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Perez-Farinos N.,Spanish Agency for Food Safety and Nutrition | Lopez-Sobaler A.M.,Complutense University of Madrid | Dal Re M.A.,Spanish Agency for Food Safety and Nutrition | Villar C.,Spanish Agency for Food Safety and Nutrition | And 3 more authors.
BioMed Research International | Year: 2013

The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children in Spain using different sets of cut-off criteria, through a community-based cross-sectional study. The study was conducted in a representative sample of Spanish children between 6 and 9 years, recruited in Spanish schools, between October 2010 and May 2011. 7,569 boys and girls were selected. All were weighed and measured, and their parents were asked about their socioeconomic background, food habits and physical activity. The BMI of each was calculated, and the prevalence of overweight and obesity was determined by age and sex using Spanish reference tables (SPART), IOTF reference values, and WHO growth standards. The prevalence of overweight in boys ranged from 14.1% to 26.7%, and in girls from 13.8% to 25.7%, depending on the cut-off criteria. The prevalence of obesity in boys ranged from 11.0% to 20.9%, and in girls from 11.2% to 15.5%. The prevalence of obesity was the highest among those same children when using the SPART or WHO criteria. Overweight and obesity remain widespreading among Spanish children; a consensus on the definition of overweight and obesity cut-off criteria is necessary. © 2013 Napoleón Pérez-Farinós et al.


Paseiro-Cerrato R.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Rodriguez-Bernaldo de Quiros A.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Sendon R.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Bustos J.,Spanish Agency for Food Safety and Nutrition | And 3 more authors.
Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment | Year: 2015

It is a well-known fact that amines are not stable in food of a fatty nature. In this study the synthesis and characterisation of the products obtained as a result of the reaction of amines in a fatty medium are reported. Based on the well-known reactions among amines and acid and esters groups, two novel compounds were synthesised using m-xylylenediamine (mXDA), a primary diamine widely used as monomer in the manufacture of food contact materials and two fatty acids, oleic acid and palmitic acid, which occur in most fats. The resulting compounds were two molecules belonging to the family of fatty acid amides, dioleamide and dipalmitamide. A complete characterisation of both products was carried out employing several techniques such as infrared spectroscopy, 1H- and 13C-NMR spectroscopy, electron ionisation mass spectrometry, LC-MS/MS and UV spectrometry. The results obtained by the different techniques were well correlated. In the second part of the work, the formation of these compounds in real samples was evaluated. For this purpose a certain volume of olive oil was spiked with a known amount of mXDA. Olive oil was selected as a fatty medium since it is a widely consumed food and additionally is used as a fatty food simulant in migration studies of food contact materials. A method was developed to extract the fatty acid amides from the fatty matrix, which were then identified by LC-MS/MS. The toxicity of the synthesised compounds was predicted using a toxicity estimation software tool. © 2014, © 2014 Taylor & Francis.


Lago M.A.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Rodriguez-Bernaldo de Quiros A.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Sendon R.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Bustos J.,Spanish Agency for Food Safety and Nutrition | And 2 more authors.
Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment | Year: 2015

Ultraviolet light printing inks are considered safer than the classical inks; however, despite being on the outer surface of the packaging material, their components can migrate into foodstuffs and can give rise to contamination. Photoinitiators are a part of the formulation of printing inks, being an important class of migrant, for which there have been more than 100 incidents of contamination of packaged food with photoinitiators reported through Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF) alerts in the European Union. In this review the process of photo-polymerisation is explained in depth to provide an insight into the complexity of the process, and the diversity of potential contaminants together with their degradation products. The critical factors affecting the migration process itself are reviewed, together with analytical methods and the current legislation in the European Union and other parts of the world. © 2015, © 2015 Taylor & Francis.


Lago M.A.,University of Santiago de Compostela | De Rodriguez-Bernaldo Quiros A.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Sendon R.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Bustos J.,Spanish Agency for Food Safety and Nutrition | And 2 more authors.
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2014

Photoinitiators (PIs) are components of UV-cured inks widely used in printing of food packaging. These substances can migrate into food and may be a hazard to human health. High-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection (HPLC-DAD) has been used for analysis of PIs and amine synergists in food packaging. Analysis was performed with a Kromasil C18 column (250 mm×3.2 mm i.d., 5 μm particle size) with a binary mobile phase gradient prepared from acetonitrile and Milli-Q water. The flow rate was 0.5 mL min -1. The method enables separation of fourteen PIs and amine synergists in a single run. The method was validated for linearity, repeatability, and limits of detection and quantification. Excellent sensitivity (LODs≤1.56 μg dm bsupesup) and appropriate repeatability (RSD (n=10) <0.9 %) were achieved. Different types of food packaging material including plastic films, cardboard, and cans were analyzed and PIs were detected in 47 % of the samples tested (n=17). Positive samples were confirmed by use of LC-MS-MS in positive electrospray ionization (ESI) mode. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Paseiro-Cerrato R.,University of Santiago de Compostela | De Quiros A.R.-B.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Sendon R.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Bustos J.,Spanish Agency for Food Safety and Nutrition | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Chromatography A | Year: 2011

