Zürich, Switzerland
Zürich, Switzerland

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Whitby J.A.,Empa - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology | Ostlund F.,Empa - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology | Ostlund F.,TOFWERK AG | Horvath P.,Empa - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology | And 12 more authors.
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering | Year: 2012

We describe the design and performance of an orthogonal time-of-flight (TOF) secondary ion mass spectrometer that can be retrofitted to existing focused ion beam (FIB) instruments. In particular, a simple interface has been developed for FIB/SEM instruments from the manufacturer Tescan. Orthogonal extraction to the mass analyser obviates the need to pulse the primary ion beam and does not require the use of monoisotopic gallium to preserve mass resolution. The high-duty cycle and reasonable collection efficiency of the new instrument combined with the high spatial resolution of a gallium liquid metal ion source allow chemical observation of features smaller than 50nm. We have also demonstrated the integration of a scanning probe microscope (SPM) operated as an atomic force microscope (AFM) within the FIB/SEM-SIMS chamber. This provides roughness information, and will also allow true three dimensional chemical images to be reconstructed from SIMS measurements. Copyright © 2012 James A. Whitby et al.


Fleming Y.,Center De Recherche Public Gabriel Lippmann | Wirtz T.,Center De Recherche Public Gabriel Lippmann | Gysin U.,University of Basel | Glatzel T.,University of Basel | And 5 more authors.
Applied Surface Science | Year: 2011

With the breakthroughs in lateral resolution with regards to secondary ion mass spectroscopy in recent years, new areas of research with much promise have opened up to the scientific community. Even though the much improved lateral resolution of 50 nm can effectively deliver more accurate 3D-images, the traditional 3D reconstructions, consisting of compiling previously acquired successive secondary ion mass spectrometry images into a 3D-stack, do not represent the real localized chemical distribution of the sputtered volume. Based on samples initially analyzed on the Cameca NanoSIMS 50 instrument, this paper portrays the advantages of combining the topographical information from atomic force microscopy and the chemical information from secondary ion mass spectrometry. Taking account of the roughness evolution within the analyzed zone, 3D reconstructions become a lot more accurate and allow an easier interpretation of results. On the basis of an Al/Cu sample, a comparison between traditional 3D imaging and corrected 3D reconstructions is given and the advantages of the newly developed 3D imaging method are explained. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Wirtz T.,Center De Recherche Public Gabriel Lippmann | Fleming Y.,Center De Recherche Public Gabriel Lippmann | Gerard M.,Center De Recherche Public Gabriel Lippmann | Gysin U.,University of Basel | And 7 more authors.
Review of Scientific Instruments | Year: 2012

State-of-the-art secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) instruments allow producing 3D chemical mappings with excellent sensitivity and spatial resolution. Several important artifacts however arise from the fact that SIMS 3D mapping does not take into account the surface topography of the sample. In order to correct these artifacts, we have integrated a specially developed scanning probe microscopy (SPM) system into a commercial Cameca NanoSIMS 50 instrument. This new SPM module, which was designed as a DN200CF flange-mounted bolt-on accessory, includes a new high-precision sample stage, a scanner with a range of 100 μm in x and y direction, and a dedicated SPM head which can be operated in the atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Kelvin probe force microscopy modes. Topographical information gained from AFM measurements taken before, during, and after SIMS analysis as well as the SIMS data are automatically compiled into an accurate 3D reconstruction using the software program SARINA, which was developed for this first combined SIMS-SPM instrument. The achievable lateral resolutions are 6 nm in the SPM mode and 45 nm in the SIMS mode. Elemental 3D images obtained with our integrated SIMS-SPM instrument on AlCu and polystyrenepoly(methyl methacrylate) samples demonstrate the advantages of the combined SIMS-SPM approach. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.


Wirtz T.,Center De Recherche Public Gabriel Lippmann | Fleming Y.,Center De Recherche Public Gabriel Lippmann | Gysin U.,University of Basel | Glatzel T.,University of Basel | And 5 more authors.
Surface and Interface Analysis | Year: 2013

State-of-the-art secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) instruments allow producing 3D chemical mappings with excellent sensitivity and spatial resolution. Several important artifacts, however, arise from the fact that SIMS 3D mapping does not take into account the surface topography of the sample. The traditional 3D reconstruction assumes that the initial sample surface is flat and the analyzed volume is cuboid. The produced 3D images are thus affected by a more or less important uncertainty on the depth scale and can be distorted. The situation becomes even more complicated as the topography changes during the ion bombardment. In order to correct these artifacts, we have integrated a specially developed scanning probe microscopy system into the analysis chamber of the Cameca NanoSIMS 50 at the CRP-GL. This system includes a new high-precision sample stage, a scanner with a range of 100 μm in x and y and a dedicated SPM head which can be operated in the atomic force microscopy mode. Topographical information gained from scanning probe measurements taken before, during and after SIMS analysis as well as the SIMS data are automatically compiled into an accurate 3D reconstruction using the software 'SARINA', which was developed for this first combined SIMS-SPM instrument. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Torbrugge S.,SPECS GmbH | Schaff O.,SPECS GmbH | Rychen J.,SPECS Zurich GmbH
Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B:Nanotechnology and Microelectronics | Year: 2010

Combined atomic-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and noncontact atomic-force microscopy (NC-AFM) studies are carried out with the piezoelectric KolibriSensor in ultrahigh vacuum at room temperature. The sensor exhibits a very low spectral deflection noise density of only 6.5 fm/ Hz which favors in combination with its high spring constant of 540 000 N/m stable NC-AFM operation at subnanometer oscillation amplitudes. The authors present atomic-resolution imaging on the Si (111) (7×7) surface recorded in STM and NC-AFM feedback mode. They find that the tip surface distance during atomic-resolution imaging on silicon is much smaller for NC-AFM compared to STM. It is shown that atomic-resolution NC-AFM and dynamic STM images of the same area on the Si (111) (7×7) surface enable a discrimination of vacancies and adsorbates. Furthermore, the topography of graphite imaged in dynamic STM and NC-AFM feedback mode is compared. © 2010 American Vacuum Society.

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