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Southwest University is a comprehensive university in Chongqing, China. Wikipedia.


Zhang F.X.,Southwest University
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2014

This paper focus on two level hierarchical scheduling where several real-time applications are scheduled by the fixed priority algorithms. The application with its real-time tasks is bound to a server which can be modeled as a sporadic task with special care for the schedulability analysis. Different scheduling policies and servers can be applied for hierarchical fixed priority systems, this paper gives a closer review of schedulability analysis for applications and tasks when the global and local schedulers of a system are fixed priority. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Yu J.,CAS Institute of Psychology | Yu J.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Yu J.,Southwest University | Li J.,CAS Institute of Psychology | And 2 more authors.
BMC Psychiatry | Year: 2012

Background: A cross-sectional validation study was conducted in several urban and rural communities in Beijing, China, to evaluate the effectiveness of the Beijing version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA-BJ) as a screening tool to detect mild cognitive impairment (MCI) among Chinese older adults.Methods: The MoCA-BJ and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) were administered to 1001 Chinese elderly community dwellers recruited from three different regions (i.e., newly developed, old down-town, and rural areas) in Beijing. Twenty-one of these participants were diagnosed by experienced psychiatrists as having dementia, 115 participants were diagnosed as MCI, and 865 participants were considered to be cognitively normal. To analyze the effectiveness of the MoCA-BJ, we examined its psychometric properties, conducted item analyses, evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of the scale, and compared the scale with the MMSE. Demographic and regional differences among our subjects were also taken into consideration.Results: Under the recommended cut-off score of 26, the MoCA-BJ demonstrated an excellent sensitivity of 90.4%, and a fair specificity (31.3%). The MoCA-BJ showed optimal sensitivity (68.7%) and specificity (63.9%) when the cut-off score was lowered to 22. Among all the seven cognitive sub-domains, delayed recall was shown to be the best index to differentiate MCI from the normal controls. Regional differences disappeared when the confounding demographic variables (i.e., age and education) were controlled. Item analysis showed that the internal consistency was relatively low in both naming and sentence repetition tasks, and the diagnostic accuracy was similar between the MoCA-BJ and the MMSE.Conclusions: In general, the MoCA-BJ is an acceptable tool for MCI screening in both urban and rural regions of Beijing. However, presumably due to the linguistic and cultural differences between the original English version and the Chinese version of the scale, and the lower education level of Chinese older adults, the MoCA-BJ is not much better than the MMSE in detecting MCI, at least for this study sample. Further modifications to several test items of the MoCA-BJ are recommended in order to improve the applicability and effectiveness of the MoCA-BJ in MCI screening among the Chinese population. © 2012 Yu et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Qin D.B.,Southwest University
Zhongguo shi yan xue ye xue za zhi / Zhongguo bing li sheng li xue hui = Journal of experimental hematology / Chinese Association of Pathophysiology | Year: 2011

Objective of this study was to investigate the changes of cyclooxygenase-2 expression and mitochondrial membrane potential in apoptotic NB4 cells induced by arsenic trioxide (As(2)O(3)). The morphological changes in apoptosis process of NB4 cells treated by arsenic trioxide were observed under immunofluorescence microscope and DNA electrophoresis method, and the apoptosis rate of NB4 cells and the variations of mitochondrial membrane potential were detected by flow cytometry. Furthermore, the variations of expression level of cyclooxygenase-2 protein were analyzed by using Western blot method. The results indicated that after NB4 cells were treated with 2 μmol/L As(2)O(3) for 48 hours, some variations of NB4 cells were observed, such as pyknosis, chromatin segmentation, even fragmentation. Meanwhile, the typical DNA Ladder phenomenon was observed. The apoptosis rate of NB4 cells treated with 3 μmol/L As(2)O(3) for 48 hours was 33.34%, Furthermore the apoptosis rate of NB4 cells was enhanced along with the increase of concentration of As(2)O(3). After NB4 cells were treated with 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 8 μmol/L As(2)O(3) for 48 hours, the mitochondrial membrane potential decreased by 12.8%, 21.6%, 66.9%, 83.7% and 83.8% respectively. The Western blot detection results showed that the expression level of cyclooxygenase-2 protein in NB4 cells was lower than that in control cells and decreased along with the rise of As(2)O(3) concentration, then the negative dose-dependent manner was observed between these 2 groups. It is concluded that As(2)O(3) can effectively induce NB4 cell apoptosis, and the dose-dependent manner existed in certain extent of concentrations. The decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential may be related with NB4 cell apoptosis induced by As(2)O(3). Cyclooxygenase-2 participates in the process of NB4 cell apoptosis induced by As(2)O(3).


