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Paseiro-Cerrato R.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Rodriguez-Bernaldo de Quiros A.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Sendon R.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Bustos J.,Spanish Agency for Food Safety and Nutrition | And 3 more authors.
Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment | Year: 2015

It is a well-known fact that amines are not stable in food of a fatty nature. In this study the synthesis and characterisation of the products obtained as a result of the reaction of amines in a fatty medium are reported. Based on the well-known reactions among amines and acid and esters groups, two novel compounds were synthesised using m-xylylenediamine (mXDA), a primary diamine widely used as monomer in the manufacture of food contact materials and two fatty acids, oleic acid and palmitic acid, which occur in most fats. The resulting compounds were two molecules belonging to the family of fatty acid amides, dioleamide and dipalmitamide. A complete characterisation of both products was carried out employing several techniques such as infrared spectroscopy, 1H- and 13C-NMR spectroscopy, electron ionisation mass spectrometry, LC-MS/MS and UV spectrometry. The results obtained by the different techniques were well correlated. In the second part of the work, the formation of these compounds in real samples was evaluated. For this purpose a certain volume of olive oil was spiked with a known amount of mXDA. Olive oil was selected as a fatty medium since it is a widely consumed food and additionally is used as a fatty food simulant in migration studies of food contact materials. A method was developed to extract the fatty acid amides from the fatty matrix, which were then identified by LC-MS/MS. The toxicity of the synthesised compounds was predicted using a toxicity estimation software tool. © 2014, © 2014 Taylor & Francis. Source


Lago M.A.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Rodriguez-Bernaldo de Quiros A.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Sendon R.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Bustos J.,Spanish Agency for Food Safety and Nutrition | And 2 more authors.
Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment | Year: 2015

Ultraviolet light printing inks are considered safer than the classical inks; however, despite being on the outer surface of the packaging material, their components can migrate into foodstuffs and can give rise to contamination. Photoinitiators are a part of the formulation of printing inks, being an important class of migrant, for which there have been more than 100 incidents of contamination of packaged food with photoinitiators reported through Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF) alerts in the European Union. In this review the process of photo-polymerisation is explained in depth to provide an insight into the complexity of the process, and the diversity of potential contaminants together with their degradation products. The critical factors affecting the migration process itself are reviewed, together with analytical methods and the current legislation in the European Union and other parts of the world. © 2015, © 2015 Taylor & Francis. Source


Lago M.A.,University of Santiago de Compostela | De Rodriguez-Bernaldo Quiros A.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Sendon R.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Bustos J.,Spanish Agency for Food Safety and Nutrition | And 2 more authors.
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2014

Photoinitiators (PIs) are components of UV-cured inks widely used in printing of food packaging. These substances can migrate into food and may be a hazard to human health. High-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection (HPLC-DAD) has been used for analysis of PIs and amine synergists in food packaging. Analysis was performed with a Kromasil C18 column (250 mm×3.2 mm i.d., 5 μm particle size) with a binary mobile phase gradient prepared from acetonitrile and Milli-Q water. The flow rate was 0.5 mL min -1. The method enables separation of fourteen PIs and amine synergists in a single run. The method was validated for linearity, repeatability, and limits of detection and quantification. Excellent sensitivity (LODs≤1.56 μg dm bsupesup) and appropriate repeatability (RSD (n=10) <0.9 %) were achieved. Different types of food packaging material including plastic films, cardboard, and cans were analyzed and PIs were detected in 47 % of the samples tested (n=17). Positive samples were confirmed by use of LC-MS-MS in positive electrospray ionization (ESI) mode. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Paseiro-Cerrato R.,University of Santiago de Compostela | De Quiros A.R.-B.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Sendon R.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Bustos J.,Spanish Agency for Food Safety and Nutrition | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Chromatography A | Year: 2011

This paper describes the development of a multi-analyte method for the determination of polyfunctional amines commonly used as monomers in the manufacture of food contact materials. Amines were analyzed by high-performance-liquid chromatography with diode-array detection (HPLC-DAD) after derivatization with dansyl chloride. The chromatographic analysis and the derivatization conditions were optimized. The proposed method was validated in terms of linearity, limits of detection and repeatabilities. The method showed an excellent sensitivity (LOD ≤ 0.05 μg/mL) and appropriate repeatabilites (RSD (n=7) ≤ 5%)). LC-MS/MS was used as a confirmatory technique. The stability of the amines in five food simulants (distilled water, 3% acetic acid, 10% ethanol, 50% ethanol and olive oil) under the most common testing conditions (10 days at 40°C) was also studied. Results showed that amines had an acceptable stability in aqueous simulants but in the olive oil a loss of 100% was observed for all analytes. © 2011. Source


Paseiro-Cerrato R.,University of Santiago de Compostela | De Quiros A.R.-B.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Sendon R.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Bustos J.,Spanish Agency for Food Safety and Nutrition | And 3 more authors.
Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety | Year: 2010

Polyfunctional amines are a group of substances commonly used as additives or monomers in food-contact materials. These substances can migrate into foodstuffs and, consequently, may be potentially dangerous for human health. Due to their different chemical structures and physicochemical properties there does not exist a standard method to analyze polyfunctional amines. This review aims to provide an update on the chromatographic methods used for the determination of polyfunctional amines that are commonly used in the manufacture of food packaging materials. Detailed information regarding chromatographic conditions (mobile phases, chromatographic columns, detection systems, and so on) is provided. Moreover, chemical structures and physicochemical properties of the substances studied are also presented. © 2010 Institute of Food Technologists®. Source

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