Chaniá, Greece
Chaniá, Greece

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Tripolitsiotis A.,Technical University of Crete | Tripolitsiotis A.,Space Geomatica Ltd | Prokas N.,Technical University of Crete | Kyritsis S.,Technical University of Crete | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Remote Sensing | Year: 2017

The systematic environmental monitoring of the land, atmosphere, oceans and their coupling zones, is assisted by the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) that can operate over rural and/or urban areas to provide enhanced spatial and temporal measurement resolutions compared against corresponding satellite products. The international UAV market includes a vast number of solutions that carry sensors for environmental monitoring varying in type, flight time, carrying weight, communication, and autonomous flight. The majority of these commercial UAVs (especially the low-cost ones) have been designed for specific applications and their main disadvantage is that they can only integrate the payload they have been initially designed to carry, thus presenting minimal modularity. This work presents a modular and affordable platform where the user can easily adapt almost any type of environmental monitoring sensor, which can transmit its measurements to the UAV flight controller without the need for any additional modification. A novel communication protocol has been developed that is also capable to incorporate proximity sensors for collision avoidance. In addition, a wireless mobile telecommunications module incorporation through the use of mobile devices on the UAV provides real-time animated map generation along with cooperative capabilities for fleet missions. © 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group


Mertikas S.,Technical University of Crete | DonLon C.,European Space Agency | Mavrocordatos C.,European Space Agency | Tziavos I.,Aristotle University of Thessaloniki | And 7 more authors.
European Space Agency, (Special Publication) ESA SP | Year: 2016

This work presents and compares the latest altimeter calibration results for Jason series, the SARAL/AltiKa the Chinese HY-2 missions and the ESA missions of CryoSat-2 and Sentinel-3, conducted at the Gavdos/Crete calibration/validation facilities. At first, the Jason altimeter calibration values will be given for the ascending Pass No.109 and the descending Pass No.18, based on the GDR-E (Jason-1), GDR-D (Jason-2) and GDR-T (Jason-3) products. Secondly, these values will be cross-examined against the altimeter bias for the SARAL/AltiKa (GDR-T) satellite at Gavdos Cal/Val using its reference ascending orbit No. 571. The Chinese HY-2 satellite altimeter bias will be presented using the CRS1 permanent site in southwest Crete for the descending HY-2 Pass No. 280, at 20 Hz based on SGDR data products. Finally, values will be compared against the Sentinel-3 altimeter. Additionally, altimeter biases as determined by locally developed Mean Sea Surface models, will be presented and compared with the conventional sea-surface calibration methodology.


Mertikas S.P.,Technical University of Crete | Zhou X.,State Oceanic Administration | Qiao F.,State Oceanic Administration | Daskalakis A.,Space Geomatica Ltd. | And 6 more authors.
Advances in Space Research | Year: 2015

In this work, absolute calibration of the Chinese HY-2 satellite altimetry mission is carried out, employing Pass No. 280 and the calibration facility, CRS1, located in the Southwest end of the island of Crete, Greece. Satellite Pass No. 280 is descending and follows a ground track almost parallel to the west coast of Crete. It comes close to the coast, at a distance of about 9. km from the CRS1 calibration site, and finally goes away south of Crete. The HY-2 sensor geophysical data records (S-GDR) have been incorporated into the calibration procedures and processing has taken place for cycles No. 54-62, at 20. Hz data rate. Some peculiarities in the HY-2 satellite altimeter data, as delivered and depicted in the I-GDR and S-GDR data, have also been noticed. All calibration results have been determined using a regional, precise and detailed geoid, along with a good knowledge of local ocean circulation and site characteristics and a well-defined sea-surface calibration methodology.The first preliminary results for the HY-2 altimeter calibration have shown that the initial cycles, up to No. 51, display an erratic behavior. After those cycles, the altimeter range bias values seem to be stable and reach a value of. B = -45.6. cm. ±. 4.4. cm, when applying the net instrument corrections as provided in the GDR. If the relativistic effects of the satellite clocks are properly applied for the net instrument corrections, then the altimeter range bias goes down to. B = -27. cm. ±. 3. cm. Also, preliminary cross-over analysis with the SARAL/AliKa and Jason-2 satellites show a bias of. B = -23. cm, and. B = -28.5. cm, respectively. The performance of the HY-2 on-board radiometer has also been examined in terms of the wet troposphere corrections and shows a mean difference of -1. cm. ±. 0.1. cm with respect to in-situ GNSS-derived corrections. Finally, the ionosphere path corrections of the HY-2 satellite show a difference of +1. cm. ±. 1.1. cm, when compared against the GNSS-derived ionosphere values. © 2015 COSPAR.


