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Hovis G.,Lafayette College | Abraham T.,University of Cambridge | Hudacek W.,American Museum of Natural History | Wildermuth S.,University of Kansas | And 9 more authors.
American Mineralogist | Year: 2015

We have studied the thermal expansion of 15 synthetic and two natural F-Cl apatite solid solutions through the calculation of unit-cell dimensions at elevated temperatures based on Xray powder diffraction data collected from room temperature to ~900 °C at 50 to 100 °C intervals. Coefficients of thermal expansion for the a and c unit-cell axes show sensitivity to composition, with αa increasing by about 50% and αc decreasing by a third from chlorapatite to fluorapatite. Despite the relationships observed for a and c, the thermal expansion coefficient for unit-cell volume shows little sensitivity to composition, which can be explained only by a mutually compensating structural adjustment along the latter axes as temperature rises. Results of this study also imply that the thermodynamically ideal volumes of mixing for F-Cl apatite solid solutions observed at ambient conditions continue to at least 900 °C. © 2015 by Walter de Gruyter Berlin/Boston.


Diamond Core Drilling is a process of extracting core samples from the earth. This is an exploratory process to determine the structural strength of mineral composition for potential mining or construction projects. Diamond drilling uses a diamond impregmented drill bit. The drilling bit is coupled to the end of hollow rods. The cutting of solid formation rock drilled by drilling bit is in form of a cylinder. Diamonds used to make diamond core bits varies in size. Diamond size is taken according to micro fine industrial grade. The ratio of metal to diamond used to make bit affects the performance of the bit’s cutting ability in different formations. Bits made from hard steel grade and low diamond count is good for softer highly fractured rock. Bits made of high diamond and softer steel ratio is designed for coring in hard solid rocks. Drill bits consist of certain holes to circulate drilling fluid. The role of circulating fluid is lubrication, cooling and removes cuttings from the hole. Large numbers of exploratory wells are being drilled by exploration companies to take sample of various mineral compositions. The number is expected to increase with the rising energy demand. The report offers a comprehensive evaluation of the market. It does so via in-depth insights, understanding market evolution by tracking historical developments, and analyzing the present scenario and future projections based on optimistic and likely scenarios. Each research report serves as a repository of analysis and information for every facet of the market, including but not limited to: Regional markets, technology developments, types, applications, and the competitive landscape. The study is a source of reliable data on: 1.Key market segments and sub-segments 2.Evolving market trends and dynamics 3.Changing supply and demand scenarios 4.Quantifying market opportunities through market sizing and market forecasting 5.Tracking current trends/opportunities/challenges 6.Competitive insights 7.Opportunity mapping in terms of technological breakthroughs This research report analyzes this market on the basis of its market segments, major geographies, and current market trends. Geographies analyzed under this research report include: United States China Europe Japan Would like to place an order @ https://www.wiseguyreports.com/checkout?currency=one_user-USD&report_id=725257 The Major players reported in the market include: Specialty Minerals Inc. E. Dillon & Company Imerys Omaya Group Magnesita Lhoist Group Product Segment Analysis: Hand Type Drill Desk Type Drill Other Type Reasons for Buying this Report 1.This report provides pin-point analysis for changing competitive dynamics 2.It provides a forward looking perspective on different factors driving or restraining market growth 3.It provides a six-year forecast assessed on the basis of how the market is predicted to grow 4.It helps in understanding the key product segments and their future 5.It provides pin point analysis of changing competition dynamics and keeps you ahead of competitors 6.It helps in making informed business decisions by having complete insights of market and by    making in-depth analysis of market segments 7.It provides distinctive graphics and exemplified analysis of major market segments 1 Diamond Core Drilling Market Overview     1.1 