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Ehrenfreund P.,George Washington University | Peter N.,European Space Policy Institute | Billings L.,George Washington University
Acta Astronautica | Year: 2010

Space exploration is a multifaceted endeavor and will be a "grand challenge" of the 21st century. It has already become an element of the political agenda of a growing number of countries worldwide. However, the public is largely unaware of space exploration activities and in particular does not perceive any personal benefit. In order to achieve highly ambitious space exploration goals to explore robotically and with humans the inner solar system, space agencies must improve and expand their efforts to inform and raise the awareness of the public about what they are doing, and why. Therefore adopting new techniques aiming at informing and engaging the public using participatory ways, new communication techniques to reach, in particular, the younger generation will be a prerequisite for a sustainable long-term exploration program: as they will enable it and carry most of the associated financial burden. This paper presents an environmental analysis of space exploration in the United States and Europe and investigates the current branding stature of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the European Space Agency (ESA). We discuss how improved market research and new branding methods can increase public space awareness and improve the image of NASA and ESA. We propose a new participatory approach to engage the public as major stakeholder (along governments, the industrial space sector and the science community) that may provide sufficient resources for and sustainability of a long-term space exploration program. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


News Article | December 16, 2016
Site: phys.org

Space-faring nations are mostly united in viewing Mars as the next frontier with many still pooling their money and expertise to make the dream a reality, despite souring relations between them. But the election of Donald Trump—with inevitable impacts on science policy, budgets and diplomatic relations—has cast doubts on the future of space exploration. Space bosses and investors are waiting on tenterhooks for the US president-elect to spell out his plans for NASA—and to see whether the future will be one of cooperation or competition. On the campaign trail in the space industry state of Florida, Trump said in October he wanted to "free Nasa from the restriction of serving primarily as a logistics agency for low-orbit activity". He did not go into details, but low-orbit programmes include the International Space Station (ISS), the Hubble Space Telescope and Earth-observation satellites. Among them are NASA science orbiters for climate monitoring, a programme Trump has also threatened to stifle. He told crowds in Sanford that NASA's core mission will be space exploration, and promised: "America will lead the way into the stars". This could be good news for pursing Martian ambitions. Outgoing president Barack Obama already set the goal of a round-trip mission to the fourth rock from the Sun by the 2030s, with the "ultimate ambition" of creating a settlement there. That is also the ambition of entrepreneur and SpaceX founder Elon Musk, who launched an ambitious plan in September to establish a colony on Mars—sending 100 humans at a time—starting in 2024. Dutch company Mars One, similarly, plans to send explorers to Mars by 2031, funded partly by a related television reality show. The route to Mars may very well be via the Moon, analysts say, with the European Space Agency mooting plans for a lunar village—a stopover for spacecraft to destinations further afield. Going to Mars, said John Logsdon of the Space Policy Institute at George Washington University, "depends on how quickly the international effort to go back to the Moon can be assembled, how much budget the US spends on that, what the level of the NASA budget is. "And all those are unknown right now." Following years of multinational cooperation, "the current trend is for space-faring nations to strengthen and increase national autonomy in achieving success in space", says a European Space Policy Institute document. Countries want their own rockets and launchpads in case "unfavourable geopolitical developments" place their programmes at risk. Since the US-Soviet space race launched the first human into Earth orbit in 1961 and placed the first man on the Moon in 1969, the trend has been towards galactic teamwork. A high point has been the ISS, a joint project—continuously inhabited since 2000—of America, Europe, Russia, Japan and Canada. With only Russia able to ferry astronauts to the orbiting science lab today, countries work together on sending cargo. There are also joint deep-space experiments, such as the European-Russian ExoMars rover planned for 2020. "It used to be the US and the Soviet Union that had the capability to go into space. Now India can do it, Japan can do it," Sa'id Mosteshar, director of the London Institute of Space Policy and Law told AFP. Only China is not party to any big international projects, mainly due to its complicated diplomatic relationship with the United States. But Beijing was nonetheless spending "a significant amount" on space, said Mosteshar. It has an orbiting space lab, plans for a manned space station by 2022, and could become the second country to place a human on the moon. The last was an American in 1972. But observers say there is no race, as such—countries, even private corporations, are unlikely to ever have enough money to go it alone. Most feel space cooperation will continue—as it did even at the height of the American-USSR cold war—in spite of what politicians do on Earth. Trump is seen as likely to be closer to Russia under Vladimir Putin than Obama had been, but has already incurred the diplomatic wrath of China. "International collaborative space projects are by nature long-term commitments," said Mosteshar. "If in the midst of a project there are political differences that arise between the countries involved, it's difficult to stop the ongoing experiment or other activity."


