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SP
Crawley Down, United Kingdom

Singh H.,SP | Mowatt J.,JCF FSL
Egyptian Journal of Forensic Sciences | Year: 2016

The present experimental research was carried out in the year 2011 in Kingston, Jamaica. A total of six firearms were used in this research, each bullet served as its own control. A total of seven sets of bullets were test fired of which one set was embedded in the body (control) and was stored at 2-4 °C and other six sets were embedded in a fresh cadaver and subjected to environment temperature of 26-29 °C, for a period of 12 days. Macroscopic observation indicated complete corrosion of the class characteristic markings (major countable striations) by the 8th day, by the 6th day it was near obscuration. On the 2nd day with the onset of biofilms, corrosive changes on the rifling marks were noted. On the 4th day, biofilm, and bio-corrosion (microbiologically induced corrosion) had obliterated 100% of linear macroscopic striations (microstriae/individual characters) and 50% of class character rifling marks. The observations through comparison microscope indicated that the individual characteristic (microscopic) markings on the bullet in the form of microstriae showed complete corrosion or obscuring by the 10th day. The surface appeared smooth, onset of corrosion process was noted on the 2nd day and by the 4th day 50% obscuring of the marks was noted. This change in the markings of the metal surface of the bullet was uniform to all the ammunitions used in this study. The control bullets showed no such changes during the period of study. The study confirms the existence of a potential danger in dealing with crime bullets retrieved from putrefied bodies. It also highlights the importance of early retrieval of dead bodies in firearm deaths and the importance of proper storage facilities to deal with cases of firearm deaths. © 2015 The International Association of Law and Forensic Sciences(IALFS). Production and hosting ,Elsevier B.V. Source


Krings T.,University of Toronto | Kim H.,University of California at San Francisco | Power S.,SP | Nelson J.,Center for Cerebrovascular Research | And 3 more authors.
AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology | Year: 2015

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia is an autosomal dominant disease that presents in 10%-20% of patients with various brain vascular malformations. We aimed to report the radiologic features (phenotype) and the genotype-phenotype correlations of brain vascular malformations in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Demographic, clinical, genotypic, and imaging information of 75 patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia with brain arteriovenous malformations enrolled in the Brain Vascular Malformation Consortium from 2010 to 2012 were reviewed.RESULTS: Nonshunting, small, superficially located conglomerates of enhancing vessels without enlarged feeding arteries or draining veins called "capillary vascular malformations" were the most commonly observed lesion (46 of 75 patients; 61%), followed by shunting "nidus-type" brain AVMs that were typically located superficially with a low Spetzler-Martin Grade and a small size (32 of 75 patients; 43%). Direct high-flow fistulous arteriovenous shunts were present in 9 patients (12%). Other types of vascular malformations (dural AVF and developmental venous anomalies) were present in 1 patient each. Multiplicity of vascular malformations was seen in 33 cases (44%). No statistically significant correlation was observed between hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia gene mutation and lesion type or lesion multiplicity.CONCLUSIONS: Depending on their imaging features, brain vascular malformations in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia can be subdivided into brain AVF, nidus-type AVM, and capillary vascular malformations, with the latter being the most common phenotype in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. No genotype-phenotype correlation was observed among patients with this condition. © 2015 by American Journal of Neuroradiology. Source


de Lima Rozenowicz R.,DOGI Pelvic Oncology Clinic | Dos Santos R.E.,DOGI Pelvic Oncology Clinic | Silva M.A.L.G.,SP | Rodrigues F.F.O.,DOGI Pelvic Oncology Clinic | And 4 more authors.
Revista do Colegio Brasileiro de Cirurgioes | Year: 2010

