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Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center Pacific provides the Navy with research, development, delivery and support of integrated command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance , cyber and space systems and capabilities across all warfighting domains. The only Naval technical center headquartered in a major fleet concentration area, SSC Pacific manages strategic locations both in the Pacific theater and around the world. The diverse, multi-disciplinary workforce of more than 4,175 scientists, engineers and support personnel work hand-in-hand with more than 200 Fleet operators and active duty service members to ensure SSC Pacific solutions are Fleet-and warfighter-ready.With expertise in network architecture and system design, SSC Pacific is leading the design and deployment of the Consolidated Afloat Networks and Enterprise Services program --- the single largest, most complex upgrade to C4I cyber systems in U.S. Navy history. The Center's numerous unique facilities, test beds and experimentation platforms serve as the launching pad for game-changing innovations.SSC Pacific is advancing the Navy's employment of next generation unmanned systems and autonomous vehicles, large data management, antenna design, clean and renewable energy sources, and both offensive and defensive cyber programs. As the primary research arm of the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command , SSC Pacific supports basic research and prototype development, basic and applied science, extensive test and evaluation services, systems engineering and integration, installation and full spectrum life-cycle support of fielded systems. With world-wide connectivity and numerous partnerships with private industry and academia, SSC Pacific addresses warfighting requirements for Navy, Joint, National and Coalition war fighters.MissionEnable information dominance for Naval, Joint, National, and Coalition war fighters through research, development, delivery, and support of integrated capabilities. Compared to other like sectors, SSC Pacific typically ranks in the top ten organizations for new patents filed annually in San Diego.For more than 70 years, the U.S. Navy has relied on SSC Pacific for research and development of C4ISR products and services. Aside from their military purpose, these information technologies also have applications in disaster relief, crisis response, emergency management, and other civilian operations where dynamic communications, collaboration, and situational awareness are essential to protecting lives and property.SSC Pacific’s leadership areas include: Command, control and communications systems Command, control and communications systems countermeasures Ocean surveillance systems Command, control and communications modeling and analysis Ocean engineering Navigation support Marine mammal operational systems Integration of space communications and surveillanceIn addition, SSC Pacific is involved in complementary areas of research including: Ocean and littoral surveillance Microelectronics Communications and networking Ship topside design/antennas Command systems Computer technology Navigation and aircraft C3 Intelligence/surveillance/reconnaissance sensors Atmospheric effects assessment Environmental quality assessmentSSC Pacific’s major initiatives: Consolidated Afloat Networks and Enterprise Services Enterprise Networks Cyber—including Cyber Security Mobile User Objective System C4ISR for UxVs—Autonomy Support to the Warfighter Networking on the Move Military Construction for C4I Unmanned Underwater Vehicles Commander, Seventh Fleet Integrated cyber operations are a key focus area for SSC Pacific to "enable U.S. forces to maneuver in the cyber domain while denying our adversary’s ability to do the same." Cyber operations "involve a close coupling of computer network defense, computer network exploitation, and computer network attack development and engineering."SSC Pacific is located close to major operational commands of air, surface, submarine, and special operations Naval forces, as well as air, expeditionary, and electronic components of the U.S. Marine Corps. This support extends into the Pacific, with a SPAWAR Systems Activity in Hawaii supporting U.S. Pacific Command and U.S. Pacific Fleet , as well as facilities in Guam and Japan supporting U.S. Seventh Fleet .SSC Pacific and San DiegoIn support of the next generation of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics professionals, SSC Pacific hosts a variety of K-12 education outreach events including: classroom demonstrations and presentations, international robotics competitions, community events, science fairs and festivals, internships, and mentorship activities. SSC Pacific is engaged with local colleges and universities. In addition to research and academic partnerships, SSC Pacific offers student employment programs, such as the San Diego State University Research Foundation program.History,On June 1, 1940, Secretary of the Navy Frank Knox established the Navy’s first laboratory on the West Coast --- the U.S. Navy Radio and Sound Laboratory. Its mission was to perform research and development in communications and radio propagation. In 1943, a second West Coast laboratory was established in the high desert at Inyokern, Calif., the Naval Ordnance Test Station , charged with improving naval weapons systems, particularly those dropped from aircraft.Over the next several decades, those two organizations changed names several times: the U.S. Navy Radio and Sound Lab became the U.S. Navy Electronics Laboratory, the Naval Command Control and Communications Laboratory Center, and the Naval Electronics Laboratory Center ; while NOTS became the Naval Undersea Warfare Center, the Naval Undersea Research and Development Center, and the Naval Undersea Center . On March 1, 1977, NELC and NUC were consolidated to form the Naval Ocean Systems Center .During 30-plus years, these Navy research, development, test and evaluation organizations specialized in command, control and communications ; Arctic submarine warfare; undersea weapons systems; intelligence and undersea surveillance technology, as well as a number of other important areas including lasers, underwater vehicles, environmental science, high performance computing, robotics and marine mammal research.The merger was intended to produce broad-spectrum systems capability; facilitate integration of intelligence, ocean surveillance, C3 and undersea weapons in support of the Navy’s sea control mission; and combine research and technology programs to increase flexibility and generate more funding for broader and more in-depth investigation.During the 1990s, NOSC was renamed following several Base Closure and Realignment Commission actions starting with the Naval Command, Control and Ocean Surveillance Center RDT&E Division, then the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center San Diego; also added were a number of other Navy commands, including the NCCOSC In-Service Engineering West Coast Division; and some substantive changes in business areas, including the loss of leadership roles in anti-submarine warfare weapons systems and Arctic submarine warfare, and the gain of in-service engineering functions and navigation technology. In late 2008, the organization was assigned its current name, the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center Pacific .During its more than seven decades in operation, SSC Pacific has been responsible for ground-breaking achievements in its mission areas, past and present.SPAWARIn 1997 the San Diego facility became the headquarters of the Navy's Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command , formerly located in the Washington, D.C. area. SPAWAR and its systems centers provide much of the tactical and non-tactical information management technology required by the Navy to complete its operational missions.Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center Pacific is one of five field activities of SPAWAR. The other four activities are: Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center Charleston Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center Norfolk Information Technology Center New Orleans Space Field ActivityOther activitiesSSC Pacific is the host of the AUVSI annual Autonomous Underwater Vehicle competition and has been since 2002.ReferencesExternal links SPAWAR Systems Center San Diego Team SPAWAR website Wikipedia.

