breakdown (LIBS), spontaneous Raman scattering, OH/CH2O planar-laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) for measuring 2D F/A ratio and HRR. Compared to state-of-the-art commercially available high-speed lasers, the PBL with ~50x more energy per pulse will extend the LIBS, PLIF, and potentially SRS measurements to 2D. Additionally, a wider tuning range of key parameters including pulse duration, pulse shape, wavelength, repetition rate etc. will be utilized to obtain simultaneous OH/CH2O PLIF and enhance the LIBS and Raman scattering signal strength. It will thus provide unprecedented insights into the combustion instability phenomena for combustors and augmentors. The proposed compact sensor suite to be developed in the Phase-II will have major impacts on understanding and reducing combustion instability in gas-turbine engines geared toward the development of next generation war fighters and has great potential to being commercially available for government laboratories, engine companies, and universities.BENEFIT:The primary challenges for laser-based sensors for 2D, high-speed, fuel/air (F/A) ratio and heat release rate (HRR) measurements using the three state-of-the-art spectroscopic techniques (LIBS, Raman scattering, and PLIF) for combustion instability in augmentor and combustors are 1) the extremely high pulse energy/intensity requirement for the spectroscopic techniques and 2) optical interference from the liquid-fuel combustors/augmentors. The present situation is that even the state-of-the-art commercial high-speed lasers (e.g., Edgewave/Credo combo) can only produce sufficient pulse energy/intensity for point or line measurements for LIBS and Raman. Moreover, those lasers are not viable to generate the desire pulses for all the proposed spectroscopic techniques from a single unit laser source. The research effort on developing pulse-burst-laser (PBL)-based sensor suite will alleviate this deficiency; the development will allow to interchangeable use for 2D F/A ratio and HRR detections at 10-kHz repetition rate via single unit laser source, thereby enabling multiple diagnostics to be used at full performance in practical combustors and augmentors in a single measurement campaign. All the proposed techniques are simple single beam approach, which makes them easy to be packaged into one fiber-coupled sensor for practical engine diagnostics. We anticipate the novel PBL-based sensor suite developed under this program will enable an array of new marketable products and technologies for investigation of combustion instability in augmentor and combustors. 1. Immediate benefits to Air Force test facilities and OEMs: The development outlined in this proposal will enable high-speed 2D measurements for F/A ratio and HRR measurements, which will provide unique insights into the understanding of combustion stability in augmentors and combustors. Potential applications for defense missions include the reduction of combustion instabilities, pollution reduction, and fuel and fuel additive studies that enhance the performance and facilitate the design of next-generation combustion and propulsion systems. The proposed compact sensor suite should be applicable for nearly all combustion test facilities and as such will have broad commercial appeal covering most of the government laboratories, engine companies (OEMs), and universities etc. 2. Scientific discovery Better understanding of the fundamental behaviors of complex physical coupling between the unsteady heat release and the resonant acoustic modes as well as F/A ratio in practical combustors/augmentors promises a rich field of intellectually stimulating scientific challenges, which in turn can quickly result in revolutionary technologies for advanced gas turbine combustors and augmentors that provide societal benefits via improved combustion stability, higher propulsion efficiencies, low emissions, improved durability, increased ease of manufacturing, and decreased cost. 3. Economic security and prosperity: The roles of gasoline and turbomachinery engines in the modern life are overwhelming. Even slight combustion efficiency improvement with minor reduction of combustion instability by understanding complex physical coupling between the unsteady heat release and the resonant acoustic modes as well as F/A ratio on the traditional gasoline and turbomachinery engines will have huge impacts on almost every corner of the US economy. In the foreseeable future, combustion of fossil and renewable fuels will be the major power sources for US defense. Other very important application areas include combustion for power generation and transportation. The successful development of these commercial products will help extend the global leadership of the US in R&D and manufacturing of engine technologies.
