Lemitar, NM, United States
Lemitar, NM, United States

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Zhang G.,China University of Geosciences | Zhang G.,University of Texas at San Antonio | Zhang G.,East China Institute of Technology | Xie H.,University of Texas at San Antonio | And 4 more authors.
Remote Sensing of Environment | Year: 2011

In this study, ICESat altimetry data are used to provide precise lake elevations of the Tibetan Plateau (TP) during the period of 2003-2009. Among the 261 lakes examined ICESat data are available on 111 lakes: 74 lakes with ICESat footprints for 4-7. years and 37 lakes with footprints for 1-3. years. This is the first time that precise lake elevation data are provided for the 111 lakes. Those ICESat elevation data can be used as baselines for future changes in lake levels as well as for changes during the 2003-2009 period. It is found that in the 74 lakes (56 salt lakes) examined, 62 (i.e. 84%) of all lakes and 50 (i.e. 89%) of the salt lakes show tendency of lake level increase. The mean lake water level increase rate is 0.23. m/year for the 56 salt lakes and 0.27. m/year for the 50 salt lakes of water level increase. The largest lake level increase rate (0.80. m/year) found in this study is the lake Cedo Caka. The 74 lakes are grouped into four subareas based on geographical locations and change tendencies in lake levels. Three of the four subareas show increased lake levels. The mean lake level change rates for subareas I, II, III, IV, and the entire TP are 0.12, 0.26, 0.19, -0.11, and 0.2. m/year, respectively. These recent increases in lake level, particularly for a high percentage of salt lakes, supports accelerated glacier melting due to global warming as the most likely cause. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.


Zhang G.,China University of Geosciences | Zhang G.,University of Texas at San Antonio | Zhang G.,East China Institute of Technology | Xie H.,University of Texas at San Antonio | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Applied Remote Sensing | Year: 2011

Lake level elevation and variation are important indicators of regional and global climate and environmental change. Lake Qinghai, the largest saline lake in China, located in the joint area of the East Asian monsoon, Indian summer monsoon, and Westerly jet stream, is particularly sensitive to climate change. This study examines the lake's water level and temporal change using the ice, cloud, and land elevation satellite (ICESat) altimetry data and gauge measurements. Results show that the mean water level from ICESat rose 0.67 m from 2003 to 2009 with an increase rate of 0.11 m/yr and that the ICESat data correlates well (r2 = 0.90, root mean square difference 0.08 m) with gauge measurements. Envisat altimetry data show a similar change rate of 0.10 m/yr, but with ∼0.52 m higher, primarily due to different referencing systems. Detailed examination of three sets of crossover ICESat tracks reveals that the lake level increase from 2004 to 2006 was 3 times that from 2006 to 2008, with the largest water level increase of 0.58 m from Feb. 2005 to Feb. 2006. Combined analyses with in situ precipitation, evaporation, and runoff measurements from 1956 to 2009 show that an overall decreasing trend of lake level (-0.07 m/yr) correlated with an overall increasing trend (+0.03°C/yr) of temperature, with three major interannual peaks of lake level increases. The longest period of lake level increase from 2004 to 2009 could partly be due to accelerated glacier/perennial snow cover melt in the region during recent decades. Future missions of ICESat type, with possible increased repeatability, would be an invaluable asset for continuously monitoring lake level and change worldwide, besides its primary applications to polar regions. © 2011 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).


Gurnett D.A.,University of Iowa | Morgan D.D.,University of Iowa | Granroth L.J.,University of Iowa | Cantor B.A.,Space Sciences Inc | And 2 more authors.
Geophysical Research Letters | Year: 2010

Here we report the results of a nearly five-year search for impulsive radio signals from lightning discharges in Martian dust storms using the radar receiver on the Mars Express spacecraft. The search covered altitudes from 275 km to 1400 km and frequencies from 4.0 to 5.5 MHz with a time resolution of 91.4 s and a detection threshold of 2.8 × 10-18 Watts m -2 Hz-1. At comparable altitudes the intensity of terrestrial lightning is several orders of magnitude above this threshold. Although two major dust storms and many small storms occurred during the search period, no credible detections of radio signals from lightning were observed. © 2010 by the American Geophysical Union.


