Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center Pacific
Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center Pacific
Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center Pacific provides the Navy with research, development, delivery and support of integrated command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance , cyber and space systems and capabilities across all warfighting domains. The only Naval technical center headquartered in a major fleet concentration area, SSC Pacific manages strategic locations both in the Pacific theater and around the world. The diverse, multi-disciplinary workforce of more than 4,175 scientists, engineers and support personnel work hand-in-hand with more than 200 Fleet operators and active duty service members to ensure SSC Pacific solutions are Fleet-and warfighter-ready.With expertise in network architecture and system design, SSC Pacific is leading the design and deployment of the Consolidated Afloat Networks and Enterprise Services program --- the single largest, most complex upgrade to C4I cyber systems in U.S. Navy history. The Center's numerous unique facilities, test beds and experimentation platforms serve as the launching pad for game-changing innovations.SSC Pacific is advancing the Navy's employment of next generation unmanned systems and autonomous vehicles, large data management, antenna design, clean and renewable energy sources, and both offensive and defensive cyber programs. As the primary research arm of the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command , SSC Pacific supports basic research and prototype development, basic and applied science, extensive test and evaluation services, systems engineering and integration, installation and full spectrum life-cycle support of fielded systems. With world-wide connectivity and numerous partnerships with private industry and academia, SSC Pacific addresses warfighting requirements for Navy, Joint, National and Coalition war fighters.MissionEnable information dominance for Naval, Joint, National, and Coalition war fighters through research, development, delivery, and support of integrated capabilities. Compared to other like sectors, SSC Pacific typically ranks in the top ten organizations for new patents filed annually in San Diego.For more than 70 years, the U.S. Navy has relied on SSC Pacific for research and development of C4ISR products and services. Aside from their military purpose, these information technologies also have applications in disaster relief, crisis response, emergency management, and other civilian operations where dynamic communications, collaboration, and situational awareness are essential to protecting lives and property.SSC Pacific’s leadership areas include: Command, control and communications systems Command, control and communications systems countermeasures Ocean surveillance systems Command, control and communications modeling and analysis Ocean engineering Navigation support Marine mammal operational systems Integration of space communications and surveillanceIn addition, SSC Pacific is involved in complementary areas of research including: Ocean and littoral surveillance Microelectronics Communications and networking Ship topside designsurveillance/reconnaissance sensors Atmospheric effects assessment Environmental quality assessmentSSC Pacific’s major initiatives: Consolidated Afloat Networks and Enterprise Services Enterprise Networks Cyber—including Cyber Security Mobile User Objective System C4ISR for UxVs—Autonomy Support to the Warfighter Networking on the Move Military Construction for C4I Unmanned Underwater Vehicles Commander, Seventh Fleet Integrated cyber operations are a key focus area for SSC Pacific to "enable U.S. forces to maneuver in the cyber domain while denying our adversary’s ability to do the same." Cyber operations "involve a close coupling of computer network defense, computer network exploitation, and computer network attack development and engineering."SSC Pacific is located close to major operational commands of air, surface, submarine, and special operations Naval forces, as well as air, expeditionary, and electronic components of the U.S. Marine Corps. This support extends into the Pacific, with a SPAWAR Systems Activity in Hawaii supporting U.S. Pacific Command and U.S. Pacific Fleet , as well as facilities in Guam and Japan supporting U.S. Seventh Fleet .SSC Pacific and San DiegoIn support of the next generation of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics professionals, SSC Pacific hosts a variety of K-12 education outreach events including: classroom demonstrations and presentations, international robotics competitions, community events, science fairs and festivals, internships, and mentorship activities. SSC Pacific is engaged with local colleges and universities. In addition to research and academic partnerships, SSC Pacific offers student employment programs, such as the San Diego State University Research Foundation program.History,On June 1, 1940, Secretary of the Navy Frank Knox established the Navy’s first laboratory on the