Clapiers, France


Clapiers, France
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Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2013.3.3 | Award Amount: 3.86M | Year: 2013

The paradigm of societal uses protected by biometric identification (ID) from national security and controlled access, to health care, banking and leisure requires coming up with ever more reliable built-in ID detection systems. In this context, PiezoMAT proposes a new technology of high-resolution fingerprint sensors based on a matrix of interconnected piezoelectric nanowires (NWs). The long term objective of PiezoMAT is to offer high performance fingerprint sensors with minimal volume occupation for integration into built-in systems able to compete on the market with the best existing products.PiezoMAT proceeds by local deformation of an array of individually contacted piezoelectric NWs and reconstruction from generated potentials, whose amplitudes are proportional to the NW displacement. Each NW and its associated electronics constitute a sensor, or pixel. The sub-micron dimension of NWs allows for high spatial frequency sampling of every fingerprint feature, enabling extremely reliable fingerprint differentiation through detection of the smallest minutiae (pores and ridge shapes). Charge collection efficiency is very dependent on the electrode configuration on each NW. PiezoMAT explores several possible configurations associated with gradual levels of technological challenges and risks, with a strong focus on developing reliable device design tools for present and future application-related adaptability. For the purpose of the PiezoMAT research, it is foreseen to collect generated charges and analogue output signals via metal lines connected to deported electronics on a printed circuit board. This configuration does not allow for maximum NW integration density but is designed to yield sufficient resolution to demonstrate the concept, major technological achievements and actual performance increase as compared to the state-of-the-art. Long term developments will pursue full electronics integration for an optimal sensor resolution.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: NMP.2013.4.0-2 | Award Amount: 3.77M | Year: 2013

The triggering of SOLPROCEL took place when COMSA EMTE and ICFO realized the potential that an organic photovoltaic (OPV) based technology has to be incorporated in transparent modules to generate electricity. Indeed, the OPV technology is the only one capable of producing semitransparent colorless cells providing a clear and undistorted image when looking through the device. It can be perfectly integrated in buildings faades offering an enormous potential for electricity production units to penetrate in urban areas. However, COMSA EMTE is well aware that transparent OPV cells are not yet ready for a module production phase and priority must be given to material research. Several issues, spanning from the development of low cost module fabrication to having stable and durable devices, must be addressed. Much of the success rests on having the materials for such low cost module fabrication. To achieve an optimal light harvesting in a solution-processed semitransparent OPV cell, we propose to combine the device processing developed by FAU with the photonic control developed by ICFO. Encouraged by COMSA EMTE and FAU, ICFO took the lead of SOLPROCEL. The project incorporates 3 companies which will be able to industrially produce the PV and nano materials needed in solution-processed OPV cells: Specific Polymers the PV polymers, Nanograde the nanoparticles used in the buffer layers, and RAS the Ag nanowires used in the electrodes. In SOLPROCEL such companies will be guided by three research institutions which can provide complementary knowhow in three of the fundamental aspects of OPV technology: nano-fabrication (FAU), light management (ICFO), and organic synthesis (FhG-IAP). The quantifiable goal of SOLPROCEL is to obtain the materials needed for fully solution-processed high performance transparent OPV cells and to raise the efficiency of such cells from 5.6% to 9%. This later value corresponding to 80% of the 12% efficiency of the corresponding opaque cell.

Besse V.,Charles Gerhardt Institute | Auvergne R.,Charles Gerhardt Institute | Carlotti S.,University of Bordeaux 1 | Boutevin G.,Specific Polymers | And 4 more authors.
Reactive and Functional Polymers | Year: 2013

The synthesis of isocyanate free polyurethanes is a major concern. This paper first reports the synthesis of new biobased isosorbide dicyclocarbonates from isosorbide. Then polyhydroxyurethanes (PHUs) were synthesized by a cyclocarbonate-amine step growth polyaddition with four commercial diamines (e.g. jeffamine D-400, 1,10 diaminodecane, diethylenetriamine and isophoronediamine). These unprecedented products, obtained with high yield, were characterized by 1H NMR, FTIR, DSC, SEC and TGA analyses. PHUs exhibited glass transition temperatures from -8 °C to 59 °C, and degradation temperatures (Td 5%) between 234 °C and 255 °C. Last but not least, the compounds produced during the degradation of these PHUs were analyzed by ATG-IR technique and showed that carbon dioxide and secondary amines are released. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Saint - Gobain and Specific Polymers | Date: 2014-07-03

A copolymer includes a first group that is hydrophobic and a second group that is crosslinkable. Moreover, a glass substrate includes a coating of the copolymer, with interposition of a layer of silane including a functional group capable of reacting with the crosslinkable group. The glass substrate may be used as hydrophobic glazing for a transport vehicle, shower cubicle wall or easy-to-clean interior glazing.

