Spectalis Corporation

Ottawa, Canada

Spectalis Corporation

Ottawa, Canada
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Fong N.R.,Carleton University | Berini P.,University of Ottawa | Berini P.,Spectalis Corporation | Tait R.N.,Carleton University
Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems | Year: 2010

Mechanical bulge testing of thin free-standing CYTOP membranes for use with surface plasmon polariton (SPP) biosensors was conducted. Curve fitting of experimental data to a known deflection model allowed for the extraction of a Young's modulus of 1.3 ± 0.1 GPa and residual stress of 16.9 ± 1.3 MPa. The fracture stress for the membranes was observed to be 96.9 ± 8.4 MPa, which occurs at the membrane edges. © 2010 IEEE.

Chiu C.,University of Ottawa | Lisicka-Skrzek E.,University of Ottawa | Tait R.N.,Carleton University | Berini P.,University of Ottawa | Berini P.,Spectalis Corporation
Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B:Nanotechnology and Microelectronics | Year: 2010

Long range surface plasmon-polariton waveguides and devices suitable for biosensing were fabricated and characterized physically and optically. The structures consist of thin (∼35 nm) patterned Au stripes embedded in thick Cytop claddings (∼8 μm each). Portions of Au stripes were exposed by patterning and etching though the top Cytop cladding using an O2 plasma etch. The etched Cytop cavities act as microfluidic channels to contain and direct the sensing fluid. Intermediate process steps were verified through physical characterization as were fully fabricated structures. Optical testing was performed on Cytop-embedded structures and on channel-filled (with sensing fluid) structures. The structures were excited through end-fire coupling to optical fibers. © 2010 American Vacuum Society.

Scales C.,Department of National Defence | Breukelaar I.,309 Leon Avenue | Berini P.,University of Ottawa | Berini P.,Spectalis Corporation
Optics Letters | Year: 2010

A Schottky contact detector comprising a symmetric metal stripe buried in Si, capable of detecting surface Plasmons at wavelengths below the bandgap of Si, is described. A model for the detector is proposed, and its performance is assessed at λ0 = 1550 nm assuming a CoSi2 stripe in p-type Si. End-fire coupled responsivities of about 0.1 A/W and minimum detectable powers of about -20 dBm are predicted at room temperature. © 2010 Optical Society of America.

Akbari A.,University of Ottawa | Tait R.N.,Carleton University | Berini P.,University of Ottawa | Berini P.,Spectalis Corporation
Optics Express | Year: 2010

A surface plasmon polariton detector is demonstrated at infra-red wavelengths. The device consists of a metal stripe on silicon forming a Schottky contact thereon and supporting surface a plasmon polariton mode that is strongly confined and localised to the metal-semiconductor interface. Detection of optical radiation below the bandgap of silicon (at infrared wavelengths) occurs through internal photoemission. Responsivities of 0.38 and 1.04 mA/W were measured via end-fire coupling to a tapered optical fibre, at room temperature and at a wavelength of 1280 nm, for gold and aluminium stripes on n-type silicon, respectively. The device can be integrated with other structures used in nano-plasmonics, nano-photonics or silicon-based photonics, and it holds promise for short-reach optical interconnects and power monitoring applications. © 2010 Optical Society of America.

Scales C.,Spectalis Corporation | Scales C.,Department of National Defence | Breukelaar I.,Spectalis Corporation | Breukelaar I.,Defence Research and Development Canada | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Lightwave Technology | Year: 2011

The internal quantum efficiency, responsivity, and sensitivity of symmetric surface-plasmon waveguide Schottky detectors in silicon are investigated theoretically at room temperature at λ0 = 1310 and 1550 nm. The detectors consist of a thin metal stripe buried in Si, forming Schottky contacts along all metal/Si interfaces, with detection occurring via internal photoemission over the Schottky barriers. Several metals are considered for the stripe (Au, Ag, Al, Cu, CoSi2). The internal quantum efficiency is significantly enhanced for stripes that are thin compared to the hot carrier attenuation length. Responsivities of 0.1 to 0.21 A/W and receiver sensitivities of -24 and -18 dBm are predicted for 1.5 and 10 GHz electrical bandwidths (∼ 2.5 Gbit/s and > 10 Gbit/s), respectively. This predicted performance, at room temperature, is competitive with the best cryogenically cooled conventional Schottky detectors and is adequate for optical interconnect and power monitoring. The detectors are attractive for applications requiring broadband (electrical and optical) infrared detectors in Si. © 2011 IEEE.

