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Burton A.L.,Plant Science Research Unit | Burkey K.O.,Plant Science Research Unit | Burkey K.O.,North Carolina State University | Carter T.E.,Soybean and Nitrogen Fixation Unit | And 3 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2016

Key message: Soybean quantitative trait loci for ozone response.Abstract: Ground-level ozone reduces yield in crops such as soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.). Phenotypic variation has been observed for this trait in multiple species; however, breeding for ozone tolerance has been limited. A recombinant inbred population was developed from soybean genotypes differing in tolerance to ozone: tolerant Fiskeby III and sensitive Mandarin (Ottawa). Plants were exposed to ozone treatment for 5 days in greenhouse chambers followed by visual scoring for foliar injury. Mean injury score in the mid-canopy was 16 % for Fiskeby III, and 81 % for Mandarin (Ottawa). Injury scores were lower in younger leaves for both parents and progeny, compared to scores in the older leaves. Segregation was consistent with multigenic inheritance. Correlation coefficients for injury between leaf positions ranged from 0.34 to 0.81, with the closer leaf positions showing the greater correlation. Narrow sense heritability within an ozone treatment chamber was 0.59, 0.40, 0.29, 0.30, 0.19, and 0.35 for the 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, and combined 3rd–5th main stem leaf positions (numbered acropetally), respectively, based on genotypic means over three independent replications. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis showed that loci were associated with distinct leaf developmental stages. QTL were identified on Chromosome 17 for the 2nd and 3rd leaf positions, and on Chromosome 4 for the 5th and 6th leaf positions. Additional loci were identified on Chromosomes 6, 18, 19, and 20. Interacting loci were identified on Chromosomes 5 and 15 for injury on trifoliate 4. The ozone sensitive parent contributed one favorable allele for ozone response. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg (outside the USA)

Klink V.P.,Mississippi State University | Overall C.C.,Soybean Genomics and Improvement Laboratory | Overall C.C.,George Mason University | Overall C.C.,University of North Carolina at Charlotte | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology | Year: 2010

Background. A comparative microarray investigation was done using detection call methodology (DCM) and differential expression analyses. The goal was to identify genes found in specific cell populations that were eliminated by differential expression analysis due to the nature of differential expression methods. Laser capture microdissection (LCM) was used to isolate nearly homogeneous populations of plant root cells. Results. The analyses identified the presence of 13,291 transcripts between the 4 different sample types. The transcripts filtered down into a total of 6,267 that were detected as being present in one or more sample types. A comparative analysis of DCM and differential expression methods showed a group of genes that were not differentially expressed, but were expressed at detectable amounts within specific cell types. Conclusion. The DCM has identified patterns of gene expression not shown by differential expression analyses. DCM has identified genes that are possibly cell-type specific and/or involved in important aspects of plant nematode interactions during the resistance response, revealing the uniqueness of a particular cell population at a particular point during its differentiation process. Copyright © 2010 Vincent P. Klink et al.

Klink V.P.,Mississippi State University | Hosseini P.,Soybean Genomics and Improvement Laboratory | Hosseini P.,Towson University | Matsye P.D.,Mississippi State University | And 2 more authors.
Plant Molecular Biology | Year: 2011

Glycine max L. Merr. (soybean) resistance to Heterodera glycines Ichinohe occurs at the site of infection, a nurse cell known as the syncytium. Resistance is classified into two cytologically-defined responses, the G. max[Peking]- and G. max[PI 88788]-types. Each type represents a cohort of G. max genotypes. Resistance in G. max[Peking] occurs by a potent and rapid localized response, affecting parasitic second stage juveniles (p-J2). In contrast, resistance occurs by a potent but more prolonged reaction in the genotype G. max[PI 88788] that affects nematode development at the J3 and J4 stages. Microarray analyses comparing these cytologically and developmentally distinct resistant reactions reveal differences in gene expression in pericycle and surrounding cells even before infection. The differences include higher relative levels of the differentially expressed in response to arachidonic acid 1 gene (DEA1 [Gm-DEA1]) (+224. 19-fold) and a protease inhibitor (+68.28-fold) in G. max[Peking/PI 548402] as compared to G. max[PI 88788]. Gene pathway analyses compare the two genotypes (1) before, (2) at various times during, (3) constitutively throughout the resistant reaction and (4) at all time points prior to and during the resistant reaction. The amplified levels of transcriptional activity of defense genes may explain the rapid and potent reaction in G. max[Peking/PI 548402] as compared to G. max[PI 88788]. In contrast, the shared differential expression levels of genes in G. max[Peking/PI 548402] and G. max[PI 88788] may indicate a conserved genomic program underlying the G. max resistance on which the genotype-specific gene expression programs are built off. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Klink V.P.,Mississippi State University | Hosseini P.,Soybean Genomics and Improvement Laboratory | Hosseini P.,Towson University | Matsye P.D.,Mississippi State University | And 2 more authors.
Plant Physiology and Biochemistry | Year: 2010