Huang X.,Lanzhou University | Huang X.,University of Texas at San Antonio | Xie H.,University of Texas at San Antonio | Liang T.,Lanzhou University | Yi D.,Space Sciences Inc
International Journal of Remote Sensing | Year: 2011

The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) instrument onboard the Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) provides elevation data with very high accuracy which can be used as ground data to evaluate the vertical accuracy of an existing Digital Elevation Model (DEM). In this article, we examine the differences between ICESat elevation data (from the 1064 nm channel) and Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) DEM of 3 arcsec resolution (90 m) and map-based DEMs in the Qinghai-Tibet (or Tibetan) Plateau, China. Both DEMs are linearly correlated with ICESat elevation for different land covers and the SRTM DEM shows a stronger correlation with ICESat elevations than the map-based DEM on all land-cover types. The statistics indicate that land cover, surface slope and roughness influence the vertical accuracy of the two DEMs. The standard deviation of the elevation differences between the two DEMs and the ICESat elevation gradually increases as the vegetation stands, terrain slope or surface roughness increase. The SRTM DEM consistently shows a smaller vertical error than the map-based DEM. The overall means and standard deviations of the elevation differences between ICESat and SRTM DEM and between ICESat and the map-based DEM over the study area are 1.03 ± 15.20 and 4.58 ± 26.01 m, respectively. Our results suggest that the SRTM DEM has a higher accuracy than the map-based DEM of the region. It is found that ICESat elevation increases when snow is falling and decreases during snow or glacier melting, while the SRTM DEM gives a relative stable elevation of the snow/land interface or a glacier elevation where the C-band can penetrate through or reach it. Therefore, this makes the SRTM DEM a promising dataset (baseline) for monitoring glacier volume change since 2000. © 2011 Taylor & Francis.


Xie H.,University of Texas at San Antonio | Tekeli A.E.,University of Texas at San Antonio | Tekeli A.E.,King Saud University | Ackley S.F.,University of Texas at San Antonio | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans | Year: 2013

Sea ice thicknesses derived from NASA's Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) altimetry data are examined using two different approaches, buoyancy and empirical equations, and at two spatial scales - ICESat footprint size (70 m diameter spot) and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) pixel size (12.5 km by 12.5 km) for the Bellingshausen and Amundsen Seas of west Antarctica. Ice thickness from the empirical equation shows reasonable spatial and temporal distribution of ice thickness from 2003 to 2009. Ice thickness from the buoyancy equation, however, additionally needing snow depth information derived from the AMSR-E, shows an overestimation in terms of maximum, mean (+63% to 75%), and standard deviation while underestimation in modal thickness (-20%) as compared with those from the empirical equation approach. When ICESat snow freeboard is used as the snow depth in the buoyancy equation, i.e., the zero ice freeboard assumption, the derived ice thicknesses match well with those from the empirical equation approach, within 5% overall. The AMSR-E, therefore, may underestimate snow depth and accounts for ~95% of the ice thickness overestimation as compared with the buoyancy approach. The empirical equation derived ice thickness shows a consistent asymmetrical distribution with a long tail to high values, and seasonal median values ranging from 0.8 to 1.4 m over the 2003-2009 period that are always larger than the corresponding modal values (0.6-1.1 m) and lower than the mean values (1.0-1.6 m), with standard deviation of 0.6-1.0 m. An overall increasing trend of 0.03 m/year of mean ice thickness is found from 2003 to 2009, although statistically insignificant (p = 0.11) at the 95% confidence level. Starting from autumn, a general picture of seasonal mean, modal, and median ice thickness increases progressively from autumn to spring and decreases from spring to the following autumn, when new thin ice dominates the ice thickness distribution. The asymmetric shape of the thickness distribution reflects the key role of ice deformation processes in the evolution of the thickness distribution. The statistical properties of the thickness distribution interannually (high range of mean thickness and standard deviation) indicate the variability of deformation processes. However, spring ice volume, the product of ice mean thickness and areal extent computed for the spring maximum, shows variability year to year but is primarily dominated by ice extent variability, with no increasing or decreasing trend over this record length. The dependence of the volume on the ice extent primarily suggests that ice thickness changes have also not covaried with the ice extent losses seen over the satellite record in this region, unlike the Arctic. These properties reflect the interactive processes of ice advection, thermodynamic growth and ice deformation that all substantially influence ice mass balance in the Bellingshausen-Amundsen Seas region. ©2013. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.