Objective: To evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of cox-2 before primary chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil, epirubicin and cyclophosphamide (FEC) and its association with initial tumor size, lymph node status, hormone receptors, expression of HER2 and the clinical and pathological response in patients with breast cancer. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study with 41 women with histopathological diagnosis of ductal breast carcinoma. They underwent primary chemotherapy with FEC regimen (5-fluorouracil, epirubicin and cyclophosphamide) at 500mg/m2, 75mg/m2 and 500 mg/m2, respectively. Inclusion criteria were age range between 30 and 70 years, stage II to IIIA, absence of metastasis, primary tumor of the breast, single, unilateral, with ductal invasion at histology and absence of heart disease and pregnancy. To evaluate the expression of HER2/neu protein we used rabbit monoclonal antibodies. To visualize the expression of cox-2 protein we used polyclonal antibodies obtained from goats' serum. The evaluation of clinical response to treatment was performed during physical examination by measuring the major tumor axis with a pachymeter. Measurements were taken at admission and after primary chemotherapy cycles. After three chemotherapy sessions at intervals of 21 days the surgical procedure was carried out. We adopted the criteria of RECIST. After the operation we evaluated the local pathological response, which was considered complete when there was absence of invasive neoplasia and of the in situ component. In immunohistochemical assessing of estrogen receptors we used estrogen receptor NCL- ER6F11 and, for progesterone, progesterone receptor NCL-PGR-312, considering positive the staining of 10% or more tumor cells. Results: The distribution according to UICC clinical stage classified six patients in stage IIA (14.6%), 22 in stage IIB (53.6%) and 13 stage IIIA (31.8%). The initial clinical evaluation of the major tumor axis ranged from 2.5 to 15 cm and a median of 5 cm. We identified 14 patients (34.1%) with negative lymph node status, and 27 positive (65.9%). It was observed that 19 (46.3%) were in premenopause and 22 (53.6%) in menopause. Conclusion: There was an association of the expression of Cox-2 to the factors associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer, such as positive lymph node status, negative hormone receptors and HER2 expression. Source


Lamprou D.A.,University of Portsmouth | Smith J.R.,University of Portsmouth | Nevell T.G.,University of Portsmouth | Barbu E.,University of Portsmouth | And 2 more authors.
Applied Surface Science | Year: 2010

Measurements of surface-liquid interactions (contact-angle goniometry) and tip-surface adhesion forces (atomic force microscopy) combined with infrared spectroscopic studies have been used to investigate surface-preparation and solution-deposition conditions for the reproducible formation of self-assembled molecular structures on gold-coated tips and substrates for atomic force microscopy. Preliminary data show that surface-saturated self-assembled monolayers form reproducibly on prolonged (>20 h) exposure of gold-coated glass substrates to ethanolic solutions of ω-functionalised alkanethiols in the concentration range 80-160 mmol dm-3. The data also show that exposure for 16 h to alkanethiol concentrations in the range 160-240 mmol dm-3 promote bilayer formation whereas concentrations of 240-320 mmol dm-3 result in the deposition of multilayers, the average orientation of which is parallel to that of the first molecular layer; the use of parent 1-undecanethiol solutions at concentrations of 1-80 mmol dm-3 results in incomplete monolayer coverage. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. Source


Nilsson Paledal S.,Tekniska verken i Linkoping AB | Arrhenius K.,SP | Moestedt J.,Tekniska verken i Linkoping AB | Engelbrektsson J.,SP | Stensen K.,Tekniska verken i Linkoping AB
Chemosphere | Year: 2016

Compression and upgrading of biogas to vehicle fuel generates process water, which to varying degrees contains volatile organic compounds (VOCs) originating from the biogas. The compostion of this process water has not yet been studied and scientifically published and there is currently an uncertainty regarding content of VOCs and how the process water should be managed to minimise the impact on health and the environment. The aim of the study was to give an overview about general levels of VOCs in the process water. Characterisation of process water from amine and water scrubbers at plants digesting waste, sewage sludge or agricultural residues showed that both the average concentration and composition of particular VOCs varied depending on the substrate used at the biogas plant, but the divergence was high and the differences for total concentrations from the different substrate groups were only significant for samples from plants using waste compared to residues from agriculture. The characterisation also showed that the content of VOCs varied greatly between different sampling points for same main substrate and between sampling occasions at the same sampling point, indicating that site-specific conditions are important for the results which also indicates that a number of analyses at different times are required in order to make an more exact characterisation with low uncertainty.Inhibition of VOCs in the anaerobic digestion (AD) process was studied in biomethane potential tests, but no inhibition was observed during addition of synthetic process water at concentrations of 11.6 mg and 238 mg VOC/L. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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