West Coast --- the U.S. Navy Radio and Sound Laboratory. Its mission was to perform research and development in communications and radio propagation. In 1943, a second West Coast laboratory was established in the high desert at Inyokern, Calif., the Naval Ordnance Test Station , charged with improving naval weapons systems, particularly those dropped from aircraft.Over the next several decades, those two organizations changed names several times: the U.S. Navy Radio and Sound Lab became the U.S. Navy Electronics Laboratory, the Naval Command Control and Communications Laboratory Center, and the Naval Electronics Laboratory Center ; while NOTS became the Naval Undersea Warfare Center, the Naval Undersea Research and Development Center, and the Naval Undersea Center . On March 1, 1977, NELC and NUC were consolidated to form the Naval Ocean Systems Center .During 30-plus years, these Navy research, development, test and evaluation organizations specialized in command, control and communications ; Arctic submarine warfare; undersea weapons systems; intelligence and undersea surveillance technology, as well as a number of other important areas including lasers, underwater vehicles, environmental science, high performance computing, robotics and marine mammal research.The merger was intended to produce broad-spectrum systems capability; facilitate integration of intelligence, ocean surveillance, C3 and undersea weapons in support of the Navy’s sea control mission; and combine research and technology programs to increase flexibility and generate more funding for broader and more in-depth investigation.During the 1990s, NOSC was renamed following several Base Closure and Realignment Commission actions starting with the Naval Command, Control and Ocean Surveillance Center RDT&E Division, then the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center San Diego; also added were a number of other Navy commands, including the NCCOSC In-Service Engineering West Coast Division; and some substantive changes in business areas, including the loss of leadership roles in anti-submarine warfare weapons systems and Arctic submarine warfare, and the gain of in-service engineering functions and navigation technology. In late 2008, the organization was assigned its current name, the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center Pacific .During its more than seven decades in operation, SSC Pacific has been responsible for ground-breaking achievements in its mission areas, past and present.SPAWARIn 1997 the San Diego facility became the headquarters of the Navy's Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command , formerly located in the Washington, D.C. area. SPAWAR and its systems centers provide much of the tactical and non-tactical information management technology required by the Navy to complete its operational missions.Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center Pacific is one of five field activities of SPAWAR. The other four activities are: Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center Charleston Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center Norfolk Information Technology Center New Orleans Space Field ActivityOther activitiesSSC Pacific is the host of the AUVSI annual Autonomous Underwater Vehicle competition and has been since 2002.ReferencesExternal links SPAWAR Systems Center San Diego Team SPAWAR website Wikipedia.
News Article | February 23, 2017
Measured bandwidth performance comparison of non-Foster integrated antenna vs. passive (conventional) antenna of the same physical size. Credit: Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center Chu's Limit, a fundamental principle of electromagnetics, dictates that the bandwidth an antenna can function in has a maximum level proportional to the physical size of the antenna—the smaller the antenna, the smaller the bandwidth, the slower and less capable the communications link. Chu's Limit has been a foundational law of antenna and telecommunications research since its introduction in the late 1940s, but a scientist at the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center Pacific (SSC Pacific) has recently, for the first time, exceeded Chu's Limit in a measured experiment. Justin Church, an engineer in the Center's applied electromagnetics group, used non-Foster circuits embedded in an electrically small antenna to produce the first experimentally measured instance of exceeding the Limit. Several papers have theorized or simulated such a possibility, but Church is the first to demonstrate an antenna capable of using bandwidths that exceed this fundamental limit. He was able to achieve this thanks to two novel advances: non-Foster circuits and internal matching. Non-Foster circuits are active, transistorized circuits that effectively create capacitors and inductors that are negatively charged, meaning the reactance is inverted to that of conventional capacitors and inductors. Coupling this technique with internal matching—embedding the antenna and circuit into one structure—allowed the electrically small antenna to achieve a broader