Negrell-Guirao C.,Charles Gerhardt Institute | Carosio F.,Polytechnic University of Turin | Boutevin B.,Charles Gerhardt Institute | Cottet H.,Montpellier University | Loubat C.,Specific Polymers
Journal of Polymer Science, Part B: Polymer Physics | Year: 2013

The work focuses on the synthesis and layer by layer (LbL) assembly of oligoallylamine and phosphonated oligoallylamine. To this aim, the synthesis of oligoallylamine and the phosphonated form have been done by free radical polymerization in aqueous media. First, radical polymerization of acid salt of allylamine was performed. This charged polymer could not be characterized using classical analytical techniques such as size-exclusion chromatography and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation-time of flight mass spectroscopy due to presence of cations. This work demonstrated the interest of capillary electrophoresis (CE) to analyze charged oligomers, using very small amounts of samples. Entangled polymer solution CE was used as a size-based separation technique for the characterization of the molar mass distribution using indirect ultraviolet detection and calibration based on vinyl pyridine standards. Phosphorus-containing oligoallylamines having a number-average molar mass of 1600 g mol-1 and a 2.3 polydispersity index were obtained. When combined using the LbL approach, prepared polymers showed an exponential growth regime as demonstrated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy measurements. Furthermore, thermogravimetric analyses of the LbL-assembled polymers showed an extraordinary thermal and thermo-oxidative stability. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Drobek M.,Montpellier University | Motuzas J.,Montpellier University | Durand V.,Montpellier University | Durand V.,CEA Marcoule Nuclear Site | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Membrane Science | Year: 2013

This work evaluates a new eco-friendly strategy for preparing ultrathin gas selective membranes on top of a microporous support. The method involves the dissolution of small amounts of fluorinated oligomers with alkoxysilane functional groups in supercritical CO2 (scCO2) and their transport to the substrate followed by the subsequent deposition/filtration under high pressure using a MFI zeolite membrane support (silicalite-1 (S-1), channel size ~0.55nm. During the deposition process, the oligomers are compressed on the zeolite surface and potentially forced in the intercrystalline defects of the zeolite membrane, if any. The performance of this new type of polymer/zeolite composite membranes has been evaluated for both single gas permeation and gas mixture separations. Attractive results were obtained applying oligomers with short molecular chains (~1.2-2nm; ~300-600gmol-1), easily forming an interpenetrated compact network during the deposition process at ΔP=6MPa and 50°C. High permselectivities were obtained at 25°C (αHe/N2*=85-135 and αCO2/N2*=50-80 with the He and CO2 permeance in the range 1-2.7*10-8molm-2s-1Pa-1) together with attractive separation factors (FHe/N2=49 and FCO2/N2=18). © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Camara F.,Charles Gerhardt Institute | Benyahya S.,Charles Gerhardt Institute | Besse V.,Charles Gerhardt Institute | Boutevin G.,Specific Polymers | And 3 more authors.
European Polymer Journal | Year: 2014

