Agency: National Aeronautics and Space Administration | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 749.85K | Year: 2015
Numerous ground-test and wind-tunnel facilities are used extensively to make surface measurements of and to characterize the forces and moments encountered by aeronautics test articles. Quantitative results in these test environments are required to validate the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools that are used to extrapolate wind-tunnel data toward realistic flight conditions and hardware. The development of fast instrumentation and measurement capabilities that can readily be integrated into the extreme conditions present under such test conditions is one of several major technological challenges associated with the design, building, and operation of these complex test environments. Among the host of physical quantities, accurate mapping of velocity flow fields remains a significant yet essential challenge in these facilities. In addition, spatially and temporally resolved measurements of other flow parameters, such as gas density, pressure, temperature, and species mixing fractions, are of paramount importance to characterize fully the fluid dynamics. Unfortunately, the widely available current suite of flow-field probes exhibit varying degrees of intrusiveness, requiring either the physical placement of probes inside the test facility or the introduction of foreign particles or gas-phase species into the flow field. Thus, the development and application of non-invasive flow-field diagnostic probe techniques is of principal importance in these environments. This proposal expands upon our successful Phase-I results and offers an integrated package of truly cutting-edge, multidimensional, seedless velocimetry and flow diagnostics for ground-test facilities. The concepts and ideas proposed range from proof-of-principle demonstration of novel methodologies using kHz-rate femtosecond (10-15 sec) and 100-kHz-rate burst-mode picosecond (10-12 s) duration laser sources to measurements in realistic tunnel conditions expected in the current solicitation.
Agency: National Aeronautics and Space Administration | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 748.96K | Year: 2015
To be useful for computational combustor design and analysis using tools like the National Combustion Code (NCC), low-dimensional chemical kinetic mechanisms for modeling of real fuel combustion chemistry must be sufficiently compact so that they can be utilized in multi-dimensional, multi-physics, reacting computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. Despite advances in CFD-appropriate kinetic mechanism reduction for kerosene-range fuels, significant combustion property variation among current and prospective certified fuels remains a challenge for meaningful CFD-advised design of high pressure, low-emissions combustors. The proposed project will leverage Princeton's ongoing work in aviation fuel surrogate formulation and modeling as well as kinetic mechanism development for emissions and high pressure combustion to produce and demonstrate a meta-model framework for automated generation of fuel-flexible compact chemical kinetic mechanisms appropriate for 3-D combustion CFD codes. During Phase I, Compact Mechanisms for both an alternative, natural-gas derived synthetic kerosene and a conventional petro-derived Jet A kerosene have been developed and demonstrated. Results indicated that, over a very broad range of pressures, temperatures, equivalence ratios, and characteristic times, these Compact Mechanisms well reproduce predictions of global combustion behaviors (ignition, extinction, heat release rate, pollutant mole fractions) relative to predictions of significantly larger target chemical kinetic mechanisms. Technical objectives for Phase II R&D include development of a stand-alone software application for generation of tailor-made, fuel-specific Compact Mechanisms, and demonstration of Compact Mechanism performance in computation-intensive CFD applications. Achievement of these objectives together will advance the current state of this R&D program to TRL 5.
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Air Force | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 149.54K | Year: 2015
ABSTRACT: Supersonic jet noise is a major issue affecting Department of Defense (DoD) flight operations. These issues include the near-field noise, which causes hearing damage specifically for Navy personnel on aircraft carriers. More relevant to Air Force operations, is the far-field or community noise problem. To address these problems, Spectral Energies, LLC proposes to develop a noise prediction tool for supersonic jet nozzles capable of interfacing with a gas turbine engine cycle analysis tool such as Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS). For Phase I, the noise model will be developed for a single geometry and validated against existing experimental and computational data. In Phase II, the noise prediction tool will evolve to account for different geometries (i.e. aspect ratio and shape) and will also have the ability to be integrated with existing engine cycle tools. The effects of complex phenomena such as swirl, non-linear acoustic propagation, upstream turbulence, etc. could be added to the tool as additional modules. Since this tool will ultimately be used to predict noise for the full-scale aircraft and the cycle analysis provides information about the other engine components, it would be useful to incorporate the noise produced by other engine components as well. This tool can also be used to adjust the nozzle geometry and engine cycle to assess the potential for noise reduction without sacrificing the performance (thrust, fuel efficiency, and survivability). BENEFIT: The commercial products produced as result of this SBIR are the noise prediction tool, flow control methodologies, and measurement instrumentation. The main customers for the noise prediction code are the Air Force and Navy. Other potential costumers are General Electric, Pratt and Whitney, Lockheed Martin, Boeing, and other aircraft/engine companies. This tool may help aircraft companies develop engines that are quiet and have high fuel efficiency by integrating the noise tool into their existing cycle analysis codes. In addition, institutions working on the supersonic commercial transport, such as Gulf Stream, Lockheed Martin, and NASA may be interested in the tools and knowledge developed for this study to help reduce supersonic shock noise.