Product Overview and Scope of Diamond Core Drilling     1.2 Classification of Diamond Core Drilling       1.2.1 Hand Type Drill       1.2.2 Desk Type Drill       1.2.3 Other Type     1.3 Application of Diamond Core Drilling       1.3.2 Construction Industry       1.3.3 Renovation Industry     1.4 Diamond Core Drilling Market States Status and Prospect (2011-2021) by Regions       1.4.1 United States       1.4.2 China       1.4.3 Europe       1.4.4 Japan     1.5 Global Market Size of Diamond Core Drilling (2011-2021)       1.5.1 Global Diamond Core Drilling Sales and Growth Rate (2011-2021)       1.5.2 Global Diamond Core Drilling Revenue and Growth Rate (2011-2021) 2 Global Economic Impact on Diamond Core Drilling Industry     2.1 Global Macroeconomic Environment Analysis       2.1.1 Global Macroeconomic Analysis       2.1.2 Global Macroeconomic Environment Development Trend     2.2 Global Macroeconomic Environment Analysis by Regions     2.3 Effects to Diamond Core Drilling Industry 3 Diamond Core Drilling Maufacturing Cost Analysis     3.1 Diamond Core Drilling Key Raw Materials Analysis       3.1.1 Key Raw Materials       3.1.2 Price Trend of Key Raw Materials       3.1.3 Key Suppliers of Raw Materials       3.1.4 Market Concentration Rate of Raw Materials     3.2 Proportion of Manufacturing Cost Structure       3.2.1 Raw Materials       3.2.2 Labor Cost       3.2.3 Manufacturing Process Analysis of Diamond Core Drilling 4 Industrial Chain, Sourcing Strategy and Downstream Buyers     4.1 Diamond Core Drilling Industrial Chain Analysis     4.2 Upstream Raw Materials Sourcing     4.3 Raw Materials Sources of Diamond Core Drilling Major Manufacturers in 2015     4.4 Downstream Buyers 5 Global Diamond Core Drilling Competition by Manufacturers, Type and Application     5.1 Global Diamond Core Drilling Market Competition by Manufacturers       5.1.1 Global Diamond Core Drilling Sales and Market Share of Key Manufacturers (2011-2016)       5.1.2 Global Diamond Core Drilling Revenue and Share by Manufacturers (2011-2016)     5.2 Global Diamond Core Drilling (Volume and Value) by Type       5.5.1 Global Diamond Core Drilling Sales and Market Share by Type (2011-2016)       5.5.2 Global Diamond Core Drilling Revenue and Market Share by Type (2011-2016)     5.3 Global Diamond Core Drilling (Volume and Value) by Regions       5.3.1 Global Diamond Core Drilling Sales and Market Share by Regions (2011-2016)       5.3.2 Global Diamond Core Drilling Revenue and Market Share by Regions (2011-2016)     5.4 Global Diamond Core Drilling (Volume) by Application 6 United States Diamond Core Drilling (Volume, Value and Sales Price)     6.1 United States Diamond Core Drilling Sales and Value (2011-2016)       6.1.1 United States Diamond Core Drilling Sales and Growth Rate (2011-2016)       6.1.2 United States Diamond Core Drilling Revenue and Growth Rate (2011-2016)       6.1.3 United States Diamond Core Drilling Sales Price Trend (2011-2016)     6.2 United States Diamond Core Drilling Sales and Market Share by Manufacturers     6.3 United States Diamond Core Drilling Sales and Market Share by Type     6.4 United States Diamond Core Drilling Sales and Market Share by Application


Hovis G.L.,Lafayette College | Scott B.T.,Lafayette College | Altomare C.M.,Lafayette College | Leaman A.R.,Lafayette College | And 3 more authors.
American Mineralogist | Year: 2014

Fluorapatite has been synthesized through ion-exchange between NIST hydroxylapatite SRM 2910a and optical-grade fluorite. The latter end-member and additional intermediate F-OH apatite samples made through ion-exchange between the newly synthesized fluorapatite and the original hydroxylapatite have provided materials for an investigation of thermal expansion in the F-OH apatite system. Unit-cell volumes determined from X-ray powder diffraction data collected between 22 and 928 °C have been utilized to compute the coefficients of thermal expansion at a pressure of 1 bar for seven apatite samples having various F:OH ratios, as well as for natural samples of fluorapatite and hydroxylapatite. Results show that the thermal expansion coefficient for volume averages 41.0 ± 1.4 (1σ) × 10-6 deg-1 for all samples and is thus little affected by F:OH ratio. This study extends the thermodynamic characterization of this important mineral system, with potential applications for the geological, planetary, biological, medical, and materials-science communities. © 2014 by Walter de Gruyter Berlin/Boston.

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