The role of secondary amine, usually not taken into account in the case of polyhydroxyurethanes (PHUs) synthesis, was inspected. Butanediol bis carbonate BBC, trimethylolpropane tris carbonate TMPTC and resorcinol bis carbonate RBC were synthesized by carbonation of corresponding epoxides. The products, obtained with high yield, were characterized by NMR and mass spectrometry analysis. These carbonates were converted to biobased polyhydroxyurethanes by step growth polymerization with tetraethylene pentamine TEPA. The optimal carbonate-amine ratio was determined from the differential scanning calorimeter results. A maximum Tg value of 16 °C was found for the BBC-TEPA system considering three reactive amine group among five of TEPA hardener. These results were completed by model reactions. Firstly, the reaction between BBC and a secondary diamine (N,N′-dimethyl-1,6-hexanediamine) was hightlighted by differential scanning calorimetry. Moreover, the products of reaction between a monocarbonate (i.e. propylene carbonate) and TEPA or N,N′-dimethyl-1,6- hexanediamine were characterized by FTIR, NMR and mass spectrometry, allowing the demonstration of the formation of hydroxyurethane groups. Contrary to most of the results found in the literature, this work clearly demonstrates that secondary amines can also react with cyclic carbonates. Further details, such as activation energy of 28 kJ mol-1 (BBC-TEPA system), glass transition temperatures (from 16 to 67 °C) and good degradation temperature (Td 5% between 198 and 256 °C) completed this work. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Boutevin G.,Specific Polymers | Tiffes D.,Specific Polymers | Loubat C.,Specific Polymers | Boutevin B.,Charles Gerhardt Institute | Ameduri B.,Charles Gerhardt Institute
Journal of Fluorine Chemistry | Year: 2012

The synthesis of C nF 2n+1(VDF) x-(CH 2) p- where n = 2, 4; x = 2, 3, 4; p = 0, 1, 2 and VDF and stand for vinylidene fluoride (VDF) and I, OH, or CO 2H, respectively, are presented. First, the radical telomerization of VDF with C nF 2n+1-I to direct low molecular weight-telomers was investigated in various experimental conditions: initiators, temperatures and solvents to favour the formation of C nF 2n+1(VDF) xI. Whatever the experimental conditions, it was observed the regioselective radical addition of •C nF 2n+1 radical onto the methylene site of VDF. Then, ethylenation of these VDF telomers was achieved in the presence of peroxy initiator with a quantitative conversion of the VDF-containing iodide reactants. Chemical change of R F(VDF) xC 2H 4I into R F(VDF)C 2H 4OH occurred in two steps: (i) from a mixture of DMF/water (for which a 6/1 content led to the best conditions); (ii) followed by a basic medium to saponify R F(VDF) xCH 2CH 2OCOH formiate into the corresponding VDF-containing alcohols. Suitable conditions were found to avoid any dehydrofluorination of the VDF telomeric chain. Oxidation of these fluorinated alcohols in the presence of H 2SO 4/CrO 3 mixture led to the corresponding C nF 2n+1(VDF) xCH 2CO 2H carboxylic acids. Surface tensions of these VDF-containing carboxylic acids were achieved reaching a value of 19.8 mN m -1 for a surfactant concentration of 5 g L -1, showing similar values as that of commercially available perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) while critical micellar concentration value of C 2F 5CH 2CF 2CH 2CF 2CH 2CO 2H was 1.4 g L -1 at room temperature. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Caillol S.,Charles Gerhardt Institute | Desroches M.,Charles Gerhardt Institute | Boutevin G.,Specific Polymers | Loubat C.,Specific Polymers | And 2 more authors.
European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology | Year: 2012

Biobased polyols were synthesized from reaction between epoxidized soybean oil and lactic, glycolic, or acetic acids. Polyols were characterized by NMR, alcohol and acid titration, and SEC. These analyses allowed to determine an average hydroxyl functionality between 4 and 5, with an oligomer content close to 50wt%. Synthesized polyols were formulated with isocyanate to yield polyurethanes (PUs). Thermal and mechanical properties of obtained materials showed that synthesized polyols lead to rigid and brittle material with Young moduli higher than 900N/mm2 at RT and with Tg values around 50°C. Practical application: The products of the chemistry described in this contribution, i.e.: polyol from vegetable oils and lactic, glycolic, or acetic acids, provide biobased building blocks for further PUs syntheses by reaction with diisocyanates. The obtained PUs are partially biobased and may be applied as binders and coatings. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Provided is a metal-oxide nanofiller including at least two graft chains, at least one of the chains being hydrophilic and the other being a hydrophobic chain compatible with fluorinated polymers. The hydrophobic chain is an oligomer, the weight-average molar mass Mw of which is between 300 and 20,000 g/mol^(1). Also provided is a non-stick coating comprising such a filler, as well as to a culinary article provided with such a coating.

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