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Boras, Sweden

The SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, in Swedish SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, is a joint stock company, fully owned by the Swedish government. It was formerly known as Statens Provningsanstalt , thus the abbreviation SP. The company has its headquarters in Borås and employs 1000 persons.Business areas include, among other things, applied research, technical studies and investigations, quality assurances, standardization and certification. Wikipedia.

Hiller C.,SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden
Energy and Buildings | Year: 2012

The aim of this paper is to contribute to the knowledge about energy use in residential buildings. Field measurements were carried out in 57 electrically heated Swedish single-family houses, where the total energy use (i.e. electricity use for space heating, household electricity and electricity use for hot water production), indoor temperatures and water use were recorded during four winter days. Some of the findings were that differences for households' total energy use of similar houses were large. The characteristics of load curves clearly differ between weekdays and weekend days. The water use differs greatly for the households. This paper is part of a larger project where time use diaries were used in order to further link the energy use to residents' every day energy related behaviours. To get a better understanding of the energy use in our homes is a prerequisite to be able to both recognise the problems as well as the potentials of reaching energy goals of our society, leading to a decreased impact on the environment from the building sector. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Gunnarsson A.,Chalmers University of Technology | Sjovall P.,Chalmers University of Technology | Sjovall P.,SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden | Hook F.,Chalmers University of Technology
Nano Letters | Year: 2010

We report on a mass-spectrometry (time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry, TOF-SIMS) based method for multiplexed DNA detection utilizing a random array, where the lipid composition of small unilamellar liposomes act as chemical barcodes to identify unique DNA target sequences down to the single molecule level. In a sandwich format, suspended target-DNA to be detected mediates the binding of capture-DNA modified liposomes to surface-immobilized probe-DNA. With the lipid composition of each liposome encoding a unique target-DNA sequence. TOF-SIMS analysis was used to determine the chemical fingerprint of the bound liposomes. Using high-resolution TOF-SIMS imaging, providing sub-200 nm spatial resolution, single DNA targets could be detected and identified via the chemical fingerprint of individual liposomes. The results also demonstrate the capability of TOF-SIMS to provide multiplexed detection of DNA targets on substrate areas in the micrometer range. Together with a high multiplexing capacity, this makes the concept an interesting alternative to existing barcode concepts based on fluorescence, Raman, or graphical codes for small-scale bloanalysis. © 2010 American Chemical Society. Source

Hakonen A.,Gothenburg University | Stromberg N.,SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden
Analyst | Year: 2012

A basic square root function was successfully used as a diffusion consistent calibration function that considers depletion mechanisms often occurring within optical chemical sensors. This continuous function improved image quality and simplified the calibration process. It may be a universal tool for the typical response function of reversible diffusion controlled sensing reactions. Further, we demonstrate that the gold nanoparticle interaction based ammonium fluorosensor is suitable for non-invasive high-resolution quantitative imaging of complex samples. The plasmon sensitized optical sensors were utilized as a bioanalytical tool for chemical imaging of natural degradation processes occurring in biological tissues. Analytical performance of the nanoparticle enhanced sensors confirmed superior sensitivity, reversibility, durability and overall image quality over non-doped sensing membranes. Although applied in a complex matrix of high potassium (major interferent) and very high sodium (interferent) excellent performance is achieved. The nanoparticle interaction/coextraction based sensing scheme utilized in this study is general and can be used for numerous ions, preferably combined with the diffusion consistent calibrations for superior analytical performance. A table with 44 commercially available ionophores is provided to guide potential users of this sensor configuration. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source

Pendrill L.R.,SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden
Metrologia | Year: 2014

Measurements often provide an objective basis for making decisions, perhaps when assessing whether a product conforms to requirements or whether one set of measurements differs significantly from another. There is increasing appreciation of the need to account for the role of measurement uncertainty when making decisions, so that a 'fit-for-purpose' level of measurement effort can be set prior to performing a given task. Better mutual understanding between the metrologist and those ordering such tasks about the significance and limitations of the measurements when making decisions of conformance will be especially useful. Decisions of conformity are, however, currently made in many important application areas, such as when addressing the grand challenges (energy, health, etc), without a clear and harmonized basis for sharing the risks that arise from measurement uncertainty between the consumer, supplier and third parties. In reviewing, in this paper, the state of the art of the use of uncertainty evaluation in conformity assessment and decision-making, two aspects in particular - the handling of qualitative observations and of impact - are considered key to bringing more order to the present diverse rules of thumb of more or less arbitrary limits on measurement uncertainty and percentage risk in the field. (i) Decisions of conformity can be made on a more or less quantitative basis - referred in statistical acceptance sampling as by 'variable' or by 'attribute' (i.e. go/no-go decisions) - depending on the resources available or indeed whether a full quantitative judgment is needed or not. There is, therefore, an intimate relation between decision-making, relating objects to each other in terms of comparative or merely qualitative concepts, and nominal and ordinal properties. (ii) Adding measures of impact, such as the costs of incorrect decisions, can give more objective and more readily appreciated bases for decisions for all parties concerned. Such costs are associated with a variety of consequences, such as unnecessary re-manufacturing by the supplier as well as various consequences for the customer, arising from incorrect measures of quantity, poor product performance and so on. © 2014 BIPM & IOP Publishing Ltd. Source

Zhang X.,SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden
Journal of Sound and Vibration | Year: 2010

For a sound source, directivity is an important parameter to specify. This parameter also reflects the physical feature of the sound generation mechanism. In this article, studies on the directivity of railway noise, by measurement and by theoretical investigation, are discussed extensively and systematically. The two most important noise types, i.e. rolling noise and aerodynamic noise, are focused on. A model of perpendicular dipole pair is proposed to interpret the measurement specified directivity characters of wheel/rail radiation. This model naturally explains why a vibrating railway wheel does not present dipole directivity character and why rail radiation is of different vertical and horizontal directivity characters. Moreover pantograph noise is also found to be of perpendicular dipole components. As for aerodynamic noise around bogies, scattering of the air flow is proposed to be the mechanism of the noise generation; this understanding leads to a different directivity description for the noise component. Directivities of other important noise types are discussed as well; their directivities become understood, although lacking of relevant directivity data. In summary, this study provides applicable directivity functions together with a survey of the directivities of all important railway noise types and components. Hopefully, this work will be useful, for railway noise engineering also contribute to understand better railway noise. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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