This paper describes the development of a multi-analyte method for the determination of polyfunctional amines commonly used as monomers in the manufacture of food contact materials. Amines were analyzed by high-performance-liquid chromatography with diode-array detection (HPLC-DAD) after derivatization with dansyl chloride. The chromatographic analysis and the derivatization conditions were optimized. The proposed method was validated in terms of linearity, limits of detection and repeatabilities. The method showed an excellent sensitivity (LOD ≤ 0.05 μg/mL) and appropriate repeatabilites (RSD (n=7) ≤ 5%)). LC-MS/MS was used as a confirmatory technique. The stability of the amines in five food simulants (distilled water, 3% acetic acid, 10% ethanol, 50% ethanol and olive oil) under the most common testing conditions (10 days at 40°C) was also studied. Results showed that amines had an acceptable stability in aqueous simulants but in the olive oil a loss of 100% was observed for all analytes. © 2011.


Maia J.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Cruz J.M.,University of Vigo | Sendon R.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Bustos J.,Spanish Agency for Food Safety and Nutrition | And 3 more authors.
Food Research International | Year: 2010

The key block for the production of polycarbonate (PC) is bisphenol A (BPA). Recent studies have proven that this monomer is able to migrate from PC baby bottles into food simulants and, although this is a polemical subject, numerous investigations indicate that BPA may have an effect on the human health. For these reasons, BPA safety regarding human exposure has recently become an alarming issue.Amines are a class of chemicals which are present in foodstuffs, such as milk. For this reason PC baby bottles, while being used, are continuously in contact with several amines, some of which are able to cause PC aminolysis, resulting in the release of BPA.In this work, 16 substances (14 with amine groups and 2 with amide groups) were tested in order to verify if they were able to increase BPA release by increasing PC depolymerization. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection (FLD) and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used to quantify and identify the BPA, respectively. Although most of the substances tested did not increase the release of BPA from PC, some of them had a significant effect and high levels of this monomer were measured in the solutions. Of all of the amines tested that originating the worst case of BPA release was 1,4-diaminobutane. Also known as putrescine, 1,4-diaminobutane is a biogenic amine that results from protein degradation and it may be present in milk. In this case, BPA concentration in the solution was more than 5000 times the level found in the control sample. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Paseiro-Cerrato R.,University of Santiago de Compostela | De Quiros A.R.-B.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Sendon R.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Bustos J.,Spanish Agency for Food Safety and Nutrition | And 3 more authors.
Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety | Year: 2010

Polyfunctional amines are a group of substances commonly used as additives or monomers in food-contact materials. These substances can migrate into foodstuffs and, consequently, may be potentially dangerous for human health. Due to their different chemical structures and physicochemical properties there does not exist a standard method to analyze polyfunctional amines. This review aims to provide an update on the chromatographic methods used for the determination of polyfunctional amines that are commonly used in the manufacture of food packaging materials. Detailed information regarding chromatographic conditions (mobile phases, chromatographic columns, detection systems, and so on) is provided. Moreover, chemical structures and physicochemical properties of the substances studied are also presented. © 2010 Institute of Food Technologists®.


PubMed | Spanish Agency for Food Safety and Nutrition
Type: | Journal: BioMed research international | Year: 2013

The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children in Spain using different sets of cut-off criteria, through a community-based cross-sectional study. The study was conducted in a representative sample of Spanish children between 6 and 9 years, recruited in Spanish schools, between October 2010 and May 2011. 7,569 boys and girls were selected. All were weighed and measured, and their parents were asked about their socioeconomic background, food habits and physical activity. The BMI of each was calculated, and the prevalence of overweight and obesity was determined by age and sex using Spanish reference tables (SPART), IOTF reference values, and WHO growth standards. The prevalence of overweight in boys ranged from 14.1% to 26.7%, and in girls from 13.8% to 25.7%, depending on the cut-off criteria. The prevalence of obesity in boys ranged from 11.0% to 20.9%, and in girls from 11.2% to 15.5%. The prevalence of obesity was the highest among those same children when using the SPART or WHO criteria. Overweight and obesity remain widespreading among Spanish children; a consensus on the definition of overweight and obesity cut-off criteria is necessary.

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