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Novella E.J.,Spanish National Research Council
Health Care Analysis | Year: 2010

This paper offers a panoramic assessment of the significant changes experienced by psychiatric care in Western Europe and North America in the course of the last decades of deinstitutionalization and reform. Drawing on different comparative studies and an own review of relevant data and reports, the main transformations in the mental health field are analyzed around seven major topics: the expanding scope of psychiatry; the decline and metamorphosis of the asylum; the introduction of alternative and diversified forms of care; the new challenges posed by chronic mental illness; the emergence of modern psychopharmacology; the deployment of subspecialization; and the new forms of coercion implemented with community mental health practices. Following a renewed diagnosis on the essential features of the reformed mental health systems based on the pattern of social inclusion inherent to the new devices and philosophies of care, some major challenges for the future such as the overburdening of services or the overt exclusion of a significant part of potential users are also identified and briefly discussed. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009. Source


Bengoechea J.A.,Spanish National Research Council
International Microbiology | Year: 2012

This short review establishes the conceptual bases and discusses the principal aspects of P4-shorthand for predictive, preventive, personalized and participatory medicine-medicine, in the framework of infectious diseases. P4 medicine is a new way to approach medical care; instead of acting when the patient is sick, physicians will be able to detect early warnings of disease to take early action. Furthermore, people might even be able to adjust their lifestyles to prevent disease. P4 medicine is fuelled by systems approaches to disease, including methods for personalized genome sequencing and new computational techniques for building dynamic disease predictive networks from massive amounts of data from a variety of OMICs. An excellent example of the effectiveness of the P4 medicine approach is the change in cancer treatments. Emphasis is placed on early detection, followed by genotyping of the patient to use the most adequate treatment according to the genetic background. Cardiovascular diseases and perhaps even neurodegenerative disorders will be the next targets for P4 medicine. The application of P4 medicine to infectious diseases is still in its infancy, but is a promising field that will provide much benefit to both the patients and the health-care system. Source


Corsin Jimenez A.,Spanish National Research Council
Environment and Planning D: Society and Space | Year: 2014

This paper develops an analytical framework to place the rise of open source urbanism in context, and develops the concept of the 'right to infrastructure' as expressive of new ecologies of urban relations that have come into being. It describes, first, a genealogy for open source technology, focusing in particular on how open source urban hardware projects may challenge urban theory. It moves then to describe in detail various dimensions and implications of an open source infrastructural project in Madrid. In all, the paper analyses three challenges that the development of open source urban infrastructures is posing to the institutions of urban governance and property: the evolving shape and composition of urban ecologies; the technical and design challenges brought about by open source urban projects; and the social organization of the 'right to infrastructure' as a political, active voice in urban governance. In the last instance, the right to infrastructure, I shall argue, signals the rise of the 'prototype' as an emerging figure for contemporary sociotechnical designs in and for social theory. © 2014 Pion and its Licensors. Source


Munoz-Barrera M.,Andalusian Center for Molecular Biology and Regenerative Medicine | Munoz-Barrera M.,Spanish National Research Council | Monje-Casas F.,Andalusian Center for Molecular Biology and Regenerative Medicine | Monje-Casas F.,University of SevilleSeville
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2014

Aurora B kinase regulates the proper biorientation of sister chromatids during mitosis. Lack of Aurora B kinase function results in the inability to correct erroneous kinetochore-microtubule attachments and gives rise to aneuploidy. Interestingly, increased Aurora B activity also leads to problems with chromosome segregation, and overexpression of this kinase has been observed in various types of cancer. However, little is known about the mechanisms by which an increase in Aurora B kinase activity can impair mitotic progression and cell viability. Here, using a yeast model, we demonstrate that increased Aurora B activity as a result of the overexpression of the Aurora B and inner centromere protein homologs triggers defects in chromosome segregation by promoting the continuous disruption of chromosome-microtubule attachments even when sister chromatids are correctly bioriented. This disruption leads to a constitutive activation of the spindle-assembly checkpoint, which therefore causes a lack of cytokinesis even though spindle elongation and chromosome segregation take place. Finally, we demonstrate that this increase in Aurora B activity causes premature collapse of the mitotic spindle by promoting instability of the spindle midzone. Source


News Article
Site: http://phys.org/biology-news/

The turbot lives on the sea-bed, which means it has had to adapt to an environment of very little light and chillier waters. Credit: CSIC Communications Department The first vertebrate to be genetically sequenced in Spain, the Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus), has a much more highly developed sense of sight than other fish, since it has evolved in order to adapt itself to the lack of light on the sea bed. In addition, its genes show us that the levels of fat in its cellular membranes are far higher than in other species, so as to be able to withstand the low water temperatures in its habitat. The complete genome sequencing of this fish, carried out by scientists from the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), the University of Santiago de Compostela, and Spain's National Centre for Genome Analysis in Barcelona have brought this and other conclusions to light. The work opens the way for further investigation, not only into the Turbot's resistance to different illnesses, but also to look more deeply into how other fish respond to these pathologies. The results, published in the magazine DNA Research, could be used in the future design of genetic selection programmes, or in possible vaccines. The flat-bodied Turbot, rhomboid-shaped, and with both eyes found on its left side, underwent a process of metamorphosis during its development, which is when it began to develop a body distribution which is atypical in flat fish. And it's because of this circumstance it lives on the sea-bed, which means it has had to adapt to an environment of very little light and chillier waters. "We have seen that many of the genes which are involved in sight, mainly those which carry pigment codes, and others involved in forming the crystalline, are repeated in this vertebrate with respect to other fish. This would indicate that they have evolved, refining their sense of sight to adapt to the low levels of light which surrounds them", says CSIC investigator, Antonio Figueras, from the Institute of Marine Investigation in Vigo. In order to tolerate these low temperatures, the Turbot has a number of genes related to fatty acids in the repeated cellular membranes, when compared with other organisms which live at higher temperatures. The lipid composition of these membranes is a key factor when it comes to withstanding cold. Scientists have managed to identify the most important genes involved in growth, sexual differentiation, and disease resistance, including which specific parts of the genome affect these production traits. "This information is essential to the development of more efficient genetic selection projects, with the aim of identifying the breeding fish with the best production traits", highlights Figueras. Spain is the number one producer of farmed turbot in Europe, with 99% of the total harvest produced in Galicia. According to a report by The Business Association of Marine Aquaculture Producers (APROMAR), European Turbot production reached 11,000 tonnes in 2014, 38% up on 2013. In the same year, the estimated value of the catch across Europe was €75.6m. According to Paulino Martínez, a researcher at the University of Santiago de Compostela, although present day turbot farming is well established, the main problems fish farmers face are related to the species' susceptibility to a range of bacterial, viral, or parasitic diseases and illnesses. As yet, no vaccines or effective treatment exist for many of these pathologies. Another of the challenges facing the sector is how to shorten the time required for the fish to reach a marketable size. "This could be improved by selecting those genes which are involved in growth and sexual differentiation, given that females show far better growth rates compared with males", adds Martínez. Explore further: Blind cave fish may provide insight on eye disease and other human health issues

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