Finneran J.J.,Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center Pacific | Schlundt C.E.,ITT Corporation
Journal of the Acoustical Society of America

Temporary threshold shift (TTS) was measured in two bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) after exposure to 16-s tones between 3 and 80 kHz to examine the effects of exposure frequency on the onset, growth, and recovery of TTS. Hearing thresholds were measured approximately one-half octave above the exposure frequency using a behavioral response paradigm featuring an adaptive staircase procedure. Results show frequency-specific differences in TTS onset and growth, and suggest increased susceptibility to auditory fatigue for frequencies between approximately 10 and 30 kHz. Between 3 and 56 kHz, the relationship between exposure frequency and the exposure level required to induce 6 dB of TTS, measured 4 min post-exposure, agrees closely with an auditory weighting function for bottlenose dolphins developed from equal loudness contours [Finneran and Schlundt. (2011). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 130, 3124-3136]. © 2013 U.S. Government. Source

Finneran J.J.,Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center Pacific
Journal of the Acoustical Society of America

When echolocating, dolphins typically emit a single broadband "click," then wait to receive the echo before emitting another click. However, previous studies have shown that during long-range echolocation tasks, they may instead emit a burst, or "packet," of several clicks, then wait for the packet of echoes to return before emitting another packet of clicks. The reasons for the use of packets are unknown. In this study, packet use was examined by having trained bottlenose dolphins perform long-range echolocation tasks. The tasks featured "phantom" echoes produced by capturing the dolphin's outgoing echolocation clicks, convolving the clicks with an impulse response to create an echo waveform, and then broadcasting the delayed, scaled echo to the dolphin. Dolphins were trained to report the presence of phantom echoes or a change in phantom echoes. Target range varied from 25 to 800 m. At ranges below 75 m, the dolphins rarely used packets. As the range increased beyond 75 m, two of the three dolphins increasingly produced packets, while the third dolphin instead utilized very high click repetition rates. The use of click packets appeared to be governed more by echo delay (target range) than echo amplitude. © 2013 U.S. Government. Source