Mertikas S.P.,Technical University of Crete | Daskalakis A.,Space Geomatica Ltd. | Tziavos I.N.,Aristotle University of Thessaloniki | Vergos G.,Aristotle University of Thessaloniki | And 2 more authors.
Marine Geodesy | Year: 2015

This work presents the first calibration results for the SARAL/AltiKa altimetric mission using the Gavdos permanent calibration facilities. The results cover one year of altimetric observations from April 2013 to March 2014 and include 11 calibration values for the altimeter bias. The reference ascending orbit No. 571 of SARAL/AltiKa has been used for this altimeter assessment. This satellite pass is coming from south and nears Gavdos, where it finally passes through its west coastal tip, only 6 km off the main calibration location. The selected calibration regions in the south sea of Gavdos range from about 8 km to 20 km south off the point of closest approach. Several reference surfaces have been chosen for this altimeter evaluation based on gravimetric, but detailed regional geoid, as well as combination of it with other altimetric models. Based on these observations and the gravimetric geoid model, the altimeter bias for the SARAL/AltiKa is determined as mean value of −46mm ±10mm, and a median of −42 mm ±10 mm, using GDR-T data at 40 Hz rate. A preliminary cross-over analysis of the sea surface heights at a location south of Gavdos showed that SARAL/AltiKa measure less than Jason-2 by 4.6 cm. These bias values are consistent with those provided by Corsica, Harvest, and Karavatti Cal/Val sites. The wet troposphere and the ionosphere delay values of satellite altimetric measurements are also compared against in-situ observations (−5 mm difference in wet troposphere and almost the same for the ionosphere) determined by a local array of permanent GNSS receivers, and meteorological sensors. © 2015, Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Partsinevelos P.,Technical University of Crete | Kritikakis G.,Technical University of Crete | Economou N.,Technical University of Crete | Agioutantis Z.,University of Kentucky | And 3 more authors.
Natural Hazards | Year: 2016

The occurrence of rockfall incidents on the transportation network may cause injuries, and even casualties, as well as severe damage to infrastructure such as dwellings, railways, road corridors, etc. Passive protective measures (i.e., rockfall barriers, wire nets, etc.) are mainly deployed by operators of ground transport networks to minimize the impact of detrimental effects on these networks. In conjunction with these passive measures, active rockfall monitoring should ideally include the magnitude of each rockfall, its initial and final position, and the triggering mechanism that might have caused its detachment from the slope. In this work, the operational principle of a low-cost rockfall monitoring and alerting system is being presented. The system integrates measurements from a multi-channel seismograph and commercial cameras as the primary equipment for event detection. A series of algorithms analyze these measurements independently in order to reduce alarms originated by surrounding noise and sources other than rockfall events. The detection methodology employs two different sets of algorithms: Time–frequency analyses of the rockfall event’s seismic signature are performed using moving window pattern recognition algorithms, whereas image processing techniques are utilized to deliver object detection and localization. Training and validation of the proposed approach was performed through field tests that involved manually induced rockfall events and recording of sources (i.e., passing car, walking people) that may cause a false alarm. These validation tests revealed that the seismic monitoring algorithms produce a 4.17 % false alarm rate with an accuracy of 93 %. Finally, the results of a 34-day operational monitoring period are presented and the ability of the imaging system to identify and exclude false alarms is discussed. The entire processing cycle is 10–15 s. Thus, it can be considered as a near real-time system for early warning of rockfall events. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht


