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Aleixandre-Benavent R.,Spanish Research Council CSIC | Aleixandre-Tudo J.L.,Polytechnic University of Valencia | Alcaide G.G.,University of Valencia | Ferrer-Sapena A.,Polytechnic University of Valencia | And 2 more authors.
South African Journal of Science | Year: 2012

We analysed the production, impact factor of, and scientific collaboration involved in viticulture and oenology articles associated with South African research centres published in international journals during the period 1990-2009. The articles under scrutiny were obtained from the Science Citation Index database, accessed via the Web of Knowledge platform. The search strategy employed specific viticulture and oenology terms and was restricted to the field 'topic'. The results showed that 406 articles were published during the review period, with the most number of publications being in the South African Journal of Enology and Viticulture (n = 34), American Journal of Enology and Viticulture (n = 16) and Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (n = 16). The articles were published by 851 authors from 236 institutions. The collaboration rate was 3.7 authors per article, having grown over the two decades examined. The most productive institutions (i.e. those receiving a greater number of citations) were Stellenbosch University (219 published articles and 2592 citations) and the Agricultural Research Council (49 published articles and 454 citations), both from South Africa. Graphical representation of co-authorship networks identified 18 groups of authors and a single network of institutions whose core is Stellenbosch University. In conclusion, we have identified a significant growth in South African viticulture and oenology research in recent years, with a high degree of internationalisation and a constant level of domestic collaboration. © 2012. The Authors.


Mera E.,Complutense University of Madrid | Trigo T.,IMDEA Madrid Institute for Advanced Studies | Lopez-Garcia P.,IMDEA Madrid Institute for Advanced Studies | Lopez-Garcia P.,Spanish Research Council CSIC | And 2 more authors.
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2011

Although several profiling techniques for identifying performance bottlenecks in logic programs have been developed, they are generally not automatic and in most cases they do not provide enough information for identifying the root causes of such bottlenecks. This complicates using their results for guiding performance improvement. We present a profiling method and tool that provides such explanations. Our profiler associates cost centers to certain program elements and can measure different types of resource-related properties that affect performance, preserving the precedence of cost centers in the call graph. It includes an automatic method for detecting procedures that are performance bottlenecks. The profiling tool has been integrated in a previously developed run-time checking framework to allow verification of certain properties when they cannot be verified statically. The approach allows checking global computational properties which require complex instrumentation tracking information about previous execution states, such as, e.g., that the execution time accumulated by a given procedure is not greater than a given bound. We have built a prototype implementation, integrated it in the Ciao/CiaoPP system and successfully applied it to performance improvement, automatic optimization (e.g., resource-aware specialization of programs), run-time checking, and debugging of global computational properties (e.g., resource usage) in Prolog programs. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.


Chevalier J.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Taddei P.,University of Bologna | Gremillard L.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Deville S.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | And 7 more authors.
Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials | Year: 2011

Alumina-zirconia nano-composites were recently developed as alternative bearing materials for orthopedics. Previous, preliminary reports show that such alumina-zirconia nanocomposites exhibit high crack resistance and low wear rate. In this paper, additional information is given in terms of wear, crack resistance and ageing behaviour: femoral heads are inspected after 7 million cycles of wear testing on a hip simulator, crack resistance is measured and compared to other ceramics used today in orthopedics, slow crack growth is reported under static and cyclic fatigue, and aging resistance is assessed. We also report on the load to failure of femoral heads prototypes during compression tests. This overall reliability assessment ensures a potential future development for these kinds of new nanocomposites in the orthopedic field. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Sayadi S.,Agricultural Research and Training Institute | Calatrava J.,Spanish Research Council CSIC | Guirado E.,Spanish Research Council CSIC | Sarmiento D.,TROPS
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2013

In south-eastern Spain, mangos are grown in two different types of orchards. One is on slopes with medium-to-steep slopes and trees planted in narrow patches, with very difficult or impossible mechanization; the other, more frequent, is shallower slopes or flatlands with orchards on wider terraces, where mechanization is possible. This paper analyses the economic impact of mechanization in terms of mango costs and returns. Mango mechanizations in the area concerns mainly phytosanitary treatments and harvest, where non-tillage with localized herbicides is already a generalized practice among mango growers. Using data gathered from two types of mango farms, with and without mechanization, a comparative cost analysis has been made. Return analyses have also been performed for the two types of orchards, aiming to determine to what extent, and under what conditions, returns from both treatments and harvest mechanization cover the added mechanization cost. The effects of scale on mechanization returns have also been analysed. From the results of these analyses, some conclusions have finally been drawn. © ISHS 2013.