The plant parasitic nematode, Heterodera glycines is the major pathogen of Glycine max (soybean). H. glycines accomplish parasitism by creating a nurse cell known as the syncytium from which it feeds. The syncytium undergoes two developmental phases. The first is a parasitism phase where feeding sites are selected, initiating the development of the syncytium. During this earlier phase (1-4 days post infection), syncytia undergoing resistant and susceptible reactions appear the same. The second phase is when the resistance response becomes evident (between 4 and 6 dpi) and is completed by 9 dpi. Analysis of the resistant reaction of G. max genotype PI 88788 (G. max[PI 88788]) to H. glycines population NL1-RHg/HG-type 7 (H. glycines[NL1-RHg/HG-type 7]) is accomplished by laser microdissection of syncytia at 3, 6 and 9 dpi. Comparative analyses are made to pericycle and their neighboring cells isolated from mock-inoculated roots. These analyses reveal induced levels of the jasmonic acid biosynthesis and 13-lipoxygenase pathways. Direct comparative analyses were also made of syncytia at 6 days post infection to those at 3 dpi (base line). The comparative analyses were done to identify localized gene expression that characterizes the resistance phase of the resistant reaction. The most highly induced pathways include components of jasmonic acid biosynthesis, 13-lipoxygenase pathway, S-adenosyl methionine pathway, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, suberin biosynthesis, adenosylmethionine biosynthesis, ethylene biosynthesis from methionine, flavonoid biosynthesis and the methionine salvage pathway. In comparative analyses of 9 dpi to 6 dpi (base line), these pathways, along with coumarin biosynthesis, cellulose biosynthesis and homogalacturonan degradation are induced. The experiments presented here strongly implicate the jasmonic acid defense pathway as a factor involved in the localized resistant reaction of G. max[PI 88788] to H. glycines[NL1-RHg/HG-type 7]. © 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS.

Van Berkum P.,Soybean Genomics and Improvement Laboratory | Elia P.,Soybean Genomics and Improvement Laboratory | Eardly B.D.,P.A. College
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2010

A multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis was used to examine the genetic structure and diversity within the two large extrachromosomal replicons in Medicago-nodulating rhizobia (Sinorhizobium meliloti and Sinorhizobium medicae). The allelic diversity within these replicons was high compared to the reported diversity within the corresponding chromosomes of the same strains (P. van Berkum et al., J. Bacteriol. 188:5570-5577, 2006). Also, there was strong localized linkage disequilibrium (LD) between certain pSymA loci: e.g., nodC and nifD. Although both of these observations could be explained by positive (or diversifying) selection by plant hosts, results of tests for positive selection did not provide consistent support for this hypothesis. The strong LD observed between the nodC and nifD genes could also be explained by their close proximity on the pSymA replicón. Evidence was obtained that some nodC alleles had a history of intragenic recombination, while other alleles of this locus had a history of intergenic recombination. Both types of recombination were associated with a decline in symbiotic competence with Medicago sativa as the host plant. The combined observations of LD between the nodC and nifD genes and intragenic recombination within one of these loci indicate that the symbiotic gene region on the pSymA plasmid has evolved as a clonal segment, which has been laterally transferred within the natural populations. Copyright © 2010, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Hosseini P.,Soybean Genomics and Improvement Laboratory | Hosseini P.,Towson University | Tremblay A.,Soybean Genomics and Improvement Laboratory | Matthews B.F.,Soybean Genomics and Improvement Laboratory | Alkharouf N.W.,Towson University
BMC Research Notes | Year: 2010

Background. The data produced by an Illumina flow cell with all eight lanes occupied, produces well over a terabyte worth of images with gigabytes of reads following sequence alignment. The ability to translate such reads into meaningful annotation is therefore of great concern and importance. Very easily, one can get flooded with such a great volume of textual, unannotated data irrespective of read quality or size. CASAVA, a optional analysis tool for Illumina sequencing experiments, enables the ability to understand INDEL detection, SNP information, and allele calling. To not only extract from such analysis, a measure of gene expression in the form of tag-counts, but furthermore to annotate such reads is therefore of significant value. Findings. We developed TASE (Tag counting and Analysis of Solexa Experiments), a rapid tag-counting and annotation software tool specifically designed for Illumina CASAVA sequencing datasets. Developed in Java and deployed using jTDS JDBC driver and a SQL Server backend, TASE provides an extremely fast means of calculating gene expression through tag-counts while annotating sequenced reads with the gene's presumed function, from any given CASAVA-build. Such a build is generated for both DNA and RNA sequencing. Analysis is broken into two distinct components: DNA sequence or read concatenation, followed by tag-counting and annotation. The end result produces output containing the homology-based functional annotation and respective gene expression measure signifying how many times sequenced reads were found within the genomic ranges of functional annotations. Conclusions. TASE is a powerful tool to facilitate the process of annotating a given Illumina Solexa sequencing dataset. Our results indicate that both homology-based annotation and tag-count analysis are achieved in very efficient times, providing researchers to delve deep in a given CASAVA-build and maximize information extraction from a sequencing dataset. TASE is specially designed to translate sequence data in a CASAVA-build into functional annotations while producing corresponding gene expression measurements. Achieving such analysis is executed in an ultrafast and highly efficient manner, whether the analysis be a single-read or paired-end sequencing experiment. TASE is a user-friendly and freely available application, allowing rapid analysis and annotation of any given Illumina Solexa sequencing dataset with ease. © 2010 Alkharouf et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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