Agency: National Aeronautics and Space Administration | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 124.85K | Year: 2016
High-lift airfoils employ trailing edge flaps during takeoff and landing and are stowed during the cruise. These airfoils enhance the lift characteristics at subsonic speeds but suffer due to flow separation over the deflected flap surface. During cruise at transonic speeds, the shock induced separation results in drag penalty and structural fatigue. Traditionally, high-lift airfoils employ multi-element flaps to eliminate flow separation during takeoff and landing but at the cost of increased mechanical complexity and aircraft weight. Active flow control (AFC) has the potential to mitigate flow separation and enhance performance. The objective of proposed study is to design, develop, validate and implement a closed-loop, high-bandwidth active flow control technique. The technique will be based on high-momentum, resonance-enhanced unsteady microjet actuators and implemented on an NASA-EET high-lift airfoil configuration. Under the proposed program we bring a team of experts with the requisite knowledge and tools needed for successful development and implementation. We will deign and build a high-lift airfoil to suit the FSU polysonic wind tunnel for testing at high subsonic and transonic speeds (Mach 0.3 - 0.9). We will implement and demonstrate the applicability of Adaptive Sampling-Based Model Predictive Control (SBMPC) to control flow separation.
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Air Force | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 749.80K | Year: 2015
ABSTRACT:The objectives of the proposed Phase-II research effort are to develop and deliver three probes (immersion probe, backscatter probe, imaging probe) and integrate them into the existing AFRL hyperspectral absorption spectroscopy sensors, the high-speed cameras systems, and the hyperspectral imaging sensor. The integrated probes will be implemented and tested in AFRL rigs. Automated software will be developed for processing the acquired high-speed data. The Phase-II goals will be accomplished through five key technical objectives: (1) Design and build a fully integrated immersion probe, backscatter probe, and imaging probe for measurements at AFRL test rigs. (2) Assess available absorption spectroscopy methods and wavelengths to maximize the range of conditions that can be measured using the immersion and backscatter probes. (3) Validate temperature and species concentration measurements for the immersion and backscatter probes using well-calibrated flame sources. (4) Perform single-port detections of localized temperature, H2O and CO/CO2 concentrations, high-speed flame images, and 2D fuel-air ratios in AFRL augmentor and combustor rigs. (5) Develop automated software to process the acquired high-speed data. The successful demonstration of aforementioned measurements in AFRL test articles using the developed fiber-based probes will allow the researcher to determine localized gas combustion in practical high-combustion facilities and provide useful high-speed diagnostics into unsteady combustion reaction characteristics.BENEFIT:The primary challenge for optical sensors (e.g., laser absorption spectroscopy and chemiluminescence imaging sensors) in practical augmentors and combustors is optical access. Presently, a general-purpose optical sensor is not a viable commercial product because most applications require customized optical access, particularly for high-temperature and/or highpressure combustion facilities. The research effort to develop three single-port fiber-optic spectroscopic and imaging probes will alleviate this deficiency; these probes will utilize a single common penetration into the test article and will be easily interchangeable, thereby enabling multiple diagnostics to be used at full performance in practical devices during a single measurement campaign. We anticipate that the novel three probes developed under this program will enable an array of new marketable products and technologies for real-time combustion measurements in practical gas-turbine engines. 1. Immediate benefits to Air Force test facilities and OEMs: The development outlined in this proposal will enable the optimization of intelligent control strategies through real-time sensing used to obtain understanding of high-speed time-evolving phenomena related to ignition, flame growth, and stability in high-pressure combustors. Potential applications for defense missions include the reduction of combustion instabilities, pollution reduction, and fuel and fuel additive studies that enhance the performance and facilitate the design of next-generation combustion and propulsion systems. Additionally, the toolkit developed under this SBIR project will be instrumental to fully investigate lean and ultra-lean combustion concepts in next generation fighter engines and hence will be an invaluable asset to U. S. Air Force. The proposed flexible compact probe systems should be applicable for nearly all combustion environments and as such will have broad commercial appeal covering most of the Government laboratories, engine companies (OEMs), and University etc. 2. Scientific discovery Better understanding of the fundamental behaviors of ignition, turbulent flame and flow interactions, thermoacoustic-driven combustion instabilities, flame chemistry, and flame propagation in practical combustors/augmentors promises a rich field of intellectually stimulating scientific challenges, which in turn can quickly result in revolutionary technologies for advanced gas turbine combustors and augmentors that provide societal benefits via higher propulsion efficiencies, reduced weight, low emissions, improved durability, increased ease of manufacturing, and decreased cost. 3. Economic security and prosperity: Issues such as combustion instabilities, low temperature combustion (LTC), and pollutant emissions have enormous effects on the overall performance of modern gas turbine engines. Even a slight improvement in propulsion efficiency coupled with a minor reduction of combustion instabilities and pollutant via the use of advanced fiber-optic measurements in practical test engines will have huge economic impacts when those improvements are implemented nation-wide. The successful development of these commercial products will help extend the global leadership of the US in R&D and manufacturing of engine technologies.