Mulsow J.,Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center Pacific
The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America

Auditory evoked potential (AEP) data are commonly obtained in air while sea lions are under gas anesthesia; a procedure that precludes the measurement of underwater hearing sensitivity. This is a substantial limitation considering the importance of underwater hearing data in designing criteria aimed at mitigating the effects of anthropogenic noise exposure. To determine if some aspects of underwater hearing sensitivity can be predicted using rapid aerial AEP methods, this study measured underwater psychophysical thresholds for a young male California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) for which previously published aerial AEP thresholds exist. Underwater thresholds were measured in an aboveground pool at frequencies between 1 and 38 kHz. The underwater audiogram was very similar to those previously published for California sea lions, suggesting that the current and previously obtained psychophysical data are representative for this species. The psychophysical and previously measured AEP audiograms were most similar in terms of high-frequency hearing limit (HFHL), although the underwater HFHL was sharper and occurred at a higher frequency. Aerial AEP methods are useful for predicting reductions in the HFHL that are potentially independent of the testing medium, such as those due to age-related sensorineural hearing loss. Source

Rosen G.,Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center Pacific | Miller K.,San Diego State University
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry

This study examined the suitability for the use of the polychaetous annelid Neanthes arenaceodentata in a short-term sublethal bioassay based on postexposure feeding rate. Quantification of feeding rate was determined by an approximately 1-h feeding period to Artemia franciscana nauplii after a 48-h aqueous exposure. Both lethality and feeding rate were assessed after exposure to Cu and phenanthrene, with the Cu results being compared with those available from similar studies that used the polychaete Hediste diversicolor. Laboratory assessment on the effect of manipulating two common variables in estuarine environments (temperature and salinity) on postexposure feeding to both clean and Cu-spiked seawater samples was also conducted. The 48- and 96-h median lethal concentrations (LC50s) for Cu were 156 and 80μg/L, respectively, whereas the 48-h median effective concentration (EC50) determined by feeding rate was 57μg/L. The 48-h LC50 for phenanthrene was 2,224μg/L, whereas the 48-h feeding rate EC50 was 345μg/L (more sensitive by a factor of >6). The sensitivity of the postexposure feeding rate endpoint to two representative chemicals that are frequently elevated in contaminated sediments, in addition to rapid exposure time, ecological relevance, and relatively simple approach, suggest that this assay with N. arenaceodentata has potential for use as a tool for sublethal effects assessment, with particular promise for in situ applications. The utility of this assay in actual marine and estuarine sediments is being assessed in situ at several North American sediment sites, and will be reported in future publications. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2011; 30:730-737. © 2011 SETAC Copyright © 2011 SETAC. Source

Gendron P.J.,Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center Pacific
Canadian Acoustics - Acoustique Canadienne

Shallow water acoustic response functions at high frequencies and large bandwidths exhibit spatio- temporal variability that depends greatly on the propagation media's volume and boundary conditions as well as system source-receiver motion. For this reason practical acoustic systems invariably must operate without perfect knowledge of the space-time state of the ocean media. Considered here is a Gaussian mixture assignment over Doppler and channel bandwidth employed to describe the amplitude and phase of such acoustic response functions over signal duration and bandwidth that can serve in many scenarios to replace recursive least squares and Kalman-like algorithms. The mixtue Gaussian model of channel dynamics allows for the accurate and adaptive description of the response function. The model is flexible and naturally accommodates varying degrees of observed channel spar- sity. Posterior expectations are derived and shown to be soft shrinkage operators over Doppler-channel frequency. The model allows for novel and accurate estimates regarding the aggregate acoustic path dilation process that serve to replace conventional phase locked loops. This adaptive filtering scheme with aggregate path dilation estimation and compensation is tested on M-ary orthogonal signals at both 1 and 2 bits per symbol during the Unet08 acoustic communication experiments. These tests took place in the downward refracting, lossy bottom environment of St. Margaret's Bay Nova Scotia off of the R/V Quest. Receiver algorithms based on this approach were applied to a single element acoustic time series and empirical bit error rates demonstrate a 4 dB improvement over rank based maximal path combining methods. For a single hydrophone at 2 bits per symbol a bit error rate of less than 10-4 is observed at received SNR < -10 dB corresponding to an SNR/bit < 14 dB. Source

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