bandwidth, while not sacrificing efficiency. An electrically small antenna is one in which the largest dimension of the structure is less than one-tenth of a wavelength. Most electrically small antennas have less than 1 percent efficiency, but Church was able to achieve an efficiency of 85 percent. Church experimentally verified an instantaneous bandwidth of 18 Megahertz from an internally matched, non-Foster integrated antenna that had a physical volume less than one-tenth the operational wavelength. This measured bandwidth exceeds the Chu limit by 2.5 times. Aside from the scientific importance of achieving this previous impossibility, this is an important area of research for the Navy, and will have far reaching impacts on the warfighter. "A lot of the communication bands the military is interested in using are often at low frequencies—very high frequency (VHF) and ultra-high frequency (UHF). Here, the wavelengths are quite long—over a meter or more—and at these frequencies the wave travels a long distance," Church explained. "The challenge is, in order for an antenna to operate efficiently at those frequencies, it has to be physically large, often on a scale of several meters." This is a challenge for those tasked with executing Navy missions, where smaller, portable antennas are much more effective and covert. "There's a big push, and always a need for the military to research how small you can make antennas and have them operate as efficiently as large ones," Church said. "Antennas that are compact allow for greater operational capabilities." SSC Pacific is the naval research and development lab tasked with ensuring Information Warfare superiority. Explore further: Smaller and smarter antennas for military use
Finneran J.J.,Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center Pacific
Journal of the Acoustical Society of America | Year: 2017
Auditory brainstem response (ABR) measurements using conventional averaging (i.e., constant interstimulus interval, ISI) are limited to stimulus rates low enough to prevent overlapping of the ABRs to successive stimuli. To overcome this limitation, stimuli may be presented at high rates using pseudorandom sequences (e.g., maximum length sequences) or quasi-periodic sequences; however, these methods restrict the available stimulus sequences and require deconvolution to recover the ABR from the overlapping responses. Randomized stimulation and averaging (RSA) is an alternate method where evoked responses at high rates are obtained by averaging responses to stimuli with ISIs drawn from a random distribution. The RSA method enables precise control over stimulus jitter, is flexible with respect to stimulus sequence parameters, and does not require deconvolution to extract the ABR waveform. In this study, ABRs were measured in three normal-hearing dolphins using conventional averaging and RSA. Results show the RSA method to be effective in dolphins if the ISI jitter ≥ ∼1.5 ms and that the influence of stimulus artifacts in the averaged ABR can be substantially reduced by alternating stimulus polarity on successive presentations rather than employing digital blanking or iterative processes. © 2017 U.S. Government.
Rosen G.,Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center Pacific |
Miller K.,San Diego State University
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry | Year: 2011
This study examined the suitability for the use of the polychaetous annelid Neanthes arenaceodentata in a short-term sublethal bioassay based on postexposure feeding rate. Quantification of feeding rate was determined by an approximately 1-h feeding period to Artemia franciscana nauplii after a 48-h aqueous exposure. Both lethality and feeding rate were assessed after exposure to Cu and phenanthrene, with the Cu results being compared with those available from similar studies that used the polychaete Hediste diversicolor. Laboratory assessment on the effect of manipulating two common variables in estuarine environments (temperature and salinity) on postexposure feeding to both clean and Cu-spiked seawater samples was also conducted. The 48- and 96-h median lethal concentrations (LC50s) for Cu were 156 and 80μg/L, respectively, whereas the 48-h median effective concentration (EC50) determined by feeding rate was 57μg/L. The 48-h LC50 for phenanthrene was 2,224μg/L, whereas the 48-h feeding rate EC50 was 345μg/L (more sensitive by a factor of >6). The sensitivity of the postexposure feeding rate endpoint to two representative chemicals that are frequently elevated in contaminated sediments, in addition to rapid exposure time, ecological relevance, and relatively simple approach, suggest that this assay with N. arenaceodentata has potential for use as a tool for sublethal effects assessment, with particular promise for in situ applications. The utility of this assay in actual marine and estuarine sediments is being assessed in situ at several North American sediment sites, and will be reported in future publications. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2011; 30:730-737. © 2011 SETAC Copyright © 2011 SETAC.
