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Zhang L.,Jilin Agricultural University | Zhang L.,Jilin Medical College | Yu H.-S.,Jilin Agricultural University | Yu H.-S.,Soybean Research and Development Center | And 2 more authors.
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2013

The effect of mixture material with different levels which consisted in soybean residue, soy protein isolate and wheat gluten (0/65/35%-60/5/35%) during high-moisture extrusion, using a laboratory size co-rotating, twin screw food extruder under 50%-60% feed moisture content and 130-150°C cooking temperature on selected extruder responses, color and textural properties of extruded products was studied. The results show that soybean residue content and feed moisture is negative correlation (r=-0.666 and -0.601) with the hardness of fibrous meat analogs. But cooking temperature has not significant correlation (P>0.05) with the changes of extruder response, color or textural properties of meat analogs. © (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Chen L.M.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Chen L.M.,Key Laboratory of Oil Crop Biology Ministry of Agriculture | Chen L.M.,Northeast Agricultural University | Chen L.M.,Soybean Research and Development Center | And 22 more authors.
BMC Genomics | Year: 2013

Background: Soybean is an important crop that provides valuable proteins and oils for human use. Because soybean growth and development is extremely sensitive to water deficit, quality and crop yields are severely impacted by drought stress. In the face of limited water resources, drought-responsive genes are therefore of interest. Identification and analysis of dehydration- and rehydration-inducible differentially expressed genes (DEGs) would not only aid elucidation of molecular mechanisms of stress response, but also enable improvement of crop stress tolerance via gene transfer. Using Digital Gene Expression Tag profiling (DGE), a new technique based on Illumina sequencing, we analyzed expression profiles between two soybean genotypes to identify drought-responsive genes.Results: Two soybean genotypes-drought-tolerant Jindou21 and drought-sensitive Zhongdou33-were subjected to dehydration and rehydration conditions. For analysis of DEGs under dehydration conditions, 20 cDNA libraries were generated from roots and leaves at two different time points under well-watered and dehydration conditions. We also generated eight libraries for analysis under rehydration conditions. Sequencing of the 28 libraries produced 25,000-33,000 unambiguous tags, which were mapped to reference sequences for annotation of expressed genes. Many genes exhibited significant expression differences among the libraries. DEGs in the drought-tolerant genotype were identified by comparison of DEGs among treatments and genotypes. In Jindou21, 518 and 614 genes were differentially expressed under dehydration in leaves and roots, respectively, with 24 identified both in leaves and roots. The main functional categories enriched in these DEGs were metabolic process, response to stresses, plant hormone signal transduction, protein processing, and plant-pathogen interaction pathway; the associated genes primarily encoded transcription factors, protein kinases, and other regulatory proteins. The seven most significantly expressed (|log2 ratio| ≥ 8) genes- Glyma15g03920, Glyma05g02470, Glyma15g15010, Glyma05g09070, Glyma06g35630, Glyma08g12590, and Glyma11g16000-are more likely to determine drought stress tolerance. The expression patterns of eight randomly-selected genes were confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR; the results of QRT-PCR analysis agreed with transcriptional profile data for 96 out of 128 (75%) data points.Conclusions: Many soybean genes were differentially expressed between drought-tolerant and drought-sensitive genotypes. Based on GO functional annotation and pathway enrichment analysis, some of these genes encoded transcription factors, protein kinases, and other regulatory proteins. The seven most significant DEGs are candidates for improving soybean drought tolerance. These findings will be helpful for analysis and elucidation of molecular mechanisms of drought tolerance; they also provide a basis for cultivating new varieties of drought-tolerant soybean. © 2013 Chen et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Wu Q.,Jilin University | Yu H.,Jilin University | Yu H.,Soybean Research and Development Center | Zhang L.,Soybean Research and Development Center | And 8 more authors.
Journal of the Chinese Cereals and Oils Association | Year: 2013

In order to improve the nutritional value of soymilk, this paper respectively adopted Lactobacillus plantarum and Acidophilus Bifidum single-strain fermentation and mixed-strain fermentation of soymilk, and has compared protein small peptides and amino acids of fermented soymilk with unfermented soymilk proteins. The results showed that: compared with unfermented soymilk, protein content of Lactobacillus plantarum and Acidophilus Bifidum single-strain fermentation and mixed-strain fermentation of soymilk kept unchanging, protein of 200 and 80 ku were degraded, protein strip of small molecular weight were increased, and small peptides content respectively increased 19.4%, 22.16% and 12%. Total amino acid content respectively increased 8.22%, 10.61% and 9.95%.

Zhao L.,Northeast Agricultural University | Zhao L.,Soybean Research and Development Center | Hao D.,Northeast Agricultural University | Hao D.,Soybean Research and Development Center | And 12 more authors.
Journal of Experimental Botany | Year: 2012

The soybean gene Glyma10g34760 appears to encode a RAV2-like transcription factor orthologue (DQ147914; hereafter GmRAV) based on sequence similarity. The gene is a member of the ERF/AP2 transcription factor family that has been shown to be increased in transcript abundance by cytokinins (CKs). Transgenic GmRAV-overexpressing (-ox) tobacco plants exhibited increased CK signalling-related phenotypes including dwarfism, reduced apical dominance, extreme longevity, vigorous outgrowth of lateral buds, small and dark green leaves, reduced root growth, repressed flowering under both long-and short-day conditions, and altered sensitivity to daylength. In contrast, inhibition (-i) of GmRAV in soybean displayed the opposite phenotypic alterations which were consistent with defects in CK signalling. Phenotypes included earlier time of emergence; reduced numbers of branches, leaves, and flower buds; increased plant height; increased apical dominance; and earlier flowering and maturity. GmRAV-i soybean was less sensitive to cytokinin in hypocotyls and root growth inhibition assays. GmRAV-i soybean showed decreased frequency of adventious shoot formation in tissue culture in the presence of CKs, which might be attributed to the significantly decreased activities of CUC2, STM, and WUS involved in shoot meristem specification. GmRAV protein was localized in the nucleus in leaves. The GmRAV promoter-β-glucuronidase (GUS) fusion was largely expressed in a meristematic region of the shoot apex, which was consistent with expressed sequence tag and microarray data. GmRAV was inferred to play a key role in CK and photoperiod signalling that subsequently regulated plant development. © 2012 The Author.

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