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Del Coso J.,Camilo Jose Cela University | Portillo J.,University of Castilla - La Mancha | Munoz G.,Spanish Anti doping Agency | Abian-Vicen J.,Camilo Jose Cela University | And 2 more authors.
Amino Acids | Year: 2013

The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a caffeine-containing energy drink on physical performance during a rugby sevens competition. A second purpose was to investigate the post-competition urinary caffeine concentration derived from the energy drink intake. On two non-consecutive days of a friendly tournament, 16 women from the Spanish National rugby sevens Team (mean age and body mass = 23 ± 2 years and 66 ± 7 kg) ingested 3 mg of caffeine per kg of body mass in the form of an energy drink (Fure ®, ProEnergetics) or the same drink without caffeine (placebo). After 60 min for caffeine absorption, participants performed a 15-s maximal jump test, a 6 × 30 m sprint test, and then played three rugby sevens games against another national team. Individual running pace and instantaneous speed during the games were assessed using global positioning satellite (GPS) devices. Urine samples were obtained pre and post-competition. In comparison to the placebo, the ingestion of the energy drink increased muscle power output during the jump series (23.5 ± 10.1 vs. 25.6 ± 11.8 kW, P = 0.05), running pace during the games (87.5 ± 8.3 vs. 95.4 ± 12.7 m/min, P < 0.05), and pace at sprint velocity (4.6 ± 3.3 vs. 6.1 ± 3.4 m/min, P < 0.05). However, the energy drink did not affect maximal running speed during the repeated sprint test (25.0 ± 1.5 vs. 25.0 ± 1.7 km/h). The ingestion of the energy drink resulted in a higher post-competition urine caffeine concentration than the placebo (3.3 ± 0.7 vs. 0.2 ± 0.1 μg/mL; P < 0.05). In summary, 3 mg/kg of caffeine in the form of a commercially available energy drink considerably enhanced physical performance during a women's rugby sevens competition. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Wien. Source


Abian-Vicen J.,Camilo Jose Cela University | Puente C.,University of Castilla - La Mancha | Salinero J.J.,Camilo Jose Cela University | Gonzalez-Millan C.,Camilo Jose Cela University | And 4 more authors.
Amino Acids | Year: 2014

This study aimed at investigating the effects of a commercially available energy drink on shooting precision, jump performance and endurance capacity in young basketball players. Sixteen young basketball players (first division of a junior national league; 14.9 ± 0.8 years; 73.4 ± 12.4 kg; 182.3 ± 6.5 cm) volunteered to participate in the research. They ingested either (a) an energy drink that contained 3 mg of caffeine per kg of body weight or (b) a placebo energy drink with the same appearance and taste. After 60 min for caffeine absorption, they performed free throw shooting and three-point shooting tests. After that, participants performed a maximal countermovement jump (CMJ), a repeated maximal jumps test for 15 s (RJ-15), and the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1). Urine samples were obtained before and 30 min after testing. In comparison to the placebo, the ingestion of the caffeinated energy drink did not affect precision during the free throws (Caffeine = 70.7 ± 11.8 % vs placebo = 70.3 ± 11.0 %; P = 0.45), the three-point shooting test (39.9 ± 11.8 vs 38.1 ± 12.8 %; P = 0.33) or the distance covered in the Yo-Yo IR1 (2,000 ± 706 vs 1,925 ± 702 m; P = 0.19). However, the energy drink significantly increased jump height during the CMJ (38.3 ± 4.4 vs 37.5 ± 4.4 cm; P < 0.05) mean jump height during the RJ-15 (30.2 ± 3.6 vs 28.8 ± 3.4 cm; P < 0.05) and the excretion of urinary caffeine (1.2 ± 0.7 vs 0.1 ± 0.1 μg/mL; P < 0.05). The intake of a caffeine-containing energy drink (3 mg/kg body weight) increased jump performance although it did not affect basketball shooting precision. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Wien. Source


Fernandez-Elias V.E.,University of Castilla - La Mancha | Del Coso J.,Camilo Jose Cela University | Hamouti N.,University of Castilla - La Mancha | Ortega J.F.,University of Castilla - La Mancha | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism | Year: 2015

