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Hernandez T.R.,University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria | Boada L.D.,University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria | Boada L.D.,Canary Islands Institute for the Research of Cancer ICIC | Boada L.D.,Spanish Biomedical Research Center in Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition bn | And 15 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2015

Numerous epidemiological studies have demonstrated a link between excessive meat consumption and the incidence of various cancers, especially colorectal cancer, and it has been suggested that environmental carcinogens present in meat might be related to the increased risk of cancer associated with this food. However, there are no studies evaluating the carcinogenic potential of meat in relation to its content of carcinogens. Our purpose was to emphasize the relevance of environmental carcinogens existing in meat as a determinant of the association between cancer and meat consumption. Because within Europe, Spain shows high consumption of meat and charcuterie, we performed this study focusing on Spanish population. Based on the preferences of consumers we acquired 100 samples of meat and charcuterie that reflect the variety available in the European market. We quantified in these samples the concentration of 33 chemicals with calculated carcinogenic potential (PAHs, organochlorine pesticides, and dioxin-like PCBs). The carcinogenic risk of these contaminants was assessed for each food using a risk ratio based on the current consumption of meat and charcuterie and the maximum tolerable intake of these foods depending on the level of contamination by the carcinogens they contain. Our results indicate that the current consumption of beef, pork, lamb, chicken, and "chorizo", represents a relevant carcinogenic risk for consumers (carcinogenic risk quotient between 1.33 and 13.98). In order to reduce carcinogenic risk, the study population should halve the monthly consumption of these foods, and also not to surpass the number of 5 servings of beef/pork/chicken (considered together). © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Hernandez A.R.,University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria | Boada L.D.,University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria | Boada L.D.,Canary Islands Institute for the Research of Cancer ICIC | Boada L.D.,Spanish Biomedical Research Center in Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition bn | And 15 more authors.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2015

Numerous studies have shown an epidemiological link between meat consumption and the incidence of cancer, and it has been suggested that this relationship may be motivated by the presence of carcinogenic contaminants on it. Among the most frequently detected contaminants in meat are several types of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), and it is well known that many of them are carcinogenic. On the other hand, an increasing number of consumers choose to feed on what are perceived as healthier foods. Thus, the number of consumers of organic food is growing. However, environmental contamination by POPs is ubiquitous, and it is therefore unlikely that the practices of organic food production are able to prevent this contamination. To test this hypothesis, we acquired 76 samples of meat (beef, chicken, and lamb) of two modes of production (organic and conventional) and quantified their levels of 33 carcinogenic POPs. On this basis, we determined the human meat-related daily dietary exposure to these carcinogens using as a model a population with a high consumption of meat, such as the Spanish population. The maximum allowable meat consumption for this population and the carcinogenic risk quotients associated with the current pattern of consumption were calculated. As expected, no sample was completely free of carcinogenic contaminants, and the differences between organically and conventionally produced meats were minimal. According to these results, the current pattern of meat consumption exceeded the maximum limits, which are set according to the levels of contaminations, and this is associated with a relevant carcinogenic risk. Strikingly, the consumption of organically produced meat does not diminish this carcinogenic risk, but on the contrary, it seems to be even higher, especially that associated with lamb consumption. © 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg


Luzardo O.P.,University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria | Luzardo O.P.,Instituto Canario Of Investigacion Del Cancer Icic | Luzardo O.P.,Spanish Biomedical Research Center in Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition bn | Bernal-Suarez M.M.,Technological Institute of the Canary Islands | And 19 more authors.
Food and Chemical Toxicology | Year: 2016