News Article | January 4, 2017
The U.S. Navy has confirmed that highly trained bottlenose dolphins will join the fight to save the critically endangered vaquita (Phocoena sinus), the rarest of marine mammals and the smallest porpoise in the world. Dolphins that were trained by the Navy's Marine Mammal Program to sniff out underwater mines and enemy divers will be deployed in the Gulf of California, the only known place where the vaquitas live. The cetaceans will locate the last few remaining members of the species in an attempt to capture them. Extinction looms for the vaquita porpoises. About 97 vaquitas exist in 2014, but a report published last year revealed the possibility that the marine animals would go extinct because there are only 60 of them left in the world. The declining population of the marine animal is due to the demand for the giant fish totoaba (Totoaba macdonaldi), also an endangered marine species, which is a delicacy in Chinese cuisine and whose swim bladder is considered to have medicinal value. Illegal fishing of the totoaba accidentally traps the vaquitas in the gill nets, so the latter end up drowning. The Mexican government has already suspended the use of gill nets in the parts of the gulf where the vaquitas live and provided monetary compensation for fishermen who ditch using the gill net. Vaquita porpoises, however, continue to die because of demand for the totoaba bladder, which can sell for more than $5,000 per pound. Last month, the Mexican government launched a rescue mission to capture and hopefully conserve as many vaquitas as possible, an effort considered to be a potentially risky one. Experts question the feasibility of the catch-and-enclose proposal because the vaquita has never been held in captivity. Mexico director of World Wildlife Fund Omar Vidal raised concern that captivity may even result in killing the last remaining members of the endangered species. The last-ditch effort, however, is pushing through. This week, the U.S. Navy announced that dolphins will be deployed in the only known body of water where vaquitas thrive to find surviving members of the species and capture them. The mission is set to begin sometime this spring. Jim Fallin of the U.S. Navy Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center Pacific said that besides using dolphins to locate and catch the vaquitas, the other goal of the mission is to determine how feasible it is to temporarily house the marine mammals in the Sea of Cortez, a protected area of the gulf where the animals may be able to safely breed. The dolphins will use their natural sonar to find the elusive vaquitas. Bottlenose dolphins can find targets in deep and murky waters, an ability unmatched by existing technology. The Navy has sought the help of these cetaceans to conduct underwater searches. "Their specific task is to locate," Fallin said. "They would signal that by surfacing and returning to the boat from which they were launched." © 2017 Tech Times, All rights reserved. Do not reproduce without permission.
News Article | September 20, 2016
Researchers from the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center Pacific (SSC Pacific) devised a new way to electrically contact graphene with liquid metals rather than typical rigid electrodes such as gold and silver. Using this new method, the team demonstrated low-contact resistance with a graphene material that is comparable to the best examples published in scientific literature, but with added advantages such as flexibility and low cost.
News Article | September 23, 2016
Researchers from the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center Pacific have come up with an innovative way to electrically contact graphene with liquid metals instead of typical rigid electrodes such as gold and silver. Using this new technique, the team demonstrated low-contact resistance with a graphene material that is comparable to the best examples published in scientific literature, but with added advantages such as flexibility and low cost. Shanhai Capital has announced that it will merge with Analogix Semiconductor in a deal valued at more than $500 million. Analogix, based in Santa Clara, Calif., manufactures semiconductors that enable high-resolution displays for mobile devices, virtual/augmented reality (VR/AR), and other high-performance electronic products. Its customers include Apple, Samsung, LG, Microsoft, Google, Lenovo, Dell, HP, Asus, and HTC. The majority of the company’s engineering resources are in Beijing. The transaction is subject to regulatory approvals and is expected to close in late 2016. Finally, a team of researchers from the University of Pittsburgh has observed at atomic scale a previously unknown mechanism of shear-driven crystal to amorphously transform in silicon. Their research represents a milestone in the in situ study of amorphization of silicon. By using state-of-the-art in situ atomic-scale transmission electron microscopy, the Pitt team showed that shear-driven amorphization in diamond cubic silicon is led by a shear induced phase transformation to diamond hexagonal silicon, and dislocation nucleation dominated deformation in the latter phase that resulted in amorphous silicon.