Caffeine is an ergogenic aid widely used before and during prolonged exercise. Due to its prolonged biological half-life caffeine effects could remain after exercise. We aimed to investigate the metabolic, respiratory, and cardiovascular postexercise responses to preexercise graded caffeine ingestion. Twelve aerobically trained subjects (mean VO2max = 54 ± 7 ml · min-1 · kg-1) cycled for 60-min at 75% VO2max after ingesting placebo (0 mg of caffeine per kg of body weight) or 0.5, 1.5, 3.0 and 4.5 mg · kg-1 on five occasions. During the 3 hr postexercise, heart rate, blood pressure, glucose, lactate, and fatty acids were analyzed. None of these variables were statistically affected by preexercise caffeine ingestion between 0.5 and 4.5 mg · kg-1. However, ingestion of 4.5 mg · kg-1 of caffeine raised postexercise energy expenditure 15% above placebo (233 ± 58 vs. 202 ± 49 kcal/3 hr; p < .05). Ventilation and tidal volume were elevated after the 4.5 mg·kg-1 caffeine dose above placebo (9.2 ± 2.5 L · min-1 and 0.67 ± 0.29 L · breath-1 vs. 7.8 ± 1.5 L · min-1 and 0.56 ± 0.20 L · breath-1, respectively; p < .05). Ventilation correlated with tidal volume (r = .45; p < .05) and energy expenditure (r = .72; p < .05). In summary, preexercise ingestion of ergogenic caffeine doses do not alter postexercise cardiovascular responses. However, ingestion of 4.5 mg · kg-1 of caffeine raises 3-hr postexercise energy expenditure (i.e., 31 kcal) likely through increased energy cost of ventilation. © 2015 Human Kinetics, Inc Source


Del Coso J.,Camilo Jose Cela University | Ramirez J.A.,European University at Madrid | Munoz G.,Spanish Anti doping Agency | Portillo J.,University of Castilla - La Mancha | And 4 more authors.
Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism | Year: 2013

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a caffeine-containing energy drink in enhancing rugby players' physical performance during a simulated match. A second purpose was to determine the urinary caffeine excretion derived from the energy drink intake. In a randomized and counterbalanced order, 26 elite rugby players (mean ± SD for age and body mass, 25 ± 2 y and 93 ± 15 kg) played 2 simulated rugby games (2 × 30 min) 60 min after ingesting (i) 3 mg of caffeine per kilogram of body mass in the form of an energy drink (Fure, ProEnergetics) or (ii) the same drink without caffeine (placebo). During the matches, the individual running distance and the instantaneous speed were measured, and the number of running actions above 20 km·h-1 (i.e., sprints) were determined, using global positioning system devices. The number of impacts above 5 g during the matches was determined by accelerometry. The ingestion of the energy drink, compared with the placebo, increased the total distance covered during the match (4749 ± 589 vs 5139 ± 475 m, p < 0.05), the running distance covered at more than 20 km·h-1 (184 ± 38 vs 208 ± 38 m, p < 0.05), and the number of sprints (10 ± 7 vs 12 ± 7, p < 0.05). The ingestion of the energy drink also resulted in a greater overall number of impacts (481 ± 352 vs 641 ± 366, p < 0.05) and a higher postexercise urine caffeine concentration (0.1 ± 0.1 vs 2.4 ± 0.9 g·mL-1, p < 0.05). The use of an energy drink with a caffeine dose equivalent to 3 mg·kg-1 considerably enhanced the movement patterns of rugby players during a simulated match. Source


Pallares J.G.,University of Castilla - La Mancha | Fernandez-Elias V.E.,University of Castilla - La Mancha | Ortega J.F.,University of Castilla - La Mancha | Munoz G.,Spanish Anti doping Agency | And 2 more authors.
Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise | Year: 2013

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the oral dose of caffeine needed to increase muscle force and power output during all-out single multijoint movements. METHODS: Thirteen resistance-trained men underwent a battery of muscle strength and power tests in a randomized, double-blind, crossover design, under four different conditions: (a) placebo ingestion (PLAC) or with caffeine ingestion at doses of (b) 3 mg·kg-1 body weight (CAFF3mg), (c) 6 mg·kg (CAFF6mg), and (d) 9 mg·kg-1 (CAFF9mg). The muscle strength and power tests consisted in the measurement of bar displacement velocity and muscle power output during free-weight full-squat (SQ) and bench press (BP) exercises against four incremental loads (25%, 50%, 75%, and 90% one-repetition maximum [1RM]). Cycling peak power output was measured using a 4-s inertial load test. Caffeine side effects were evaluated at the end of each trial and 24 h later. RESULTS: Mean propulsive velocity at light loads (25%-50% 1RM) increased significantly above PLAC for all caffeine doses (5.4%-8.5%, P = 0.039-0.003). At the medium load (75% 1RM), CAFF3mg did not improve SQ or BP muscle power or BP velocity. CAFF9mg was needed to enhance BP velocity and SQ power at the heaviest load (90% 1RM) and cycling peak power output (6.8%-11.7%, P = 0.03-0.05). The CAFF9mg trial drastically increased the frequency of the adverse side effects (15%-62%). CONCLUSIONS: The ergogenic dose of caffeine required to enhance neuromuscular performance during a single all-out contraction depends on the magnitude of load used. A dose of 3 mg·kg-1 is enough to improve high-velocity muscle actions against low loads, whereas a higher caffeine dose (9 mg·kg-1) is necessary against high loads, despite the appearance of adverse side effects. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Sports Medicine. Source

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