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Air Force | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 149.76K | Year: 2015
ABSTRACT:Spectral Energies, LLC in collaboration with Energetic Materials Research and Testing Center (EMRTC) at New Mexico Tech proposes to develop a novel system for measuring three-dimensional shock wave motion throughout an arena warhead test facility using the background-oriented schlieren (BOS) technique. This technique will image shock waves via their distortion of the ambient background of the arena test facility and will be capable of determining the full-field, time-resolved shock motion throughout a test. The system will use multiple high-speed cameras which will be synchronized with each other, and could be synchronized with other data capture systems including pressure gages and break screens to provide comprehensive measurements of a warhead test. We will develop software for performing the automated BOS analysis on the high-speed camera images to visualize and track shock waves. The three-dimensional shock wave field will be created from the individual BOS images using a tomographic reconstruction algorithm. The time-resolved BOS analysis will allow measurement of peak shock wave pressures, pressure durations, and imaging of fragments throughout the measurement region. This system will be expandable to allow integration of as many cameras as available to improve the full-field measurement capabilities. The developed software and methodology will be demonstrated during an explosive field-test to be performed at EMRTC in Socorro, NM, during Phase I.BENEFIT:The products developed under the current program are background-oriented schlieren (BOS) instrumentation (including custom-designed optics and cameras) and software for data acquisition and analysis. These products will be useful for measuring three-dimensional shock wave motion throughout an arena warhead test facility. The proposed instrumentation will image shock waves via their distortion of the ambient background of the arena test facility and will be capable of determining the full-field, time-resolved shock motion throughout a test. The system will use multiple high-speed cameras which will be synchronized with each other and with other data capture systems to provide comprehensive measurements of a warhead test. We will develop software for performing the automated BOS analysis and shock wave field reconstruction. The system will be expandable to allow integration of as many cameras as available to improve the full-field measurement capabilities. The BOS analysis will also allow imaging of oblique shock waves on fragments and measurement of shock wave pressures throughout the measurement region.
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Air Force | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 149.93K | Year: 2015
ABSTRACT: The objective of the proposed research effort is to demonstrate the feasibility of 100 kHz to 1 MHz nonlinear spectroscopy for measurements of molecular energy distributions, energy transfer, major species, and temperature in transient combusting and nonequilibrium flows. This will be accomplished, in part, by extending burst-mode laser technology to the fs and ps regimes for greater than three-orders of magnitude improvement in available probe-pulse energy at MHz repetition rates. This laser architecture will also ensure precise synchronization of transform-limited fs and ps pulses for efficient coherent excitation of multi-photon transitions while minimizing interferences such as nonresonant background and collisions. During the Phase I, Spectral Energies and Purdue University will investigate the optimal laser architecture for fs/ps burst-mode laser spectroscopy and demonstrate potential spectroscopic and imaging systems using high-speed ps coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) as a test platform. The Phase II will result in a prototype MHz rate fs/ps CARS system and demonstration in Air Force relevant flows, such as for pulse detonation, scramjet, and gas-turbine combustion. This research program will result in commercial laser spectroscopy and imaging systems that will address critical research needs in areas such as advanced propulsion, munitions, space vehicles, and related industries.; BENEFIT: High-temperature, transient combustion and nonequilibrium conditions in novel propulsion engines, space vehicles, and munitions systems require expensive and time-consuming testing, typically at low data rates. Capturing the relevant timescales in these devices requires measurements at rates of 100 kHz to 1 MHz to track the interaction of flames with hypersonic boundary layers, shockwaves, detonation waves, pulsed plasmas, and fluid dynamic instabilities. The high-speed measurement capabilities proposed in this work will be able to resolve these interactions in both time and space (in a line or a plane) to provide the understanding and predictive models needed to evaluate advanced technologies and meet performance targets of future weapons systems. The prototype instruments proposed in this research program will also fill a gap in commercially available laser technology, offering a greater than three orders of magnitude improvement in probe-pulse energies and repetition rates for a wide range of applications in the aerospace, defense, energy, and manufacturing industries. 