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de Abajo F.J.,University of Alcala | Gil M.J.,Spanish Agency for Medicines and Medical Devices | Garcia Poza P.,University of Alcala | Bryant V.,Spanish Agency for Medicines and Medical Devices | And 3 more authors.
Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety | Year: 2014

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to estimate the risk of nonfatal acute myocardial infarction (AMI) associated with traditional NSAIDs (tNSAIDs), non-narcotic analgesics (paracetamol and metamizole), and symptomatic slow-acting drugs in osteoarthritis (SYSADOAs) overall and in different subgroups of patients. Methods: We performed a nested case-control study using a Primary Care Database (Base de datos para la Investigación Farmacoepidemiológica en Atención Primaria), over the study period, 2001-2007. We included patients aged 40-90years, with nonfatal AMI and randomly selected controls matched for age, sex and calendar year. Exposure to drugs was assessed within a 30-day window before the index date. Results: We did not find an association with nonfatal AMI in patients at low-intermediate background cardiovascular risk (odds ratio=0.92; 95% confidence interval: 0.76-1.12), whereas there was a moderate significant association among those at high risk (1.28; 1.06-1.54) or when tNSAIDs were used for longer than 365days (1.43; 1.12-1.82). The greatest risk occurred when these two conditions were combined (1.80; 1.26-2.58). The risk varied across individual tNSAIDs, with ibuprofen (0.95; 0.78-1.16) in the lower and aceclofenac (1.59; 1.15-2.19) in the upper part of the range. Low-dose aspirin did not modify the risk profile showed by any of the individual tNSAIDs examined. Paracetamol (0.84; 0.74-0.95), metamizole (1.06; 0.87-1.29) and SYSADOAs (0.68; 0.47-0.99) were not associated with an increased risk overall or in any subgroup of patients. Conclusions: The risk of nonfatal AMI varied with individual tNSAIDs, duration of treatment and background cardiovascular risk. Paracetamol, metamizole and SYSADOAs did not increase the risk in any of the conditions examined. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Garcia-Poza P.,University of Alcala | de Abajo F.J.,University of Alcala | Gil M.J.,Spanish Agency for Medicines and Medical Devices | Chacon A.,Madrid Health Service | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis | Year: 2015

To assess the risk of non-fatal ischemic stroke associated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and paracetamol. The effects of dose, duration of treatment, background cardiovascular (CV) risk and use of concomitant aspirin were studied. Methods: We performed a population-based case-control study. Patients were considered exposed if they were on treatment within a 30-day window before the index date. We estimated adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using logistic regression. Results: Two thousand eight hundred and eighty-eight cases and 20 000 controls were included. No increased risk was observed with traditional NSAIDs as a group (OR = 1.03; 95% CI, 0.90-1.19), but results varied across individual agents and conditions of use. An increased risk was found with diclofenac (OR = 1.53; 95% CI, 1.19-1.97), in particular when used at high doses (OR = 1.62; 1.06-2.46), over long-term periods (> 365 days; OR = 2.39; 1.52-3.76) and in patients with a high background CV risk (OR = 1.78; 1.23-2.58), as well as with aceclofenac when used at high doses (OR = 1.67; 1.05-2.67), in long-term treatments (OR = 2.00; 1.14-3.53) and in patients with CV risk factors (OR = 2.33; 1.40-3.87). No association was found with ibuprofen (OR = 0.94; 0.76-1.17) or naproxen (OR = 0.68; 0.36-1.29). The concomitant use of aspirin did not show a significant effect modification. Paracetamol did not increase the risk overall (OR = 0.97; 0.85-1.10) or in patients at high CV risk (OR = 0.94; 0.78-1.14). Conclusions: Diclofenac and aceclofenac increase the risk of ischemic stroke while ibuprofen and naproxen do not. Dose, duration and baseline CV risk, but not aspirin use, appear to modulate the risk. Paracetamol does not increase the risk, even in patients with a high background CV risk. © 2015 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

De Abajo F.J.,Spanish Agency for Medicines and Medical Devices | De Abajo F.J.,University Hospital Principe Of Asturias | De Abajo F.J.,University of Alcala | Gil M.J.,Spanish Agency for Medicines and Medical Devices | And 4 more authors.
European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology | Year: 2013

Summary: Aim: To test the ability a new Spanish primary care research database (BIFAP) to capture the association between upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) and NSAIDs and other drugs and compare the results with previous studies. Methods: We performed a nested case-control study in persons aged 40-90 years old included in the period 2001-2005. Potential cases were selected through a computer search followed by an individual blinded review. Controls matched for age, sex and calendar year were randomly selected. The exposure window was defined as 0-30 days before the index date. Adjusted odds ratios were obtained through unconditional logistic regression models. Results: In a study cohort of 669,115 subjects (1,576,442 person-years) we retrieved 1,193 valid incident cases. Increased risks were found with current use of NSAIDs (RR = 1.72; 95 %CI: 1.41-2.09), metamizole (1.52; 1.09-2.13), low-dose aspirin (1.74; 1.37-2.21), other antiplatelet drugs (1.73; 1.27-2.36), and oral anticoagulants (2.00; 1.44-2.77). We did not find an increased risk with current use of oral corticosteroids (1.11; 0.66-1.86), SSRIs (1.05; 0.77-1.42), or paracetamol (1.00; 0.82-1.23). Acid-suppressing drugs reduced the risk among users of NSAIDs (0.58; 0.39-0.85), particularly in users with antecedents of peptic ulcer (0.16; 0.05-0.58). We detected a decreasing time-trend in the relative risk and the population attributable proportion associated with NSAIDs over the study period. Conclusions: The increased risk of UGIB associated with NSAIDs was lower than previously reported, which could partly be explained by methodological differences, but a decreasing burden over time of this drug safety problem is suggested. BIFAP has shown to be a valuable tool for pharmacoepidemiological research. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