Calatrava J.,Institute of Agricultural and Fishery Research and Training IFAPA | Sayadi S.,Institute of Agricultural and Fishery Research and Training IFAPA | Sarmiento D.,TROPS | Guirado E.,Spanish Research Council CSIC
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2013

Mango growing has been developing on the Spanish Mediterranean coast over the last 25 years, currently occupying more than 3,300 ha, with a clear increasing trend; 70% of this surface area is planted with the cultivar 'Osteen' (early-mid season). In the coastal area 'Osteen' has good vegetative performance, high average fruit yield with acceptable pulp quality, size, shape, and uniformity as well as attractive color suitable for marketing. Also 'Osteen' is quite tolerant to Ceratitis capitata attacks. As a drawback, the taste characteristics of the fruit, although acceptable, are far from excellent, and 'Osteen' is susceptible to internal breakdown, one of the main troubles of mango in the region. Because of the predominance of 'Osteen' in Spanish mango cultivation, the 'Osteen' is, to some extent identified as the "Spanish mango" in the export market, particularly in the French market. It is, however, a cultivar selected in the 1950s in Florida, USA. For the current low production in Spain (8,000 t), such a lack of supply diversification could be acceptable, but forecast figures for the next five years indicate that Spain will produce more than 25,000 t. and, for this short-term future, greater diversification of cultivars would be advisable. Although it is low-medium yield compared with 'Osteen', the cultivar 'Kent', due to its excellent taste characteristics and its good value in the market is perceived by growers as one of the possible alternatives to 'Osteen' in order to diversify the Spanish supply to both domestic and export markets. In this context, with the aim of encouraging supply diversification, a comparative return analysis for both cultivars, 'Osteen' and 'Kent', would be useful. This paper, based on accounting data taking from typical orchards in the area, both having 'Osteen' and 'Kent' plots, provides results from an economic analysis. On the basis of these results, some conclusions are drawn concerning the economic performance of both cultivars in the area. © ISHS 2013.


Vergilino R.,University of Quebec at Rimouski | Markova S.,University of Quebec at Rimouski | Markova S.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic | Ventura M.,Spanish Research Council CSIC | And 3 more authors.
Molecular Ecology | Year: 2011

The study of species complexes is of particular interest to understand how evolutionary young species maintain genomic integrity. The Daphnia pulex complex has been intensively studied as it includes species that dominate freshwater environments in the Northern hemisphere and as it is the sole North American complex that shows transitions to obligate parthenogenesis. Past studies using mitochondrial markers have revealed the presence of 10 distinct lineages in the complex. This study is the first to examine genetic relationships among seven species of the complex at nuclear markers (nine microsatellite loci and one protein-coding gene). Clones belonging to the seven species of the Daphnia pulex complex were characterized at the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase (ND5) gene and at the Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) locus. K-means, principal coordinate analyses and phylogenetic network analyses on the microsatellite data all separated European D. pulicaria, D. tenebrosa, North American D. pulex, D. pulicaria and their hybrids into distinct clusters. The hybrid cluster was composed of diploid and polyploid hybrids with D. pulex mitochondria and some clones with D. pulicaria mitochondria. By contrast, the phylogeny of the D. pulex complex using Rab4 was not well resolved but still showed clusters consisting mostly of D. pulex alleles and others of D. pulicaria alleles. Incomplete lineage sorting and hybridization may obscure genetic relationships at this locus. This study shows that hybridization and introgression have played an important role in the evolution of this complex. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Lopez-Garcia P.,IMDEA Madrid Institute for Advanced Studies | Lopez-Garcia P.,Spanish Research Council CSIC | Darmawan L.,Technical University of Madrid | Bueno F.,Technical University of Madrid
Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics, LIPIcs | Year: 2010

We present a framework for (static) verification of general resource usage program properties. The framework extends the criteria of correctness as the conformance of a program to a specification expressing non-functional global properties, such as upper and lower bounds on execution time, memory, energy, or user defined resources, given as functions on input data sizes. A given specification can include both lower and upper bound resource usage functions, i.e., it can express intervals where the resource usage is supposed to be included in. We have defined an abstract semantics for resource usage properties and operations to compare the (approximated) intended semantics of a program (i.e., the specification) with approximated semantics inferred by static analysis. These operations include the comparison of arithmetic functions (e.g., polynomial, exponential or logarithmic functions). A novel aspect of our framework is that the static checking of assertions generates answers that include conditions under which a given specification can be proved or disproved. For example, these conditions can express intervals of input data sizes such that a given specification can be proved for some intervals but disproved for others. We have implemented our techniques within the Ciao/CiaoPP system in a natural way, so that the novel resource usage verification blends in with the CiaoPP framework that unifies static verification and static debugging (as well as run-time verification and unit testing).