"Gofio" is a type of flour made from toasted grain, which is part of the staple food in the Canary Islands, Spain, in which the occurrence of Aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2), Fumonisins B1 and B2 (FB1 and FB2) Ochratoxin A (OTA), Deoxynivalenol (DNV) and Zearalenone (ZEA) was evaluated. 83% of the samples were contaminated with at least one mycotoxin and 69.2% of the analyzed samples showed co-occurrence of mycotoxins (range 2 to 8). All the concentrations were well below the established limits (maximum values of AFs. =. 0.42 μg/kg; FBs. =. 178.3 μg/kg; OTA. =. 0.3 μg/kg; DON. =. 92.5 μg/kg; and ZEA. =. 9.9 μg/kg). The daily dietary exposure to total AFs was estimated to be 7.1% of the TDI. This value was almost double in children, and considering the upper-bound approach could reach 35% of the TDI. For the rest of mycotoxins, the consumers would be exposed to less than 2% of their TDIs. The risk characterization indicates that there is a potential risk in developing aflatoxin induced liver cancer due to gofio consumption in the subpopulation which is simultaneously exposed to other hepatocarcinogens, such as the hepatitis B virus. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.


Henriquez-Hernandez L.A.,University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria | Henriquez-Hernandez L.A.,Instituto Canario Of Investigacion Del Cancer Icic | Henriquez-Hernandez L.A.,Spanish Biomedical Research Center in Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition bn | Henriquez-Hernandez L.A.,Hospital Universitario Insular Of Gran Canaria | And 27 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2016

The archipelago of the Canary Islands is one of the so-called ultra-peripheral territories of the European Union due to its geographical location away from the continent. Although the level of socioeconomic development and lifestyle of this region is comparable to that of any other of the European Union, it is just 100 km off the coast of Morocco, in the African continent. The population of the Canaries has been extensively studied with respect to their levels of POPs, and it has been described that their levels are relatively high compared to other European regions. It has been speculated with that the proximity to Africa may be associated with this level of contamination, but so far this theory has not been verified. This paper describes for the first time the levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in a sample of the population of Morocco (n = 131), which were compared with those of a similar sample of the population of permanent residents in the Canary Islands (n = 100) in order to check this hypothesis. Our results showed that Moroccans have higher median values of OCPs than the residents in the Canaries (σ OCP = 150.2 ng/g lw vs. 83.4 ng/g lw, p = 0.0001). Regarding the PCBs, although recent studies have reported that new environmental sources of PCBs exist in several African countries (including Morocco), the plasma levels of most congeners were significantly higher in Canarians than in Moroccans, especially for the dioxin-like PCBs (median = 7.3 ng/g lw vs. 0.0 ng/g lw, p = 0.0001). The detailed analysis of our results suggests that the levels of these pollutants in the Canarian people are more influenced by their lifestyle and the previous use of these chemicals in the archipelago than by its geographical vicinity with Morocco. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Boada L.D.,University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria | Boada L.D.,Spanish Biomedical Research Center in Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition bn | Sangil M.,University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria | Sangil M.,Spanish Biomedical Research Center in Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition bn | And 14 more authors.
Chemosphere | Year: 2014

The level of contamination with persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and dietary habits and food consumption was extensively studied in the population from the Canary Islands (Spain). Because foodstuffs of animal origin are well known to be prominent contributors to these contaminants, the current study aimed to assess the role of the dietary intake of animal products as a probability factor for increased serum POPs. The intake of animal products (dietary variables) as a determining factor for serum POP levels was investigated using multivariate statistical models. Our results showed that while poultry, rabbit, and cheese consumption increases the probability of having high levels of non-DDT-derivative pesticides, sausage, yogurt, lard, and bacon consumption decreases the probability of having high levels of these pesticides. In addition, poultry, rabbit, eggs, cream, and butter consumption increased the probability of having detectable levels of marker PCB, while dairy desserts decreased the probability of having detectable levels of these PCBs. On the contrary, sausage and meat consumption increased the probability of having detectable levels of dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs). The current results confirm that dietary intake of foodstuffs of animal origin is a relevant risk factor for the accumulation of POPs (and therefore their serum levels). Our study indicates that the analysis of dietary patterns may be useful for identifying those individuals that will probably present a high body burden of POPs. Because POPs can exert deleterious effects on human health, the identification of populations at risk of being highly contaminated is mandatory in order to implement policies that minimize the exposure to these compounds. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Henriquez-Hernandez L.A.,University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria | Carreton E.,University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria | Camacho M.,University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria | Montoya-Alonso J.A.,University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria | And 10 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2016