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Air Force | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 149.76K | Year: 2015
ABSTRACT:Spectral Energies, LLC in collaboration with Energetic Materials Research and Testing Center (EMRTC) at New Mexico Tech proposes to develop a novel system for measuring three-dimensional shock wave motion throughout an arena warhead test facility using the background-oriented schlieren (BOS) technique. This technique will image shock waves via their distortion of the ambient background of the arena test facility and will be capable of determining the full-field, time-resolved shock motion throughout a test. The system will use multiple high-speed cameras which will be synchronized with each other, and could be synchronized with other data capture systems including pressure gages and break screens to provide comprehensive measurements of a warhead test. We will develop software for performing the automated BOS analysis on the high-speed camera images to visualize and track shock waves. The three-dimensional shock wave field will be created from the individual BOS images using a tomographic reconstruction algorithm. The time-resolved BOS analysis will allow measurement of peak shock wave pressures, pressure durations, and imaging of fragments throughout the measurement region. This system will be expandable to allow integration of as many cameras as available to improve the full-field measurement capabilities. The developed software and methodology will be demonstrated during an explosive field-test to be performed at EMRTC in Socorro, NM, during Phase I.BENEFIT:The products developed under the current program are background-oriented schlieren (BOS) instrumentation (including custom-designed optics and cameras) and software for data acquisition and analysis. These products will be useful for measuring three-dimensional shock wave motion throughout an arena warhead test facility. The proposed instrumentation will image shock waves via their distortion of the ambient background of the arena test facility and will be capable of determining the full-field, time-resolved shock motion throughout a test. The system will use multiple high-speed cameras which will be synchronized with each other and with other data capture systems to provide comprehensive measurements of a warhead test. We will develop software for performing the automated BOS analysis and shock wave field reconstruction. The system will be expandable to allow integration of as many cameras as available to improve the full-field measurement capabilities. The BOS analysis will also allow imaging of oblique shock waves on fragments and measurement of shock wave pressures throughout the measurement region.
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Air Force | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 748.74K | Year: 2014
ABSTRACT: Exposure to engineered nanomaterials (NMs)materials composed of particles with features smaller than 100 nmrepresents a new inhalation hazard for which there are no standard measurement methodologies or applicable occupational exposure limits (OELs). Nano-featured materials can react with the human body in ways other particles do not. When inhaled, NMs can elicit adverse cardiopulmonary health outcomes that scale more closely with dose expressed as particle number or surface area rather than mass. Consequently, the measurement of NMs fit poorly within the pre-existing IH sampling paradigm. Real-time concentration monitors are ill-suited for personal sampling and cannot distinguish NMs from other airborne particles. Electron microscopy of filters collected with conventional personal samplers can make this distinction, but this analysis is typically expensive and only qualitative. Chemical analysis of particles could be used to detect NMs separate from background particles but devices to collect particles by size are not available for use as personal samplers for particles smaller than 300 nm. The current Phase-II proposal addresses the need to assess personal exposures to NMs through both: 1) real-time, size-resolved information on particle concentration by number, surface area, and mass; and 2) subsequent microscopy or chemical analysis of airborne particles collected by size. A novel, prototype personal monitorthe Personal Aerosol Collector and Spectrometer (PACS)developed under Phase I will be miniaturized and combined into a single package. Laboratory and field studies will be conducted to test the ability of the device to assess nanoparticle exposures apart from background aerosol under a variety of conditions. BENEFIT: The proposed products/concepts (PACS) will directly benefit assessment of exposures to nano materials (NMs) for armed forces personnel in deployed and domestic environments. It will also be a great boon for assessing more routine exposures, including refurbishing of heavy vehicles (e.g., tanks and aircraft) and shooting ranges, where a variety of metals exposures are health hazards of concern. In these environments, adverse health effects may relate more closely to particle number or surface area rather than mass concentration. After R&D, the PACS will immediately translate to the broader field of IH for exposure assessment of any particle exposure, but particularly to environments where fumes or NMs are present.