Lukaszczyk A.,European Space Policy Institute | Williamson R.,Secure World Foundation SWF
Advances in Space Research | Year: 2010

Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) play a unique role in international affairs, providing access to resources, expertise, and assistance to supplement State resources. Sometimes the diplomatic skills and unofficial access of NGOs to policymakers through Track Two diplomacy can move a previously stalled critical issue forward and assist policymakers from different countries to find common ground outside official channels. Because they work outside of official channels, they are not bound by State policy that may inhibit negotiations between States. Some also have a convening power that sometimes makes it possible for State representatives to meet discipline experts and each other for informal discussions on issues of mutual interest. Finally, NGOs can draw attention to issues that may be overlooked or avoided by State organizations. This paper examines the ways in which NGOs can assist in building scientific, technical, educational, and legal and policy expertise related to space and Earth science, technology and governance of space activities. In particular, it will explore and analyze the ways in which organizations such as the Space Generation Advisory Council, EURISY, the Planetary Society and Secure World Foundation contribute to building capacity in developing countries. © 2009 COSPAR.


Giannopapa C.,European Space Policy Institute
61st International Astronautical Congress 2010, IAC 2010 | Year: 2010

Africa requires access to data, information, and knowledge for its sustainable development where space technologies through the use of satellites can be a tremendous benefit. Although some African countries have reached mature levels of space technology and use of satellite applications, most countries are struggling to maintain the basic levels needed for simple use. The international community, the European Union and the African countries themselves have set goals and strategies for the sustainable development in the African continent also through their commitment to the Millennium Development Goals (MDG). The commitment of Europe to Africa is additionally strengthen by the African-European strategic partnership and the resulting action plans. Therefore, there are numerous of activities and actors engaged in Africa but there has been a lack of comprehensive mapping which results in inefficient use of resources. This paper is provides a mapping of actors and activities in Africa and draws policy perspectives on how to best utilise existing institutions, partnership and mechanisms for the sustainable development in Africa through the use of space based information and applications. Copyright ©2010 by ESPI.


The main focus of the Integrated Applications Promotion (IAP) Programme (http://iap.esa.int/) is to develop viable applications and services which demonstrate the benefits of utilising and integrating different space assets (e.g. Satellite Communication, Earth Observation, Satellite Navigation, etc.). The IAP Programme is a user-driven programme initiated by the European Space Agency (ESA) to fulfil the needs and expectations of various users with the help of existing space and non-space systems. In this context a key task is to set up relationships to users and other potential stakeholders, mainly to those who are not familiar with space activities, and concentrate their interests on this awareness programme. To reach the goals of the IAP Programme Ambassador Platforms were established across Europe. Each Platform is responsible for a particular region or for a particular theme and should promote IAP amongst various types of stakeholders. The European Space Policy Institute (ESPI) has started in January 2010 to act as an Ambassador Platform for the IAP awareness programme for the Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries. The activities of ESPI as an Ambassador Platform for the Central and Eastern European region are divided into three main tasks: set up relations with users/stakeholders, organise workshops/awareness events, and co-administer community portals. An important goal is to build up a network with various users, stakeholders, companies and institutions in the CEE region. The IAP Ambassador Platform operated by ESPI will be a contact point for these target groups. ESPI in its role as an Ambassador Platform will organise various workshops and awareness events in order to bring various stakeholders together and to promote the IAP Programme. This paper provides information about the role of the IAP Ambassador Platform for the CEE region operated by ESPI, its duties and responsibilities as well as preliminary achievements. Copyright ©2010 by ESPI.


Aranzamendi M.S.,European Space Policy Institute
61st International Astronautical Congress 2010, IAC 2010 | Year: 2010

The event with perhaps one of the major repercussions for space law of the last year has precisely occurred outside the boundaries of space law. That is the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty and with it the recognition of the competence of the European Union to potentially regulate space activities. It is well known that space legislations do not only have the capacity to shape the space market while strengthening the international position of national commercial operators but also to shape the business culture of such operators. Perhaps a more neglected regulatory area is the one composed by the set of other regulations which are not specific to space but which are applicable and often indispensable to space activities such as data regulations, standards or insurance regulations. The reach of such regulations goes far beyond space activities as covered by national legislations (launch services and satellite operations), it actually stretches to space applications and services which have a high market component and affect the daily live of citizens. All in all, those regulations have the capacity to enhance the role of space in the economy and in our societies. This paper selects a set of most representative regulatory fields which apply to space activities, identifies for which stages of space activities they are relevant and determines their impact on the development of space activities, space based applications or space based services. The paper will finally draw recommendations on how to elaborate a balanced regulatory framework which facilitates the development of space activities, applications and services while discussing how the new European competence can play a role towards such aim. Copyright ©2010 by the European Space Policy Institute. Published by the American Institute for Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc.