It has been described that the co-existence of parasite infection and chemical exposure has various effects on the accumulation of persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) in the host. Certain parasites are not only able to accumulate POPs but also seem to have the ability to metabolize certain compounds. We have designed a case-control study aimed to disclose the role of . Dirofilaria immitis in the bioavailability of POPs in dogs trying to know whether these parasites store or metabolize the POPs. A total of 40 common POPs (18 polychlorinated biphenyls congeners (PCBs) and 22 organochlorine pesticides were quantified in dog serum. The study included three groups of dogs prospectively recruited in the island of Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain): a) control animals, non-parasitized (serologically tested negative, . n = 24); b) a group constituted by dogs tested positive for heartworm disease (D. immitis) and negative for other parasites (n = 25); and c) the same group of parasitized dogs after the treatment against the parasite (n = 25). The presence of . D. immitis was strongly associated with lower serum levels of a wide range of pollutant in their hosts (PCB congeners 28, 105, 118, 123, 138, 153, 167 and 180; hexachlorobenzene, lindane, aldrin, dieldrin, and methoxychlor). The serum levels of these substances remained at very low levels after the treatment against the parasite, suggesting that . D. immitis do not simply store such compounds, but they probably have some ability to metabolize these pollutants. We encourage the use of the parasite infestation status as a cofactor that needs to be taken into account in studies aimed to evaluate the serum levels of POPs. © 2016.


Boada L.D.,University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria | Boada L.D.,Spanish Biomedical Research Center in Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition bn | Henriquez-Hernandez L.A.,University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria | Henriquez-Hernandez L.A.,Spanish Biomedical Research Center in Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition bn | And 2 more authors.
Food and Chemical Toxicology | Year: 2016

Meat is one of the staples of the human diet, which provides high-quality nutrients, but that also constitutes a relevant source of cholesterol and saturated fatty acids. Epidemiologic studies have linked consumption of red or processed meat with obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancers. Most epidemiological studies suggest that a high intake of meat, especially processed meat, is associated with increased colorectal cancer risk. Potential reasons for the association between high meat intake and colorectal cancer risk include some chemicals naturally contained in meat, or generated by the processing and cooking. From the literature it can be concluded that there is enough epidemiological evidence linking processed meat intake and colorectal cancer risk, but there is limited evidence regarding unprocessed red meat intake and the disease. On the contrary, there is only limited evidence linking meat intake with other diseases such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes or other cancers. Nevertheless, the literature suggest that dietary intervention may be a promising approach for prevention of cancers of the colon, esophagus, liver, stomach and bladder, and type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease which still need to be confirmed by further well designed prospective studies and experimental research. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.


Rodriguez-Hernandez A.,University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria | Rodriguez-Hernandez A.,Instituto Canario Of Investigacion Del Cancer Icic | Rodriguez-Hernandez A.,Spanish Biomedical Research Center in Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition bn | Camacho M.,University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria | And 24 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2016

