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Cornell A.,Space Generation Advisory Council
62nd International Astronautical Congress 2011, IAC 2011 | Year: 2011

Throughout the modern Space Age, we have seen that space is a place of scientific and strategic awe. To operate in space, traditionally a country has had to be an international superpower with political stability and financial wealth that would allow its government to drive such a scientific cutting-edge program. Moreover, particularly during the Cold War, governments needed gall and ambition. These conditions widely known, governments aiming to enter the realm of space have looked to take advantage of the domestic and international showing of strength. It is true that space has the ability to inspire, but as a science or technology, is its development different than any other high technology or science? The Diffusions of Innovations Model (also known as "Roger's Bell Curve") and technology development chains associated with the model suggest a clear "no." The framework, which emerged in the mid-20 th century but enjoyed recent revival in studying the hi-tech boom at the turn of the 21st century, aims to explain how technology diffuses dirough the user community. The population in the end is broken into five segments: Innovators, Early Adaptors, Early Majority, Late Majority and Laggards. The model, when applied to modern space sciences, can also help gain insight into the development of the modern space age. While domestic and international demonstration of strength has been a common thread over the past half century, the Diffusion of Innovation Model shows that, in fact, the key reasons for when and why countries have entered into the space sector have shifted as the technology has developed. Further, these models also can provide insight as to how the modern space sector structure could develop as industry begins to play a more pivotal role in the space sector in both launching services and space applications. Source


Ciaramicoli M.,Space Generation Advisory Council
61st International Astronautical Congress 2010, IAC 2010 | Year: 2010

Space-based applications and services for disaster management will become increasingly essential during crises, yet many organizations are unaware of their potential. In an effort to promote awareness of the benefits of space for disaster management, bring the associated views of youth to international bodies, and provide opportunities for volunteerism to its members, the Space Generation Advisory Council's (SGAC) Group on Space Technologies for Disaster Management was created. This paper presents the evolution and goals of this SGAC initiative, along with activities from its first year of operation. Strategic plans for the coming year are also discussed, and required resources to achieve future objectives are presented. Source


Tejal T.,Space Generation Advisory Council | Bacon A.,Systems Engineering and Assessment , Ltd.
62nd International Astronautical Congress 2011, IAC 2011 | Year: 2011

Human and Environmental security from space activities is one of the most current critical topics discussed globally. The threats we face such as climate change, pollution, water scarcity, etc are not lightly to be taken. Dealing with these emerging issues is very critical and should be focused primarily however there are issues not so different from diese that also need a good amount of attention such as a Near Earth Objects threat. Along with the increase in the discovery of these objects, the threat they pose to the Earth has increased with it. The percentage of a NEO collision is same as the percentage of a person being hit by a bus. This fact makes this issue a very important one as from previous knowledge of collisions (example: Tunguska event), even a small asteroid can cause massive damage to humans as well as the environment. These damages are not constricted to a city or a small part of a country, some collisions have a potential to wipe an entire country off this planet or worse an entire civilization. Research is carried out regarding the issue of damages caused by these objects from previous event which will help create a strategy to help prevent such large damage. The initial strategy will depend on prediction of a collision by tracking and recording its movements. The prediction will also indicate a position of collision. With this information and timeframe of the collision, a pre-planned solution can be obtained. Along with strategy planning, the countries have a responsibility to evacuate and protect its citizens. This should be taken into consideration when taking decision regarding human damage and survival rates. Survival system for human and environment should be put in place to provide help on decisions during a small scaled asteroid or space debris collision. Constructed series of legal parameters in case of response and mitigation have been developed by the Association of Space Explorers but these parameters should be internationally accepted and establish with the Space Law Treaty. This research will develop a strategic plan with considering legal parameters from different previous collisions to help prevent and survive the next one. It will also look into a constructive way to approach the space agencies and industry to accept these strategies. Copyright ©2010 by the International Astronautical Federation. All rights reserved. Source


Hill C.,University of Stuttgart | Alonsoperez M.V.,Space Generation Advisory Council | Rathnasabapathy M.,RMIT University
62nd International Astronautical Congress 2011, IAC 2011 | Year: 2011

Given the accelerating pace of space industry today and the pivotal role that is played by current space applications, it is evident that there is a need to establish and develop space educational outreach programs aimed at the next generation of experts in the space industry. Recent studies have shown a decline in young people pursuing studies and careers in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM). The key to fight against this trend is to maximize on the enthusiasm of students in an engaging learning environment. Teaching methods such as hands-on learning teaches students to be the maker of things rather than the consumers. By providing innovative approaches that support science and technology education in schools, outreach efforts should aim to spark interest in space related activities among students. Current and future outreach programs should enable critical thinking, problem solving and support innovative learning. The focus of this paper will be to address the stereotypes associated with pursuing a career in space, as well as the issues and challenges of initiating and sustaining space education programs in developing nations. The 2010 Space Generation Congress (SGC) Outreach Working Group, comprising of enthusiastic students and young professionals in the space sector, identified critical problems in engaging the young generation in both developed and developing nations regarding space related topics. With an emphasis on breaking stereotypes and dispelling misconceptions and myths about working in the space sector, the group highlighted key challenges in the development of science and technology education. The Space Generation Advisory Council (SGAC) Outreach Working Group put forward recommendations for the improvement of space education and outreach program in developing countries aimed to encourage the young generation of space enthusiasts in an interactive and easily-accessible way. The short video "Space Is Not Just Rocket Science" was developed by the Outreach Working Group showing people across the world, working in different professions, having one thing in common: They all work in the space sector. By voicing the youth's involvement in the space sector and breaking the stereotypes of what a career in the space industry entails, the video aimed to encourage young people to become part of the big space family, not necessarily as scientists and engineers but also as fashion designers, lawyers, researchers and many more occupations. The video is available on YouTube and can easily be accessed by students and educators around the world. The recommendations of the SGC Working Group seek to support ongoing outreach initiatives and provide new ideas on how to improve space education and outreach programs. Copyright ©2010 by the International Astronautical Federation. All rights reserved. Source


Cornell A.,Space Generation Advisory Council
61st International Astronautical Congress 2010, IAC 2010 | Year: 2010

There have been significant changes and shifting of trends from the 1990's to the 2000's that have affected the American space industry. The 1990's and 2000's were marked by important changes in the structure of the space industry and the approaches to the globalization of space. These changes were by no means preemptive but rather reactions to key events that have shaped the American space industry significantly. In particular, there are five important events which contributed to the key shifts in the American space industry since the end of the Cold War: • the consolidation of the aerospace and defense industry in the 1990s; • the charging of Boeing (Hughes) and Space Systems/Loral with the violation of the Arms Export Control Act and the International Traffic in Arms Regulation (ITAR) following the failed 1995 and 1996; • the creation of entrepreneur, Elon Musk's, SpaceX Corporation in 2002; • the collision of the US's Iridium 33 and Russia's Kosmos 2251 satellites in 2009; and • the cancellation of NASA's Constellation program in 2010 and President Obama's new space program proposal. These events did not just affect traditional aspects of the space industry like the industry structure or supply and demand. They are also important because they represent shifts in the way the American space industry has needed and will need to change to react to geopolitical developments. When analyzed in a connected context, these events demonstrate the larger trends of the two decades. Through these events put into a the 20-year view, one sees that 1990s was a transition period for the US as the country was emerging from the Cold War; the 2000s, on the other hand, was a decade of adapting to the fact that space had a much more international sector. Innovation and staying involved in space policy development were becoming important. Source

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