Xie H.,University of Texas at San Antonio | Ackley S.F.,University of Texas at San Antonio | Yi D.,Space Sciences Inc | Zwally H.J.,Space Sciences Inc | And 4 more authors.
Deep-Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography | Year: 2011

Although sea-ice extent in the Bellingshausen-Amundsen (BA) seas sector of the Antarctic has shown significant decline over several decades, there is not enough data to draw any conclusion on sea-ice thickness and its change for the BA sector, or for the entire Southern Ocean. This paper presents our results of snow and ice thickness distributions from the SIMBA 2007 experiment in the Bellingshausen Sea, using four different methods (ASPeCt ship observations, downward-looking camera imaging, ship-based electromagnetic induction (EM) sounding, and in situ measurements using ice drills). A snow freeboard and ice thickness model generated from in situ measurements was then applied to contemporaneous ICESat (satellite laser altimetry) measured freeboard to derive ice thickness at the ICESat footprint scale. Errors from in situ measurements and from ICESat freeboard estimations were incorporated into the model, so a thorough evaluation of the model and uncertainty of the ice thickness estimation from ICESat are possible. Our results indicate that ICESat derived snow freeboard and ice thickness distributions (asymmetrical unimodal tailing to right) for first-year ice (0.29±0.14. m for mean snow freeboard and 1.06±0.40. m for mean ice thickness), multi-year ice (0.48±0.26 and 1.59±0.75. m, respectively), and all ice together (0.42±0.24 and 1.38±0.70. m, respectively) for the study area seem reasonable compared with those values from the in situ measurements, ASPeCt observations, and EM measurements. The EM measurements can act as an appropriate supplement for ASPeCt observations taken hourly from the ship's bridge and provide reasonable ice and snow distributions under homogeneous ice conditions. Our proposed approaches: (1) of using empirical equations relating snow freeboard to ice thickness based on in situ measurements and (2) of using isostatic equations that replace snow depth with snow freeboard (or empirical equations that convert freeboard to snow depth), are efficient and important ways to derive ice thickness from ICESat altimetry at the footprint scale for Antarctic sea ice. Spatial and temporal snow and ice thickness from satellite altimetry for the BA sector and for the entire Southern Ocean is therefore possible. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


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Space Sciences Inc | Date: 2014-05-22

Athletic apparel, namely, shirts, pants, jackets, footwear, hats and caps, athletic uniforms; Golf shoes.


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Space Sciences Inc | Date: 2014-05-22

Golf bags; Golf clubs.


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Space Sciences Inc | Date: 2015-03-18

Clothing, namely, sweatpants, sweatshirts, fleece tops, fleece bottoms, coats, jackets, sweaters, shirts, pants, shorts, dresses, skirts, underwear, bathrobes, scarves, gloves, hats, socks, shoes, golf shoes, boots, slippers. Balls for games; balls for sports; bags especially adapted for sporting equipment, namely, golf bags; golf accessories, namely, golf clubs, golf club covers, golf ball dispensers, golf club heads, golf club inserts, golf club shafts, head covers for golf clubs, golf irons, hand grips for golf clubs, golf putters, golf putter covers, golf gloves, golf bag covers.


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