In this work we have evaluated the potential carcinogenic and acutely toxic risks associated to the exposure to highly prevalent organic and inorganic contaminants through the consumption of fishery products by the Spanish population. The concentrations of 8 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), 18 polychlorinated biphenils (PCBs), 7 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (expressed as benzo[a]pyrene toxic equivalents (B[a]Peq)), and three inorganic toxic elements [arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and mercury (Hg)] were determined in 93 samples of the most consumed species of white fish, blue fish, cephalopods and seafood species, which were acquired directly in markets and supermarkets in the Canary Islands, Spain. The chemical concentration data were combined with the pattern of consumption of these foodstuffs in order to calculate the daily intake of these contaminants, and on this basis the risk quotients for carcinogenicity and acute toxicity were determined for Spanish adults and children. Our results showed that the daily intake of OCPs, PCBs and B[a]Peq , which is associated to blue fish consumption was the highest within the fish group. The estimated intake of pollutants can be considered low or very low for the individual contaminants, when compared to reference values, except in the case of HCB and As. All the estimated intakes were below the reported Tolerable Daily Intakes. Considering the additive effects of multiple contaminants, the risk of acute toxic effects can also be considered as low or very low. However, our results reflect that the current consumption of white fish in adults and children, and also the blue fish in the case of adults, poses a moderate carcinogenic risk to Spanish consumers, mainly related to their concentrations of As. The conclusions of this research may be useful for the design of appropriate risk communication campaigns. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Henriquez-Hernandez L.A.,University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria | Henriquez-Hernandez L.A.,Spanish Biomedical Research Center in Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition bn | Carreton E.,University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria | Camacho M.,University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria | And 13 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2016

Persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) are toxic chemicals, which accumulate in humans and animals, as only few species have the capability of eliminating them. However, some authors have pointed to the possibility that certain species of invertebrates (i.e. nematodes) could metabolize this type of compounds. As certain species of nematodes act as parasites of vertebrates, this research was designed to explore the influence of some of the most common parasites of the dogs in their serum levels of 56 common POPs. The study included three groups of dogs (n = 64), which were prospectively recruited in the island of Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain): a) control animals, non-parasitized (serologically tested negative, n = 24); b) dogs tested positive for intestinal parasites and negative for other parasites (n = 24); and c) dogs tested positive for heartworm disease (Dirofilaria immitis) and negative for other parasites (n = 16). The presence of Dirofilaria immitis was strongly associated with lower serum levels of a wide range of pollutant in their hosts (PCB congeners 28, 52, 118, 138, 153, and 180; hexachlorobenzene, lindane, aldrin, dieldrin, anthracene and pyrene). We also found an inverse association between the hosts' serum levels of PCBs and intestinal parasites. We did not find any association with DDT or its metabolites, but this might be explained by the recently suggested ability of dogs for the efficient metabolization of these compounds. According to the results of this study certain forms of parasitism would reduce the bioavailability of the major classes of POPs in dogs. However, further studies are needed to elucidate whether this phenomenon is due to a competence between parasites and hosts or could respond to a possible capability of parasitic nematodes for the metabolization of these POPs. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Spanish Biomedical Research Center in Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition bn
Type: | Journal: The Science of the total environment | Year: 2015

The archipelago of the Canary Islands is one of the so-called ultra-peripheral territories of the European Union due to its geographical location away from the continent. Although the level of socioeconomic development and lifestyle of this region is comparable to that of any other of the European Union, it is just 100 km off the coast of Morocco, in the African continent. The population of the Canaries has been extensively studied with respect to their levels of POPs, and it has been described that their levels are relatively high compared to other European regions. It has been speculated with that the proximity to Africa may be associated with this level of contamination, but so far this theory has not been verified. This paper describes for the first time the levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in a sample of the population of Morocco (n = 131), which were compared with those of a similar sample of the population of permanent residents in the Canary Islands (n = 100) in order to check this hypothesis. Our results showed that Moroccans have higher median values of OCPs than the residents in the Canaries ( OCP = 150.2 ng/g lw vs. 83.4 ng/g lw, p = 0.0001). Regarding the PCBs, although recent studies have reported that new environmental sources of PCBs exist in several African countries (including Morocco), the plasma levels of most congeners were significantly higher in Canarians than in Moroccans, especially for the dioxin-like PCBs (median = 7.3 ng/g lw vs. 0.0 ng/g lw, p = 0.0001). The detailed analysis of our results suggests that the levels of these pollutants in the Canarian people are more influenced by their lifestyle and the previous use of these chemicals in the archipelago than by its geographical vicinity with Morocco.

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