1. Immediate benefits to Air Force test facilities and OEMs: The proposed research program will deliver a prototype burst-mode fs and ps laser source and imaging system that is currently not available at Air Force test facilities and OEMs). This will enable investigations of nonequilibrium molecular energy distributions, temperatures, and major species concentrations in test cells for high-speed propulsion systems of interest to the Air Force, including pulse detonation, scramjet, rocket, and gas turbine engines. In high-enthalpy impulse facilities, which have run times on the order of a millisecond, the ability to acquire data at 100 kHz to MHz rates will significantly increase productivity and provide the data bandwidth needed to track the space-time evolution of transient phenomena. This will be invaluable for validating predictive models of molecular energy distributions and improving simulations of hypersonic shocks, boundary layers, detonations, and plasmas. 2. Scientific discovery: Nonlinear spectroscopic techniques, such as coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), are often used for the spectroscopic study of rotational and vibrational nonequilibrium flows and plasmas. However, the effects of nonresonant background and collisions limit accuracy and degrade sensitivity, especially at high pressure. Moreover, low data-acquisition speeds (~10-50 Hz) prevent temporal resolution for highly transient processes. The proposed instrumentation would increase both the probe-pulse energy and repetition rate to allow studies of highly transient processes, such as hypersonic boundary layers, detonation waves, and pulsed plasmas used for combustion enhancement. By extending burst-mode laser technology to the fs and ps regimes, it will also be possible to temporally suppress the effects of nonresonant background and collisions and to identify dominant energy transfer processes controlling vibrational level populations and energy thermalization, measure rotational/vibrational temperature and major-species concentrations, and measure of vibrational-rotational energy transfer rates. This will enable detailed development and validation of accurate numerical models used to predict these phenomena in transient combusting and nonequilibrium flows. 3. Economic security and prosperity: The introduction of low-data-rate amplified fs and ps laser systems enabled a major advance in spectroscopic capability, with these lasers now being standard instruments in chemistry, physics, biomedical, and engineering laboratories throughout the world. The pulse energies of these systems have increased by nearly an order of magnitude within the last decade but are ultimately limited by practical considerations such as the laser footprint and average power. By extending burst-mode laser technology to the fs and ps regimes, the proposed work will enable significantly higher pulse energies in a compact package and with relatively low average power. Such a system has significant commercial potential in a wide range of laboratories focusing on aerospace, defense, energy, and manufacturing, and these industries in turn have an enormous impact on national economic security and prosperity. Spectral Energies is well positioned to be able to commercialize the proposed prototype instrumentation because of past and current investments in burst-mode laser technology, instrumentation for nonlinear spectroscopy, and laser manufacturing capabilities.
Agency: National Aeronautics and Space Administration | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 124.00K | Year: 2016
There is a need for innovative technologies and methods for noise reduction, noise prediction, and noise diagnostics. A comprehensive approach to reducing noise from any flow is predicated on a clear understanding of noise sources, i.e., the turbulent flow itself. Although much has been discovered in the last several decades about the connection between turbulence and noise, the heuristic element of the analysis has prevented the development of breakthrough noise mitigation technologies. For example, it is known that larger structures are responsible for shallow-angle noise, and the formation of shocks at supersonic speeds results in a new mechanism of noise production due to the passage of turbulent structures, However, the precise mechanism by which this transformation occurs is not known. High-fidelity datasets that capture the above phenomena whether from simulation or experiment are increasingly accessible, and need to be harnessed in better ways. With this in mind, analytical tools must be used and developed to extract the most useful information from the data. Tool such as Proper Orthogonal Decomposition, Stochastic estimation, Wavelet decomposition, Empirical Mode Decomposition, Dynamical Mode Decomposition and Doak?s decomposition have been shown to be useful for extracting such information. At present however, different practitioners use these tools differently, which makes the task of assimilating the data very difficult. The goal of the present effort is to develop a user-friendly software suite that unifies these advanced techniques to provide a standard approach. The development will be integrated with testing by exploring noise sources in ongoing experimental and computational rectangular and an axisymmetric multi-stream jet campaigns.