Finneran J.J.,Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center Pacific |
Schlundt C.E.,ITT Corporation
Journal of the Acoustical Society of America | Year: 2013
Temporary threshold shift (TTS) was measured in two bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) after exposure to 16-s tones between 3 and 80 kHz to examine the effects of exposure frequency on the onset, growth, and recovery of TTS. Hearing thresholds were measured approximately one-half octave above the exposure frequency using a behavioral response paradigm featuring an adaptive staircase procedure. Results show frequency-specific differences in TTS onset and growth, and suggest increased susceptibility to auditory fatigue for frequencies between approximately 10 and 30 kHz. Between 3 and 56 kHz, the relationship between exposure frequency and the exposure level required to induce 6 dB of TTS, measured 4 min post-exposure, agrees closely with an auditory weighting function for bottlenose dolphins developed from equal loudness contours [Finneran and Schlundt. (2011). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 130, 3124-3136]. © 2013 U.S. Government.
Mulsow J.,Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center Pacific
The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America | Year: 2012
Auditory evoked potential (AEP) data are commonly obtained in air while sea lions are under gas anesthesia; a procedure that precludes the measurement of underwater hearing sensitivity. This is a substantial limitation considering the importance of underwater hearing data in designing criteria aimed at mitigating the effects of anthropogenic noise exposure. To determine if some aspects of underwater hearing sensitivity can be predicted using rapid aerial AEP methods, this study measured underwater psychophysical thresholds for a young male California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) for which previously published aerial AEP thresholds exist. Underwater thresholds were measured in an aboveground pool at frequencies between 1 and 38 kHz. The underwater audiogram was very similar to those previously published for California sea lions, suggesting that the current and previously obtained psychophysical data are representative for this species. The psychophysical and previously measured AEP audiograms were most similar in terms of high-frequency hearing limit (HFHL), although the underwater HFHL was sharper and occurred at a higher frequency. Aerial AEP methods are useful for predicting reductions in the HFHL that are potentially independent of the testing medium, such as those due to age-related sensorineural hearing loss.
Finneran J.J.,Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center Pacific
Journal of the Acoustical Society of America | Year: 2013
When echolocating, dolphins typically emit a single broadband "click," then wait to receive the echo before emitting another click. However, previous studies have shown that during long-range echolocation tasks, they may instead emit a burst, or "packet," of several clicks, then wait for the packet of echoes to return before emitting another packet of clicks. The reasons for the use of packets are unknown. In this study, packet use was examined by having trained bottlenose dolphins perform long-range echolocation tasks. The tasks featured "phantom" echoes produced by capturing the dolphin's outgoing echolocation clicks, convolving the clicks with an impulse response to create an echo waveform, and then broadcasting the delayed, scaled echo to the dolphin. Dolphins were trained to report the presence of phantom echoes or a change in phantom echoes. Target range varied from 25 to 800 m. At ranges below 75 m, the dolphins rarely used packets. As the range increased beyond 75 m, two of the three dolphins increasingly produced packets, while the third dolphin instead utilized very high click repetition rates. The use of click packets appeared to be governed more by echo delay (target range) than echo amplitude. © 2013 U.S. Government.
Finneran J.J.,Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center Pacific
Journal of the Acoustical Society of America | Year: 2015
One of the most widely recognized effects of intense noise exposure is a noise-induced threshold shift - an elevation of hearing thresholds following cessation of the noise. Over the past twenty years, as concerns over the potential effects of human-generated noise on marine mammals have increased, a number of studies have been conducted to investigate noise-induced threshold shift phenomena in marine mammals. The experiments have focused on measuring temporary threshold shift (TTS) - a noise-induced threshold shift that fully recovers over time - in marine mammals exposed to intense tones, band-limited noise, and underwater impulses with various sound pressure levels, frequencies, durations, and temporal patterns. In this review, the methods employed by the groups conducting marine mammal TTS experiments are described and the relationships between the experimental conditions, the noise exposure parameters, and the observed TTS are summarized. An attempt has been made to synthesize the major findings across experiments to provide the current state of knowledge for the effects of noise on marine mammal hearing. © 2015 U.S. Government.