Tencer M.,University of Ottawa | Nie H.-Y.,University of Western Ontario | Berini P.,University of Ottawa | Berini P.,Spectalis Corporation
Applied Surface Science | Year: 2011

A process of chemical differentiation of neighboring Au features on a substrate (for biosensing applications) involves a step, where after electrochemical removal of a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) from one feature, another SAM is deposited onto it by incubation with a different thiol. During this incubation step, other undesorbed features are also exposed to this thiol which may lead to a partial SAM-thiol exhange, the extent of which is a function of time. Here, such surface reactions were followed on polystalline Au in both directions using contact angle measurements and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). The thiols involved were dodecanethiol (DDT) which forms SAM promoting adsorption of proteins and 11-mercaptoundecyl)tri(ethylene glycol) (TPEG) whose SAM prevents such adsorption. The surface reactions in both directions cannot be described by a simple pseudo-first-order kinetics. It was found that while the DDT SAM interaction with a TPEG solution leads eventually to a total replacement, the reverse process, TPEG SAM interaction with DDT, leads to no noticeable exchange over the first 3 h and then asymptotically approaches ∼50% replacement. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

De Leon I.,University of Ottawa | Berini P.,University of Ottawa | Berini P.,Spectalis Corporation
Review of Scientific Instruments | Year: 2011

We describe techniques and an experimental setup to measure the gain and noise characteristics of a long-range surface plasmon-polariton amplifier consisting of a symmetric metallic stripe waveguide incorporating optically pumped dye molecules in the solution as the gain medium. The setup is capable of acquiring absolute power measurements at the amplifiers output over a narrow optical bandwidth. This allows independent characterization of the amplifiers gain via measurements of stimulated emission and via measurements of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) over a narrow optical bandwidth, both obtained during the same experimental run. In addition, the absolute power measurements of ASE quantify directly the amplifiers noise. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.

Scales C.,Center for Operational Research and Analysis | Berini P.,University of Ottawa | Berini P.,Spectalis Corporation
IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics | Year: 2010

Phenomenological models for the internal quantum efficiency of Schottky barrier photodetectors suitable for the detection of optical radiation below the bandgap energy of the semiconductor are presented and discussed. The detection mechanism is internal photoemission from the metal film into the semiconductor substrate. Three detector configurations are considered: the first consists of a thick metal film on a semiconductor substrate forming a single Schottky barrier; the second consists of a thin metal film on a semiconductor substrate also forming a single Schottky barrier; and the third consists of a thin metal film buried in semiconductor and forming two Schottky barriers (one along each metal-semiconductor interface). In the three cases, illumination through the semiconductor substrate is assumed. The two thin-film configurations provide enhanced internal quantum efficiencies due to multiple hot carrier reflections within the metal film, with the double-barrier case providing the greatest enhancement due to emission over two barriers. The models proposed are based on assessing the emission probability of hot carriers as a function of their energy, taking into account multiple reflections within the metal film and energy losses due to internal scattering (e.g., with phonons and cold carriers). The thin-film single-barrier model was tested via comparisons with responsivity measurements reported in the literature for PtSi/p-Si and Pd2Si/p-Si detectors. © 2006 IEEE.

De Leon I.,University of Ottawa | Berini P.,University of Ottawa | Berini P.,Spectalis Corporation
Nature Photonics | Year: 2010

Surface plasmon-polaritions, collective electron oscillations coupled to light waves at the surface of a metal, show unique properties that are valuable in a broad range of scientific fields. However, the intrinsic propagation loss of these waves poses a fundamental problem to many potential applications. To overcome this drawback, researchers have explored the possibility of loss compensation by means of surface plasmon-polarition amplification. Here we provide the first direct measurement of gain in propagating plasmons using the long-range surface plasmon-polariton supported by a symmetric metal stripe waveguide that incorporates optically pumped dye molecules in solution as the gain medium. The measured mode power gain is 8.55dBmm-1. Furthermore, it is shown that this new class of amplifier benefits from reduced spontaneous emission into the amplified mode, potentially leading to low-noise optical amplification. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Chen C.,University of Ottawa | Berini P.,University of Ottawa | Berini P.,Spectalis Corporation
Optics Express | Year: 2010

Metal gratings for in-coupling a Gaussian beam incident from broadside to the long-range surface plasmon polariton (LRSPP) propagating in one direction along a membrane-supported Au slab bounded by air or water are proposed and modeled by the finite-difference time-domain method. Grating couplers for out-coupling the propagating LRSPP into free radiation directed along broadside are also investigated. Short grating designs consisting of a small number of Au bumps yield 15% to 20% incoupling efficiencies, and about 60% out-coupling efficiencies. LRSPP back-reflections along the membrane waveguide caused by the out-coupling grating are also calculated and discussed. © 2010 Optical Society of America.

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