Giannopapa C.,European Space Policy Institute
61st International Astronautical Congress 2010, IAC 2010 | Year: 2010

The space sector has recently received significant attention from and commitment by political decision-makers as space science, technology, applications and services are recognised to be a significant contributor in creating jobs. Innovation in all sectors is becoming a central focus of governments, companies, universities, research institutes and society as a whole. In this context collaboration and virtual networks are essential ingredients to enable functionality. In the space sector, state-of-the art technologies are essential for successful science missions and innovation is a fundamental enabling factor. In order to benefit from innovation and to further stimulate it, it is necessary to think and answer questions like: how do you choose which technologies, which people to bring together, which institutions to collaborate with, and with which mechanisms? In space sciences, as well as in "mainstream" science, the development of innovative new technologies opens new fields of research and provides new tools for scientists to further their research. Nevertheless, there is often a conservative approach to technology use and breakthroughs do not happen as frequently as they could. There is a need to identify factors that hinder scientific innovation and to propose possible mechanisms that could stimulate faster use of new technologies for the benefits of science. In order to achieve this, the first step is to analyse the science and technology relationship and find an appropriate model to describe it. The second step is to study different sectors and how they react to innovation. The sectors to examine can be seen as fast sectors that exhibit an immediate reaction to innovation like consumer electronics and slow sectors like construction, aerospace and pharmaceutical. The third step is to look in a pan-European fashion centres and mechanisms that reflect successful scenarios for incubating innovation. Copyright ©2010 by ESPI. Published by the IAF.


Giannopapa C.,European Space Policy Institute
62nd International Astronautical Congress 2011, IAC 2011 | Year: 2011

Africa and Europe as geographic neighbours share a long-standing history and traditions with cultural and social exchange. The cooperation at various levels between the European and African countries dates back centuries ago but over the last decade it has been significantly strengthened and sealed by the political commitment of their leaders thought the European-African Partnership. Africa is in need of maintaining these long-lasting partnerships and finding new effective instruments supporting its efforts to achieve sustainable development. It requires access to data, information, and knowledge where space technologies through the use of satellites can be a tremendous benefit. This paper provides an overview of the Africa-EU partnership and it is analysing it according to political, economic, social, technological and legal environmental factors and respective policy recommendations are drafted on this basis. Recommendations are directly addressed to the relevant European and African stakeholders. No other continent can benefit more existentially from space applications than Africa. It will be partnerships as the one between Europe and Africa, which will be crucial for realizing this great potential. Copyright ©2011 by the European Space Policy Institute.


Giannopapa C.,European Space Policy Institute
Space Policy | Year: 2011

There is little overview of how space applications are utilized by African actors and how cooperation between Africa and Europe is organized and conducted. This article aims briefly to provide such an overview and concretely to make recommendations for institutional actors in European-African partnerships on the use of space applications for sustainable development. The Africa-EU partnership is analysed from a political, economic, social, technological, environmental and legal standpoint and respective policy recommendations are drafted on this basis. No other continent can benefit more from space applications than Africa. It will be partnerships like the one between Europe and Africa that will be crucial for realizing this great potential. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Robinson J.,European Space Policy Institute
Space Policy | Year: 2012

On 12-14 June 2011, a conference was convened in Prague entitled " Space Security through the Transatlantic Partnership" , co-sponsored by the European Space Policy Institute (ESPI) and the Prague Security Studies Institute (PSSI). It was the first non-governmental transatlantic conference of its kind dedicated to this topic, attended by over 100 senior space policy officials and high-level representatives of multilateral institutions, NGOs, academia, and industry from Europe, the USA, and Japan. The overarching goal of the conference was to solicit and assess both converging and diverging views on the multifaceted subject of space security and to seek to establish an on-going " Track II" non-governmental process designed to assist with the crafting of a future architecture for the management of this key dimension of space policy on a trilateral, and eventually global, basis. This report summarizes the proceedings. © 2011 .

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