Agency: National Aeronautics and Space Administration | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 124.92K | Year: 2016
Subsonic, transonic, supersonic, and hypersonic ground test facilities are used extensively to evaluate forces and moments as well as surface measurements on test articles required to validate computational tools used to extrapolate wind tunnel data to realistic flight conditions and hardware. The development of fast and noninvasive instrumentation and measurement capabilities that can readily be integrated into the extreme environments is one of several major technological challenges associated with the design, building, and operation of these complex test environments. Accurately mapping velocity flow fields-undoubtedly one of the most critical parameters-remains a significant challenge. In addition, spatially and temporally resolved measurements of other flow parameters such as density, pressure, and temperature are of paramount importance. This proposal offers an integrated package of truly cutting-edge, multidimensional, seedless velocimetry and multi-flow-parameter diagnostics for wind tunnels and ground test facilities. The concepts and ideas proposed are ranging from proof-of-principles demonstration of novel methodologies using 10-100 kHz-rate nanosecond (10-100 nsec) duration burst-mode laser sources for measurements in realistic tunnel conditions. The proposed high-repetition-rate Rayleigh scattering which is suitable for any wind tunnel testing involving various gases is a state-of-the-art technique for analysis of unsteady and turbulent flows.
Agency: National Aeronautics and Space Administration | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 748.96K | Year: 2015
To be useful for computational combustor design and analysis using tools like the National Combustion Code (NCC), low-dimensional chemical kinetic mechanisms for modeling of real fuel combustion chemistry must be sufficiently compact so that they can be utilized in multi-dimensional, multi-physics, reacting computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. Despite advances in CFD-appropriate kinetic mechanism reduction for kerosene-range fuels, significant combustion property variation among current and prospective certified fuels remains a challenge for meaningful CFD-advised design of high pressure, low-emissions combustors. The proposed project will leverage Princeton's ongoing work in aviation fuel surrogate formulation and modeling as well as kinetic mechanism development for emissions and high pressure combustion to produce and demonstrate a meta-model framework for automated generation of fuel-flexible compact chemical kinetic mechanisms appropriate for 3-D combustion CFD codes. During Phase I, Compact Mechanisms for both an alternative, natural-gas derived synthetic kerosene and a conventional petro-derived Jet A kerosene have been developed and demonstrated. Results indicated that, over a very broad range of pressures, temperatures, equivalence ratios, and characteristic times, these Compact Mechanisms well reproduce predictions of global combustion behaviors (ignition, extinction, heat release rate, pollutant mole fractions) relative to predictions of significantly larger target chemical kinetic mechanisms. Technical objectives for Phase II R&D include development of a stand-alone software application for generation of tailor-made, fuel-specific Compact Mechanisms, and demonstration of Compact Mechanism performance in computation-intensive CFD applications. Achievement of these objectives together will advance the current state of this R&D program to TRL 5.
Agency: National Aeronautics and Space Administration | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 749.85K | Year: 2015
Numerous ground-test and wind-tunnel facilities are used extensively to make surface measurements of and to characterize the forces and moments encountered by aeronautics test articles. Quantitative results in these test environments are required to validate the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools that are used to extrapolate wind-tunnel data toward realistic flight conditions and hardware. The development of fast instrumentation and measurement capabilities that can readily be integrated into the extreme conditions present under such test conditions is one of several major technological challenges associated with the design, building, and operation of these complex test environments. Among the host of physical quantities, accurate mapping of velocity flow fields remains a significant yet essential challenge in these facilities. In addition, spatially and temporally resolved measurements of other flow parameters, such as gas density, pressure, temperature, and species mixing fractions, are of paramount importance to characterize fully the fluid dynamics. Unfortunately, the widely available current suite of flow-field probes exhibit varying degrees of intrusiveness, requiring either the physical placement of probes inside the test facility or the introduction of foreign particles or gas-phase species into the flow field. Thus, the development and application of non-invasive flow-field diagnostic probe techniques is of principal importance in these environments. This proposal expands upon our successful Phase-I results and offers an integrated package of truly cutting-edge, multidimensional, seedless velocimetry and flow diagnostics for ground-test facilities. The concepts and ideas proposed range from proof-of-principle demonstration of novel methodologies using kHz-rate femtosecond (10-15 sec) and 100-kHz-rate burst-mode picosecond (10-12 s) duration laser sources to measurements in realistic tunnel conditions expected in the current solicitation.