Calatrava-Requena J.,Institute of Agricultural and Fishery Research and Training IFAPA | Gonzalez-Roa M.C.,Institute of Agricultural and Fishery Research and Training IFAPA | Guirado-Sanchez E.,Spanish Research Council CSIC
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2013

Mango surface has been increasing in the coastal area of southeastern mainland Spain, from the pioneering orchards in the eighties to the current surface of about 3,300 ha. At the beginning different cultivars were introduced, namely: 'Sensation', 'Zill', 'Irwin', 'Tolbert', 'Tommy Atkins', 'Osteen', 'Lippens', 'Carmen', 'Otts', 'Manzanillo Núñez', 'Keitt', etc. and the initial production of these cultivars were consumed mainly for high income niche of the Spanish domestic market. Some export initiatives had also started. Test tasting made in 1989, 1991, 1992 and later in 1995 reduced a lot the target cultivars according to current domestic consumer preferences. Nowadays most (75%) of the mango trees growing up in the south east of Spain are 'Osteen' (early-mid season) and 15% are 'Keitt' (late season); the rest (10%) are of various cultivars being 'Kent' and the 'T. Atkins' the two more important. Looking for substitutive to 'Osteen' could help to diversify the supply for both domestic and export market. The paper shows results from two taste testing analysis performed with consumer panels in October 2007 and October 2009 comparing consumer preferences for 'Kent', 'Osteen' and 'Ataulfo'. Tests include tasting preferences and comparison with other fruits. In some cases (panel 2009), due to adequate fruit availability, two different fruits with different degree of maturity have been considered for 'Osteen' and 'Kent', namely: fruit at stage H (mature enough for consumption but firm enough to resist finger pressure), and fruit a stage S (slightly softer than H, just when it starts to soften under finger pressure). Panel tasting test shows a clear preference for 'Kent' at stage S, followed by 'Ataulfo' and 'Kent' H. Other results concerning relative flavor similarities and mango preferences with respect to other fruits competing with mango in the market place have also been achieved. © ISHS 2013.


Lopez-Garcia P.,IMDEA Madrid Institute for Advanced Studies | Lopez-Garcia P.,Spanish Research Council CSIC | Bueno F.,Technical University of Madrid | Hermenegildo M.,IMDEA Madrid Institute for Advanced Studies | Hermenegildo M.,Technical University of Madrid
New Generation Computing | Year: 2010

We propose an analysis for detecting procedures and goals that are deterministic (i.e., that produce at most one solution at most once), or predicates whose clause tests are mutually exclusive (which implies that at most one of their clauses will succeed) even if they are not deterministic. The analysis takes advantage of the pruning operator in order to improve the detection of mutual exclusion and determinacy. It also supports arithmetic equations and disequations, as well as equations and disequations on terms, for which we give a complete satisfiability testing algorithm, w.r.t. available type information. Information about determinacy can be used for program debugging and optimization, resource consumption and granularity control, abstraction carrying code, etc. We have implemented the analysis and integrated it in the CiaoPP system, which also infers automatically the mode and type information that our analysis takes as input. Experiments performed on this implementation show that the analysis is fairly accurate and efficient. © Ohmsha, Ltd. and Springer 2010.


De La Vega T.T.,IMDEA Madrid Institute for Advanced Studies | Lopez-Garcia P.,IMDEA Madrid Institute for Advanced Studies | Lopez-Garcia P.,Spanish Research Council CSIC | Munoz-Hernandez S.,Technical University of Madrid
Studies in Computational Intelligence | Year: 2012

Any realistic approach to automatic program parallelization must take into account practical issues related to the resource usage of parallel executions, such as the overheads associated with parallel tasks creation, migration of tasks to remote processors, and communication. The aim of granularity control techniques is avoiding such overheads undermining the benefits of parallel executions. For example, sufficient conditions have been proposed to ensure that the parallel execution of some given tasks will not take longer than their corresponding sequential execution. However, when the goal is to optimize the average execution time of several runs, such conditions can be very conservative, causing a loss in parallelization opportunities. To solve this problem, we have proposed novel conditions based on fuzzy logic and performed an experimental assessment with real programs. The results show that such conditions select the optimal type of execution in most cases and behave much better than the conservative conditions. © 2012 Springer-Verlag GmbH Berlin Heidelberg.

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