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Mielgo-Ayuso J.,Technical University of Madrid | Aparicio-Ugarriza R.,Technical University of Madrid | Castillo A.,Spanish Nutrition Foundation FEN | Ruiz E.,Spanish Nutrition Foundation FEN | And 12 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

Background: Representative data for the Spanish population regarding physical activity (PA) behaviors are scarce and seldom comparable due to methodological inconsistencies. Aim: Our objectives were to describe the PA behavior by means of the standardized self-reported International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and to know the proportion of the Spanish population meeting and not meeting international PA recommendations. Material and Methods: PA was assessed using the IPAQ in a representative sample of 2285 individuals (males, 50.4%) aged 9-75 years and living in municipalities of at least 2,000 inhabitants. Data were analyzed according to: age groups 9-12, 13-17, 18-64, and 65-75 years; sex; geographical distribution; locality size and educational levels. Results: Mean total PA was 868.8±660.9 min/wk, mean vigorous PA 146.4±254.1 min/wk, and mean moderate PA 398.1±408.0 min/wk, showing significant differences between sexes (p<0.05). Children performed higher moderate-vigorous PA than adolescents and seniors (p<0.05), and adults than adolescents and seniors (p<0.05). Compared to recommendations, 36.2% of adults performed <150 min/week of moderate PA, 65.4% <75 min/week of vigorous PA and 27.0% did not perform any PA at all, presenting significant differences between sexes (p<0.05). A total of 55.4% of children and adolescents performed less than 420 min/week of MVPA, being higher in the later (62.6%) than in the former (48.4%). Highest non-compliance was observed in adolescent females (86.5%). Conclusion: Sex and age are the main influencing factors on PA in the Spanish population. Males engage in more vigorous and light PA overall, whereas females perform more moderate PA. PA behavior differs between age groups and no clear lineal increase with age could be observed. Twenty-seven percent of adults and 55.4% of children and adolescents do not meet international PA recommendations. Identified target groups should be addressed to increase PA in the Spanish population. © 2016 Mielgo-Ayuso et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Source

Ruiz E.,Spanish Nutrition Foundation FEN | Avila J.M.,Spanish Nutrition Foundation FEN | Valero T.,Spanish Nutrition Foundation FEN | Pozo S.D.,Spanish Nutrition Foundation FEN | And 8 more authors.
Nutrients | Year: 2015

Energy intake, and the foods and beverages contributing to that, are considered key to understanding the high obesity prevalence worldwide. The relative contributions of energy intake and expenditure to the obesity epidemic, however, remain poorly defined in Spain. The purpose of this study was to contribute to updating data of dietary energy intake and its main sources from food and beverages, according to gender and age. These data were derived from the ANIBES (“Anthropometry, Intake, and Energy Balance in Spain”) study, a cross-sectional study of a nationally representative sample of the Spanish population (from 9–75 years old). A three-day dietary record, collected by means of a tablet device, was used to obtain information about food and beverage consumption and leftovers. The final sample comprised 2009 individuals (1,013 men, 996 women). The observed mean dietary energy intake was 7.6 ± 2.11 MJ/day (8.2 ± 2.22 MJ/day for men and 6.9 ± 1.79 MJ/day for women). The highest intakes were observed among adolescents aged 13–17 years (8.4 MJ/day), followed by children 9–12 years (8.2 ± 1.80 MJ/day), adults aged 18–64 (7.6 ± 2.14 MJ/day) and older adults aged 65–75 years (6.8 ± 1.88 MJ/day). Cereals or grains (27.4%), meats and derivatives (15.2%), oils and fats (12.3%), and milk and dairy products (11.8%) contributed most to daily energy intake. Energy contributions from non-alcoholic beverages (3.9%), fish and shellfish (3.6%), sugars and sweets (3.3%) and alcoholic beverages (2.6%) were moderate to minor. Contributions to caloric profile were 16.8%E from proteins; 41.1%E from carbohydrates, including 1.4%E from fiber; 38.5%E from fats; and 1.9%E from alcohol intake. We can conclude that energy intake is decreasing in the Spanish population. A variety of food and beverage groups contribute to energy intake; however, it is necessary to reinforce efforts for better adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet. © 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Source

Ruiz E.,Spanish Nutrition Foundation FEN | Avila J.M.,Spanish Nutrition Foundation FEN | Castillo A.,Spanish Nutrition Foundation FEN | Valero T.,Spanish Nutrition Foundation FEN | And 9 more authors.
Nutrients | Year: 2015

Energy Balance (EB) is an important topic to understand how an imbalance in its main determinants (energy intake and consumption) may lead to inappropriate weight gain, considered to be “dynamic” and not “static”. There are no studies to evaluate EB in Spain, and new technologies reveal themselves as key tools to solve common problems to precisely quantify energy consumption and expenditure at population level. The overall purpose of the ANIBES (“Anthropometry, Intake and Energy Balance”) Study was to carry out an accurate updating of food and beverage intake, dietary habits/behaviour and anthropometric data of the Spanish population (9-75 years, n = 2009), as well as the energy expenditure and physical activity patterns. Anthropometry measurements (weight, height, body mass index, waist circumference, % body fat, % body water) were obtained; diet was evaluated throughout a three-day dietary record (tablet device) accompanied by a 24 h-dietary recall; physical activity was quantified by questionnaire and accelerometers were also employed. Finally, information about perception and understanding of several issues related to EB was also obtained. The ANIBES study will contribute to provide valuable useful data to inform food policy planning, food based dietary guidelines development and other health oriented actions in Spain. © 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Source

Santos S.F.G.,Thao Foundation | Santos S.F.G.,IMIM Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute | Santiago R.E.,Institute of Food Science and Technology and Nutrition | Trabazo M.R.L.,University of Santiago de Compostela | And 7 more authors.
Nutricion Hospitalaria | Year: 2015

Introduction: childhood obesity is one of the main public health concerns. The multifactorial and multilevel causes require complex interventions such the community based interventions (CBI). Thao-Child Health Programme is a CBI implemented in Spain since 2007. Goal: show the Thao methodology and the latest cross-sectional and longitudinal results. Methods: longitudinal cohort study (4 years of follow- up) and cross sectional study. Results: the longitudinal study found an increase of 1% in the overweight prevalence after a follow-up of 4 years of Thao-Programme implementation in 10 municipalities with 6 697 children involved. The cross-sectional study carried out with 20 636 children from 22 municipalities found a childhood overweight prevalence of 26.6%. Discussion: currently a brake in the increase of childhood overweight prevalence is considered a success due to the high prevalence worldwide. More studies well methodologically performed are needed to know the efficacy of the CBI’s in this field. © 2015, Grupo Aula Medica S.A. All rights reserved. Source

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