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Orgiles-Calpena E.,Spanish Footwear Technology Institute | Aran-Ais F.,Spanish Footwear Technology Institute | Torro-Palau A.M.,Spanish Footwear Technology Institute | Orgiles-Barcelo C.,Spanish Footwear Technology Institute
Polymers from Renewable Resources | Year: 2016

The demand for fuels as raw materials is increasing disproportionally, thus producing huge environmental impacts, as is the case of carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere. Nowadays, society is facing several challenges, including the implementation of new technologies that are able to meet energy needs and promote sustainable development. Therefore, one of the most commonly produced and used polymers worldwide, polyurethane, which is currently completely dependent on fossil fuels, could be developed in an environmentally sustainable way. In this regard, CO2 may be used for the synthesis of new materials, such as for the production of polyols, essential components in the manufacture of polyurethane. This work focused on the synthesis of polyurethane adhesives containing polyols from CO2. They were synthesised with 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) and 1,4-butanediol as a chain extender. The sustainable polyurethane adhesives derived from carbon dioxide were characterised by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetric tests (TGA). Finally, the adhesion properties were measured from a T-peel test on leather/polyurethane adhesive/ SBR rubber joints, in order to establish the amount of CO2-based polyol that could be added to polyurethane adhesives satisfactorily to meet the quality requirements of footwear joints. © Smithers Information Ltd, 2016.


Sanchez-Navarro M.M.,Spanish Footwear Technology Institute | Perez-Liminana M.A.,Spanish Footwear Technology Institute | Aran-Ais F.,Spanish Footwear Technology Institute | Orgiles-Barcelo C.,Spanish Footwear Technology Institute
Polymer International | Year: 2015

The aim of this study was to develop footwear materials and footwear packaging with scent properties using microencapsulated fragrances from essential oils. For that purpose, gelatine-carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and melamine-formaldehyde (MF) resin-based microcapsules containing limonene were synthesised using complex coacervation and in situ polymerisation processes, respectively. The microcapsules were characterised using various experimental techniques and applied to footwear materials (leather and textile) as well as to paperboard as packaging material to evaluate their performance. The microcapsule durability under various conditions, such as rubbing and ironing, was analysed in order to simulate shoe manufacturing and shoe wearing conditions. The characterisation of the synthesised microcapsules showed two different delivery behaviours. On the one hand, MF microcapsules are more resistant so they may be incorporated into footwear materials that have to be exposed to high mechanical and thermal stresses, such as linings. On the other hand, gelatine-CMC microcapsules should be incorporated into footwear components, such as insoles, which are exposed to lower stresses because they are less resistant and might not resist the process conditions. The combination of both kinds of microcapsules could ensure a rapid as well as a long-lasting fragrance release. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.


Orgiles-Calpena E.,Spanish Footwear Technology Institute | Aran-Ais F.,Spanish Footwear Technology Institute | Torro-Palau A.M.,Spanish Footwear Technology Institute | Orgiles-Barcelo C.,Spanish Footwear Technology Institute
International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives | Year: 2016

Since raw materials used in polyurethane adhesives come from fossil resources, there is a trend towards renewable alternatives to petroleum. In this sense, the use of carbon dioxide as a feedstock for the chemical industry is an interesting alternative to oil because CO2 is inexpensive and abundant in the atmosphere. A new generation of CO2-based polymers has been recently developed, specifically, polyols, essential components for polyurethane synthesis. This work focused on the synthesis of reactive polyurethane hot melt adhesives (HMPUR) containing polycarbonate polyols derived from CO2 and 4,4′-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI). The sustainable polyurethane adhesives derived from carbon dioxide were characterised by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Finally, the adhesion properties were measured from a T-peel test on leather/polyurethane adhesive/SBR rubber joints, in order to establish the amount of CO2-based polycarbonate polyol that could be added to reactive polyurethane hot melt adhesives satisfactorily to meet the quality requirements of footwear joints. All percentages of CO2-based polyol added to polyurethane adhesives meet successfully the quality requirements of footwear, being comparable to conventional adhesives used currently in shoe joints both in terms of green and final strength, and after high temperature/humidity conditions and hydrolysis tests. Therefore, this new generation of sustainable polyurethane adhesives could replace the adhesives commonly used in shoe joints. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd


Orgiles-Calpena E.,Spanish Footwear Technology Institute | Aran-Ais F.,Spanish Footwear Technology Institute | Torro-Palau A.M.,Spanish Footwear Technology Institute | Montiel-Parreno E.,Spanish Footwear Technology Institute | Orgiles-Barcelo C.,Spanish Footwear Technology Institute
International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives | Year: 2016

Raw materials used in adhesive polyurethane formulations for the footwear industry come from non-renewable fossil resources. This strong dependence of the chemical industry with regard to fossil fuels, such as oil, contributes negatively to the environment. For this reason, there is a trend towards sustainable products that minimise the use of oil resources. Previous studies demonstrated the feasibility of replacing polyols, one of the essential components of polyurethanes, as vegetable oils, a sustainable alternative to sustainable polyurethanes. However, they compete with food production for humans or animal feed. In this sense, the use of carbon dioxide as a feedstock for the chemical industry is an interesting alternative to oil because CO2 is useful, versatile, non-flammable and its presence is abundant in the atmosphere. Specifically, carbon dioxide could be used for the synthesis of polyurethanes, one of the most polymers produced worldwide, currently dependent on fossil fuels. This work focused on the synthesis of polyurethane adhesives containing polyols from CO2. They were synthesised with 4,4′-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) and 1,4-butanediol as a chain extender. The sustainable polyurethane adhesives derived from carbon dioxide were characterised by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetric tests (TGA). Finally, the adhesion properties were measured from a T-peel test on leather/polyurethane adhesive/SBR rubber joints, in order to establish the amount of CO2-based polyol that could be added to polyurethane adhesives satisfactorily to meet the quality requirements of footwear joints. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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