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Nutritional studies including food and beverage consumption assessment are needed for different purposes in the field of nutrition, food supply monitoring, toxicology or in the context of intervention strategies that include changes in eating behaviors. Different methods have been used, each with strengths, weaknesses, biases and limitations that must be considered when choosing the most appropriate in each case. The development of new technologies offers exciting developments to improve the validity and accuracy of these methods, as well as their efficiency and commodity. The characteristics of the individuals under study, its environment and the resources available should be considered as well. © 2015, Grupo Aula Medica S.A. All rights reserved.


The results and conclusions of well design nutrition studies, using the appropriate methods to achieve the intended aims with the best validity and precision possible are of great value for nutritional, food and toxicological surveillance systems; also in the planning, follow-up and evaluation of nutrition and health policies and providing high value information for the formulation of recommended reference intakes, nutritional objectives and food based dietary guidelines. © 2015, Grupo Aula Medica S.A. All rights reserved.


Rodrigo C.P.,Fundacion FIDEC | Aranceta J.,University of Navarra | Salvador G.,Agencia de Salud Publica de Catalonia | Varela-Moreiras G.,University of San Pablo - CEU | Varela-Moreiras G.,Spanish Nutrition Foundation FEN
Nutricion Hospitalaria | Year: 2015

Food Frequency Questionnaires are dietary assessment tools widely used in epidemiological studies investigating the relationship between dietary intake and disease or risk factors since the early ‘90s. The three main components of these questionnaires are the list of foods, frequency of consumption and the portion size consumed. The food list should reflect the food habits of the study population at the time the data is collected. The frequency of consumption may be asked by open ended questions or by presenting frequency categories. Qualitative Food Frequency Questionnaires do not ask about the consumed portions; semi-quantitative include standard portions and quantitative questionnaires ask respondents to estimate the portion size consumed either in household measures or grams. The latter implies a greater participant burden. Some versions include only close-ended questions in a standardized format, while others add an open section with questions about some specific food habits and practices and admit additions to the food list for foods and beverages consumed which are not included. The method can be self-administered, on paper or web-based, or interview administered either face-to-face or by telephone. Due to the standard format, especially closed-ended versions, and method of administration, FFQs are highly cost-effective thus encouraging its widespread use in large scale epidemiological cohort studies and also in other study designs. Coding and processing data collected is also less costly and requires less nutrition expertise compared to other dietary intake assessment methods. However, the main limitations are systematic errors and biases in estimates. Important efforts are being developed to improve the quality of the information. It has been recommended the use of FFQs with other methods thus enabling the adjustments required. © 2015, Grupo Aula Medica S.A. All rights reserved.


Ruiz E.,Spanish Nutrition Foundation FEN | Avila J.M.,Spanish Nutrition Foundation FEN | Valero T.,Spanish Nutrition Foundation FEN | Pozo S.D.,Spanish Nutrition Foundation FEN | And 8 more authors.
Nutrients | Year: 2015

Energy intake, and the foods and beverages contributing to that, are considered key to understanding the high obesity prevalence worldwide. The relative contributions of energy intake and expenditure to the obesity epidemic, however, remain poorly defined in Spain. The purpose of this study was to contribute to updating data of dietary energy intake and its main sources from food and beverages, according to gender and age. These data were derived from the ANIBES (“Anthropometry, Intake, and Energy Balance in Spain”) study, a cross-sectional study of a nationally representative sample of the Spanish population (from 9–75 years old). A three-day dietary record, collected by means of a tablet device, was used to obtain information about food and beverage consumption and leftovers. The final sample comprised 2009 individuals (1,013 men, 996 women). The observed mean dietary energy intake was 7.6 ± 2.11 MJ/day (8.2 ± 2.22 MJ/day for men and 6.9 ± 1.79 MJ/day for women). The highest intakes were observed among adolescents aged 13–17 years (8.4 MJ/day), followed by children 9–12 years (8.2 ± 1.80 MJ/day), adults aged 18–64 (7.6 ± 2.14 MJ/day) and older adults aged 65–75 years (6.8 ± 1.88 MJ/day). Cereals or grains (27.4%), meats and derivatives (15.2%), oils and fats (12.3%), and milk and dairy products (11.8%) contributed most to daily energy intake. Energy contributions from non-alcoholic beverages (3.9%), fish and shellfish (3.6%), sugars and sweets (3.3%) and alcoholic beverages (2.6%) were moderate to minor. Contributions to caloric profile were 16.8%E from proteins; 41.1%E from carbohydrates, including 1.4%E from fiber; 38.5%E from fats; and 1.9%E from alcohol intake. We can conclude that energy intake is decreasing in the Spanish population. A variety of food and beverage groups contribute to energy intake; however, it is necessary to reinforce efforts for better adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet. © 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