Tripolitsiotis A.,Technical University of Crete | Steiakakis C.,Geosysta Ltd | Papadaki E.,Space Geomatica Ltd | Agioutantis Z.,Technical University of Crete | And 2 more authors.
Central European Journal of Geosciences | Year: 2014

This paper explores the potential of using satellite radar inteferometry to monitor time-varying land movement prior to any visible tension crack signs. The idea was developed during dedicated geotechnical studies at a large open-pit lignite mine, where large slope movements (10-20 mm/day) were monitored and large fissures were observed in the immediate area outside the current pit limits. In this work, differential interferometry (DInSAR), using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) ALOS images, was applied to monitor the progression of land movement that could potentially thwart mine operations. Early signs of land movements were captured by this technique well before their visual observation. Moreover, a qualitative comparison of DInSAR and ground geodetic measurements indicates that the technique can be used for the identification of high risk areas and, subsequently, for the optimization of the spatial distribution of the available ground monitoring equipment. Finally, quantitative land movement results from DInSAR are shown to be in accordance with simultaneous measurements obtained by ground means. © Versita sp. z o.o.


Papadaki E.,Space Geomatica Ltd | Tripolitsiotis A.,Technical University of Crete | Steiakakis C.,Geosysta Ltd | Agioutantis Z.,Technical University of Crete | And 3 more authors.
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2013

This paper examines the capability of remote sensing radar interferometry to monitor land movements, as it varies with time, in areas close to open pit lignite mines. The study area is the Mavropigi lignite mine in Ptolemais, Northern Greece; whose continuous operation is of vital importance to the electric power supply of Greece. The mine is presently 100-120m deep while horizontal and vertical movements have been measured in the vicinity of the pit. Within the mine, ground geodetic monitoring has revealed an average rate of movement amounting to 10-20mm/day at the southeast slopes. In this work, differential interferometry (DInSAR), using 19 Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images of ALOS satellite, has been applied to monitor progression of land movement caused my mining within the greater area of Mavropigi region. The results of this work show that DInSAR can be used effectively to capture ground movement information, well before signs of movements can be observed visually in the form of imminent fissures and tension cracks. The advantage of remote sensing interferometry is that it can be applied even in inaccessible areas where monitoring with ground equipment is either impossible or of high-cost (large areas). © 2013 SPIE.


Partsinevelos P.,Technical University of Crete | Skoutelis N.,Technical University of Crete | Tripolitsiotis A.,Space Geomatica Ltd. | Tsatsarounos S.,Technical University of Crete | And 2 more authors.
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2015

Conservation and restoration of traditional settlements are amongst the actions that international directives proclaim in order to protect our cultural heritage. Towards this end, a mandatory base step in all archaeological and historical practices includes the surveying and mapping of the study area. Often, new, unexplored or abandoned settlements are considered, where dense vegetation, damaged structures and ruins, incorporation of newer structures and renovation characteristics make the precise surveying procedure a labor intensive and time consuming procedure. Unmanned airborne vehicles (UAVs) have been effectively incorporated into several cultural heritage projects mainly for mapping archeological sites. However, the majority of relevant publications lack of quantitative evaluation of their results and when such a validation is provided it is rather a procedural error estimation readily available from the software used, without independent ground truth verification. In this study, a low-cost custom-built hexacopter prototype was employed to deliver accurate mapping of the traditional settlement of Kamariotis in east Crete, Greece. The case of Kamariotis settlement included highly dense urban structures with continuous building forms, curved walls and missing terraces, while wild vegetation made classic geodetic surveying unfeasible. The resulting maps were qualitatively compared against the ones derived using Google Earth and the Greek Cadastral Orthophoto Viewing platforms to evaluate their applicability for architectural mapping. Moreover, the overall precision of the photogrammetric procedure was compared against geodetic surveying. © 2015 Copyright SPIE.

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