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Southwestern Adventist University is one of 13 colleges and universities in the United States affiliated with the Seventh-day Adventist Church. It is owned by the Southwestern Union Conference of Seventh-day Adventists and is classified as a small school with an approximate undergraduate enrollment of 800. Its setting is rural, and the campus size is 150 acres.The university has received full accreditation from the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools through 2016. It is religiously accredited by the Adventist Accrediting Association. The nursing program is approved by the Texas Board of Nurse Examiners.Southwestern offers certificate, associate, bachelor’s, and master's degrees. The University student to faculty ratio of 12:1 and the size of classes, 76.9% of classes at Southwestern have fewer than 20 students, give students opportunity to interact with professors. Wikipedia.

Chootong P.,Mahidol University | McHenry A.M.,Southwestern Adventist University | Ntumngia F.B.,University of South Florida | Sattabongkot J.,Mahidol University | Adams J.H.,University of South Florida
Parasitology International | Year: 2014

Plasmodium vivax Duffy binding protein II (DBPII) plays an important role in reticulocyte invasion and is a potential vaccine candidate against vivax malaria. However, polymorphisms in DBPII are a challenge for the successful design of a broadly protective vaccine. In this study, the genetic diversity of DBPII among Thai isolates was analyzed from Plasmodium vivax-infected blood samples and polymorphism characters were defined with the MEGA4 program. Sequence analysis identified 12 variant residues that are common among Thai DBPII haplotypes with variant residues L333F, L424I, W437R and I503K having the highest frequency. Variant residue D384K occurs in combination with either E385K or K386N/Q. Additionally, variant residue L424I occurs in conjunction with W437R in most Thai DBPII alleles and these variants frequently occur in combination with the I503K variant. The polymorphic patterns of Thai isolates were defined into 9 haplotypes (Thai DBL-1, -2, -3, etc.. . .). Thai DBL-2, -5, -6 haplotypes are the most common DBPII variants in Thai residents. To study the association of these Thai DBPII polymorphisms with antigenic character, the functional inhibition of anti-DBPII monoclonal antibodies against a panel of Thai DBL variants was characterized by an in vitro erythrocyte binding inhibition assay. The functional inhibition of anti-DBPII monoclonal antibodies 3C9, 2D10 and 2C6 against Thai variants was significantly different, suggesting that polymorphisms of Thai DBPII variants alter the antigenic character of the target epitopes. In contrast, anti-DBPII monoclonal antibody 2H2 inhibited all Thai DBPII variants equally well. Our results suggest that the immune efficacy of a DBPII vaccine will depend on the specificity of the anti-DBPII antibodies induced and that it is preferable to optimize responses to conserved epitopes for broadly neutralizing protection against P. vivax. © 2014 The Authors.

Ntumngia F.B.,University of South Florida | Schloegel J.,University of South Florida | Schloegel J.,La Trobe University | Barnes S.J.,University of South Florida | And 6 more authors.
Infection and Immunity | Year: 2012

The Duffy binding protein (DBP) is a vital ligand for Plasmodium vivax blood-stage merozoite invasion, making the molecule an attractive vaccine candidate against vivax malaria. Similar to other blood-stage vaccine candidates, DBP allelic variation eliciting a strain-specific immunity may be a major challenge for development of a broadly effective vaccine against vivax malaria. To understand whether conserved epitopes can be the target of neutralizing anti-DBP inhibition, we generated a set of monoclonal antibodies to DBP and functionally analyzed their reactivity to a panel of allelic variants. Quantitative analysis by enzymelinked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) determined that some monoclonal antibodies reacted strongly with epitopes conserved on all DBP variants tested, while reactivity of others was allele specific. Qualitative analysis characterized by anti-DBP functional inhibition using an in vitro erythrocyte binding inhibition assay indicated that there was no consistent correlation between the endpoint titers and functional inhibition. Some monoclonal antibodies were broadly inhibitory while inhibition of others varied significantly by target allele. These data demonstrate a potential for vaccine-elicited immunization to target conserved epitopes but optimization of DBP epitope target specificity and immunogenicity may be necessary for protection against diverse P. vivax strains. © 2012, American Society for Microbiology.

Chi G.C.-H.-L.,Southwestern Adventist University | Young A.,Texas Womans University
Holistic Nursing Practice | Year: 2011

The use of music as an intervention involves choices. What kind of music should be used? Who should choose the music? Thirty-one articles were reviewed. To maximize effects, the primary music selection should be based on research and then a variety of selections be presented to individuals for choice on the basis of personal preferences. © 2011 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

Ntumngia F.B.,University of South Florida | Schloegel J.,University of South Florida | Schloegel J.,La Trobe University | McHenry A.M.,University of South Florida | And 5 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2013

The Duffy binding protein (DBP) of Plasmodium vivax is vital for host erythrocyte invasion. DBP region II (DBPII) contains critical residues for receptor recognition and anti-DBPII antibodies have been shown to inhibit erythrocyte binding and invasion, thereby making the molecule an attractive vaccine candidate against P. vivax blood stages. Similar to other blood-stage antigens, allelic variation within the DBPII and associated strain-specific immunity is a major challenge for development of a broadly effective vaccine against P. vivax malaria. We hypothesized that immunization with a vaccine composed of multiple DBP alleles or a modified epitope DBP (DEKnull) will be more effective in producing a broadly reactive and inhibitory antibody response to diverse DBPII alleles than a single allele vaccine. In this study, we compared single, naturally occurring DBPII allele immunizations (Sal1, 7.18, P) and DEKnull with a combination of (Sal1, 7.18, P) alleles. Quantitative analysis by ELISA demonstrated that the multiple allele vaccine tend to be more immunogenic than any of the single allele vaccines when tested for reactivity against a panel of DBPII allelic variants whereas DEKnull was less immunogenic than the mixed-allele vaccine but similar in reactivity to the single allele vaccines. Further analysis for functional efficacy by in vitro erythrocyte-binding inhibition assays demonstrated that the multiple allele immunization produced a stronger strain-neutralizing response than the other vaccination strategies even though inhibition remained biased toward some alleles. Overall, there was no correlation between antibody titer and functional inhibition. These data suggest that a multiple allele vaccine may enhance immunogenicity of a DBPII vaccine but further investigation is required to optimize this vaccine strategy to achieve broader coverage against global P. vivax strains. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Brand L.,Loma Linda University | Urbina M.,Museo de Historia Natural | Chadwick A.,Southwestern Adventist University | DeVries T.J.,University of Washington | Esperante R.,Geoscience Research Institute
Journal of South American Earth Sciences | Year: 2011

The Miocene/Pliocene Pisco Formation of Peru contains a rich marine vertebrate fossil record, providing a unique opportunity for the study of paleoecology and evolution, along with the sedimentological context of the fossils. The lack of a high-resolution stratigraphic framework has hampered such study. In this paper we develop the needed stratigraphy for the areas in the Pisco Formation where most of the vertebrate paleontological research is occurring. In the Ica Valley and in the vicinity of Lomas, series of lithologically or paleontologically unique marker beds were identified. These were walked out and documented with GPS technology. Measured sections connecting these marker beds provide a stratigraphic framework for the areas studied. GPS locations, maps of the marker beds on aerial photographs, and outcrop photographs allow field determination of the stratigraphic positions of study areas. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

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