Ruiz E.,Spanish Nutrition Foundation FEN | Avila J.M.,Spanish Nutrition Foundation FEN | Castillo A.,Spanish Nutrition Foundation FEN | Valero T.,Spanish Nutrition Foundation FEN | And 9 more authors.
Nutrients | Year: 2015

Energy Balance (EB) is an important topic to understand how an imbalance in its main determinants (energy intake and consumption) may lead to inappropriate weight gain, considered to be “dynamic” and not “static”. There are no studies to evaluate EB in Spain, and new technologies reveal themselves as key tools to solve common problems to precisely quantify energy consumption and expenditure at population level. The overall purpose of the ANIBES (“Anthropometry, Intake and Energy Balance”) Study was to carry out an accurate updating of food and beverage intake, dietary habits/behaviour and anthropometric data of the Spanish population (9-75 years, n = 2009), as well as the energy expenditure and physical activity patterns. Anthropometry measurements (weight, height, body mass index, waist circumference, % body fat, % body water) were obtained; diet was evaluated throughout a three-day dietary record (tablet device) accompanied by a 24 h-dietary recall; physical activity was quantified by questionnaire and accelerometers were also employed. Finally, information about perception and understanding of several issues related to EB was also obtained. The ANIBES study will contribute to provide valuable useful data to inform food policy planning, food based dietary guidelines development and other health oriented actions in Spain. © 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


Perez-Rodrigo C.,University of the Basque Country | Gil A.,University of Granada | Gonzalez-Gross M.,Technical University of Madrid | Ortega R.M.,Complutense University of Madrid | And 4 more authors.
Nutrients | Year: 2015

Weight gain has been associated with behaviors related to diet, sedentary lifestyle, and physical activity. We investigated dietary patterns and possible meaningful clustering of physical activity, sedentary behavior, and sleep time in Spanish children and adolescents and whether the identified clusters could be associated with overweight. Analysis was based on a subsample (n = 415) of the cross-sectional ANIBES study in Spain. We performed exploratory factor analysis and subsequent cluster analysis of dietary patterns, physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and sleep time. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore the association between the cluster solutions and overweight. Factor analysis identified four dietary patterns, one reflecting a profile closer to the traditional Mediterranean diet. Dietary patterns, physical activity behaviors, sedentary behaviors and sleep time on weekdays in Spanish children and adolescents clustered into two different groups. A low physical activity-poorer diet lifestyle pattern, which included a higher proportion of girls, and a high physical activity, low sedentary behavior, longer sleep duration, healthier diet lifestyle pattern. Although increased risk of being overweight was not significant, the Prevalence Ratios (PRs) for the low physical activity-poorer diet lifestyle pattern were >1 in children and in adolescents. The healthier lifestyle pattern included lower proportions of children and adolescents from low socioeconomic status backgrounds. © 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


PubMed | Complutense University of Madrid, University of Granada, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Technical University of Madrid and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Nutrients | Year: 2016

Our aim was to analyze dietary macronutrient intake and its main sources according to sex and age. Results were derived from the ANIBES (Anthropometry, Intake and Energy Balance in Spain) cross-sectional study using a nationally-representative sample of the Spanish population (9-75 years old). Mean dietary protein intake was 74.5 22.4 g/day, with meat and meat products as the main sources (33.0%). Mean carbohydrate intake was 185.4 60.9 g/day and was higher in children and adolescents; grains (49%), mainly bread, were the main contributor. Milk and dairy products (23%) ranked first for sugar intake. Mean lipid intake was 78.1 26.1 g/day and was higher in younger age groups; contributions were mainly from oils and fats (32.5%; olive oil 25.6%) and meat and meat products (22.0%). Lipid profiles showed relatively high monounsaturated fatty acid intake, of which olive oil contributed 38.8%. Saturated fatty acids were mainly (>70%) combined from meat and meat products, milk and dairy products and oils and fats. Polyunsaturated fatty acids were mainly from oils and fats (31.5%). The macronutrient intake and distribution in the Spanish population is far from population reference intakes and nutritional goals, especially for children and adolescents.