Hernandez-Diaz S.,Harvard University | Martin-Merino E.,Spanish Center for Pharmacoepidemiological Research | Garcia Rodriguez L.A.,Spanish Center for Pharmacoepidemiological Research
Digestive Diseases and Sciences | Year: 2013

Background: Few studies have evaluated the prevention of upper gastrointestinal complications (UGIC; bleeding or perforation) in patients with uncomplicated peptic ulcer (PU). We assessed the effect of proton pump inhibitors (PPI) in a non-randomized setting. To maximize exchangeability of exposed and unexposed groups we restricted the study to patients with a new diagnosis of PU, i.e., a clear indication. To minimize selection bias we mimicked an intention to treat approach by assessing the effect of PPI prescription after PU diagnosis. Methods: Within a population of subjects aged 40-84 years from The Health Improvement Network database, 1997-2006, we identified 3,850 patients with incident PU. Among them, we confirmed 74 first UGIC episodes during a mean follow-up of 4 years. Exposure was prescription coverage during the month following PU diagnosis. We performed a nested case-control analysis and compared UGIC cases with 400 controls matched for age, sex, year and duration of follow-up. Relative risks (RR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were estimated. Results: The overall incidence of UGIC was 4.6 cases/1,000 person-years; it was highest during the months after PU diagnosis, increased with age, and it was higher in men and subjects with Helicobacter pylori infection, anemia, and alcohol use at PU diagnosis. The RR for UGIC associated with PPI prescriptions during the month after PU diagnosis was 0.56 (95 % CI 0.31-1.0). The RR for NSAIDs with and without a PPI was 1.72 (0.68-4.45) and 3.27 (0.85-12.67), respectively. Conclusions: Findings suggest that prescription of PPIs after a PU diagnosis is associated with a reduced risk of UGIC. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Masso Gonzalez E.L.,Astrazeneca | Masso Gonzalez E.L.,Spanish Center for Pharmacoepidemiological Research | Patrignani P.,University of Chieti Pescara | Tacconelli S.,University of Chieti Pescara | Garcia Rodriguez L.A.,Spanish Center for Pharmacoepidemiological Research
Arthritis and Rheumatism | Year: 2010

Objective. Traditional nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) increase the risk of upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding/perforation, but the magnitude of this effect for coxibs in the general population and the degree of variability between individual NSAIDs is still under debate. This study was undertaken to assess the risk of upper GI bleeding/perforation among users of individual NSAIDs and to analyze the correlation between this risk and the degree of inhibition of whole blood cyclooxygenase 1 (COX-1) and COX-2 in vitro. Methods. We conducted a systematic review of observational studies on NSAIDs and upper GI bleeding/perforation published between 2000 and 2008. We calculated pooled relative risk (RR) estimates of upper GI bleeding/perforation for individual NSAIDs. Additionally, we verified whether the degree of inhibition of whole blood COX-1 and COX-2 in vitro by average circulating concentrations predicted the RR of upper GI bleeding/perforation. Results. The RR of upper GI bleeding/perforation was 4.50 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 3.82-5.31) for traditional NSAIDs and 1.88 (95% CI 0.96-3.71) for coxibs. RRs lower than that for NSAIDs overall were observed for ibuprofen (2.69 [95% CI 2.17-3.33]), rofecoxib (2.12 [95% CI 1.59-2.84]), aceclofenac (1.44 [95% CI 0.65-3.2]), and celecoxib (1.42 [95% CI 0.85-2.37]), while higher RRs were observed for ketorolac (14.54 [95% CI 5.87-36.04]) and piroxicam (9.94 [95% CI 5.99-16.50). Estimated RRs were 5.63 (95% CI 3.83-8.28) for naproxen, 5.57 (95% CI 3.94-7.87) for ketoprofen, 5.40 (95% CI 4.16-7.00) for indomethacin, 4.15 (95% CI 2.59-6.64) for meloxicam, and 3.98 (95% CI 3.36-4.72) for diclofenac. The degree of inhibition of whole blood COX-1 did not significantly correlate with RR of upper GI bleeding/perforation associated with individual NSAIDs (r2 = 0.34, P = 0.058), but a profound and coincident inhibition (>80%) of both COX isozymes was associated with higher risk. NSAIDs with a long plasma half-life and with a slow-release formulation were associated with a greater risk than NSAIDs with a short half-life. Conclusion. The results of our analysis demonstrate that risk of upper GI bleeding/perforation varies between individual NSAIDs at the doses commonly used in the general population. Drugs that have a long half-life or slow-release formulation and/or are associated with profound and coincident inhibition of both COX isozymes are associated with a greater risk of upper GI bleeding/perforation. © 2010, American College of Rheumatology.

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