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Martin Y.,Institute of Astrophysics of Canarias | Joven E.,Institute of Astrophysics of Canarias | Reyes M.,Institute of Astrophysics of Canarias | Licandro J.,Institute of Astrophysics of Canarias | And 9 more authors.
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2014

JEM-EUSO is a space observatory that will be attached to the Japanese module of the International Space Station (ISS) to observe the UV photon tracks produced by Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR) interacting with atmospheric nuclei. The observatory comprises an Atmospheric Monitoring System (AMS) to gather data about the status of the atmosphere, including an infrared camera (IRCAM) for cloud coverage and cloud top height detection. This paper describes the design and characterization tests of IRCAM, which is the responsibility of the Spanish JEM-EUSO Consortium. The core of IRCAM is a 640x480 microbolometer array, the ULIS 04171, sensitive to radiation in the range 7 to 14 microns. The microbolometer array has been tested using the Front End Electronics Prototype (FEEP). This custom designed electronics corresponds to the Breadboard Model, a design built to verify the camera requirements in the laboratory. The FEEP controls the configuration of the microbolometer, digitizes the detector output, sends data to the Instrument Control Unit (ICU), and controls the microbolometer temperature to a 10 mK stability. Furthermore, the FEEP allows IRCAM to preprocess images by the addition of a powerful FPGA. This prototype has been characterized in the laboratories of Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC). Main results, including detector response as a function of the scene temperature, NETD and Non-Uniformity Correction (NUC) are shown. Results about thermal resolution meet the system requirements with a NETD lower than 1K including the narrow band filters which allow us to retrieve the clouds temperature using stereovision algorithms. © 2014 SPIE. Source


Maroto O.,Sener | Diez-Merino L.,Sener | Carbonell J.,Sener | Tomas A.,Sener | And 7 more authors.
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2014

The Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) Extreme Universe Space Observatory (EUSO) will be launched and attached to the Japanese module of the International Space Station (ISS). Its aim is to observe UV photon tracks produced by ultra-high energy cosmic rays developing in the atmosphere and producing extensive air showers. The key element of the instrument is a very wide-field, very fast, large-lense telescope that can detect extreme energy particles with energy above 1019 eV. The Atmospheric Monitoring System (AMS), comprising, among others, the Infrared Camera (IRCAM), which is the Spanish contribution, plays a fundamental role in the understanding of the atmospheric conditions in the Field of View (FoV) of the telescope. It is used to detect the temperature of clouds and to obtain the cloud coverage and cloud top altitude during the observation period of the JEM-EUSO main instrument. SENER is responsible for the preliminary design of the Front End Electronics (FEE) of the Infrared Camera, based on an uncooled microbolometer, and the manufacturing and verification of the prototype model. This paper describes the flight design drivers and key factors to achieve the target features, namely, detector biasing with electrical noise better than 100μV from 1Hz to 10MHz, temperature control of the microbolometer, from 10°C to 40°C with stability better than 10mK over 4.8hours, low noise high bandwidth amplifier adaptation of the microbolometer output to differential input before analog to digital conversion, housekeeping generation, microbolometer control, and image accumulation for noise reduction. It also shows the modifications implemented in the FEE prototype design to perform a trade-off of different technologies, such as the convenience of using linear or switched regulation for the temperature control, the possibility to check the camera performances when both microbolometer and analog electronics are moved further away from the power and digital electronics, and the addition of switching regulators to demonstrate the design is immune to the electrical noise the switching converters introduce. Finally, the results obtained during the verification phase are presented: FEE limitations, verification results, including FEE noise for each channel and its equivalent NETD and microbolometer temperature stability achieved, technologies trade-off, lessons learnt, and design improvement to implement in future project phases. © 2014 SPIE. Source

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