PubMed | Complutense University of Madrid, University of Granada, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Technical University of Madrid and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Nutrients | Year: 2015

Energy intake, and the foods and beverages contributing to that, are considered key to understanding the high obesity prevalence worldwide. The relative contributions of energy intake and expenditure to the obesity epidemic, however, remain poorly defined in Spain. The purpose of this study was to contribute to updating data of dietary energy intake and its main sources from food and beverages, according to gender and age. These data were derived from the ANIBES (Anthropometry, Intake, and Energy Balance in Spain) study, a cross-sectional study of a nationally representative sample of the Spanish population (from 9-75 years old). A three-day dietary record, collected by means of a tablet device, was used to obtain information about food and beverage consumption and leftovers. The final sample comprised 2009 individuals (1,013 men, 996 women). The observed mean dietary energy intake was 7.6 2.11 MJ/day (8.2 2.22 MJ/day for men and 6.9 1.79 MJ/day for women). The highest intakes were observed among adolescents aged 13-17 years (8.4 MJ/day), followed by children 9-12 years (8.2 1.80 MJ/day), adults aged 18-64 (7.6 2.14 MJ/day) and older adults aged 65-75 years (6.8 1.88 MJ/day). Cereals or grains (27.4%), meats and derivatives (15.2%), oils and fats (12.3%), and milk and dairy products (11.8%) contributed most to daily energy intake. Energy contributions from non-alcoholic beverages (3.9%), fish and shellfish (3.6%), sugars and sweets (3.3%) and alcoholic beverages (2.6%) were moderate to minor. Contributions to caloric profile were 16.8%E from proteins; 41.1%E from carbohydrates, including 1.4%E from fiber; 38.5%E from fats; and 1.9%E from alcohol intake. We can conclude that energy intake is decreasing in the Spanish population. A variety of food and beverage groups contribute to energy intake; however, it is necessary to reinforce efforts for better adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet.


PubMed | Spanish Nutrition Foundation FEN, Complutense University of Madrid, Technical University of Madrid, Public University of Navarra and CIBER ISCIII
Type: Journal Article | Journal: BMC public health | Year: 2017

An increase of sedentary behaviors far from the Mediterranean lifestyle is happening in spite of the impact on health. The aims of this study were to describe sedentary behaviors in children and adolescents.A representative sample of 424 Spanish children and adolescents (38% females) involved in the ANIBES study was analyzed regarding their sedentary behaviors, together with the availability of televisions, computers, and consoles by means of the HELENA sedentary behavior questionnaire.For the total sample of children, 49.3% during weekdays and 84% during weekends did not meet the recommendation of less than 2hours of screen viewing per day. The use of TV was higher during weekdays (p<0.05) and there were significant differences between adolescents and children (16.9 vs. 25.1%, p<0.05). The use of computer, console games and of internet for non-study reasons was higher during weekends (p<0.001). Adolescents played more computer games and used more internet for non-study reasons than children during both weekdays and weekends (p<0.05 and p<0.001, respectively). The use of internet for academic reasons was lower in children (p<0.001) than adolescents during weekends; however, no significant differences were found between sexes. In addition, more than 30% of the children and adolescents had at least one electronic device in their bedrooms.Spanish children and adolescents are not meeting the recommendations regarding the maximum of screen viewing (<2h/day), especially during the weekend, for all of sedentary behaviors. Urgent strategies and intervention studies are needed to reduce sedentary behavior in young people.


PubMed | Complutense University of Madrid, University of Granada, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Technical University of Madrid and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Nutrients | Year: 2015

Energy Balance (EB) is an important topic to understand how an imbalance in its main determinants (energy intake and consumption) may lead to inappropriate weight gain, considered to be dynamic and not static. There are no studies to evaluate EB in Spain, and new technologies reveal themselves as key tools to solve common problems to precisely quantify energy consumption and expenditure at population level. The overall purpose of the ANIBES (Anthropometry, Intake and Energy Balance) Study was to carry out an accurate updating of food and beverage intake, dietary habits/behaviour and anthropometric data of the Spanish population (9-75 years, n=2009), as well as the energy expenditure and physical activity patterns. Anthropometry measurements (weight, height, body mass index, waist circumference, % body fat, % body water) were obtained; diet was evaluated throughout a three-day dietary record (tablet device) accompanied by a 24 h-dietary recall; physical activity was quantified by questionnaire and accelerometers were also employed. Finally, information about perception and understanding of several issues related to EB was also obtained. The ANIBES study will contribute to provide valuable useful data to inform food policy planning, food based dietary guidelines development and other health oriented actions in Spain.

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