Liang M.,University College London | Mouraux A.,Catholic University of Louvain | Hu L.,Southwest University | Iannetti G.D.,University College London
Nature Communications | Year: 2013

Whether primary sensory cortices are essentially multisensory or whether they respond to only one sense is an emerging debate in neuroscience. Here we use a multivariate pattern analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging data in humans to demonstrate that simple and isolated stimuli of one sense elicit distinguishable spatial patterns of neuronal responses, not only in their corresponding primary sensory cortex, but in other primary sensory cortices. These results indicate that primary sensory cortices, traditionally regarded as unisensory, contain unique signatures of other senses and, thereby, prompt a reconsideration of how sensory information is coded in the human brain. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.


An C.S.,Southwest University | Saghai B.,CEA Saclay Nuclear Research Center
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2015

Within an extended chiral constituent quark formalism, we investigate contributions from all possible five-quark components in the octet baryons to the pion-baryon (σπB) and strangeness-baryon (σsB) sigma terms: B≡N,Λ,Σ,Ξ. The probabilities of the quark-antiquark components in the ground-state baryon octet wave functions are calculated by taking the baryons to be admixtures of three- and five-quark components, with the relevant transitions handled via the P03 mechanism. Predictions for σπB and σsB obtained by using input parameters taken from the literature are reported. Our results turn out to be, in general, consistent with the findings via lattice QCD and chiral perturbation theory. © 2015 American Physical Society.


Park K.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | Wang J.-Z.,Southwest University
Polyhedron | Year: 2013

We investigate electronic and magnetic properties of a single-molecule magnet Mn12 adsorbed on Bi(1 1 1) without any linker molecules, using a first-principles method. This study is motivated by a scanning tunneling microscopy experiment on individual Mn12 molecules on a Bi substrate. We apply density-functional theory including spin-orbit coupling, on-site Coulomb repulsion U, and dipole corrections. With geometry relaxation, the Mn12 molecule remains slightly tilted relative to the surface such that its magnetic easy axis is 6 away from the axis normal to the surface. Upon adsorption, a gap between the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of the Mn12, is reduced to 0.43 eV, compared to the corresponding gap of 1.07 eV for an isolated Mn 12. The total magnetic moment of the adsorbed Mn12 increases to 21 μB. This is due to charge transfer from the Bi slab to the Mn12. The tilted geometry of the Mn12 allows to favor one of the outer Mn sites for charge transfer and magnetic moment change. Although bulk Bi is semimetal, there are surface states near the Fermi level, which facilitates significant charge transfer and a change in the magnetic moment. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Fan Y.,Southwest University | Fan Y.,University of Florida | Pereira R.M.,University of Florida | Kilic E.,University of Florida | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Fire ants are one of the world's most damaging invasive pests, with few means for their effective control. Although ecologically friendly alternatives to chemical pesticides such as the insecticidal fungus Beauveria bassiana have been suggested for the control of fire ant populations, their use has been limited due to the low virulence of the fungus and the length of time it takes to kill its target. We present a means of increasing the virulence of the fungal agent by expressing a fire ant neuropeptide. Expression of the fire ant (Solenopsis invicta) pyrokinin β -neuropeptide (β-NP) by B. bassiana increased fungal virulence six-fold towards fire ants, decreased the LT 50, but did not affect virulence towards the lepidopteran, Galleria mellonella. Intriguingly, ants killed by the β-NP expressing fungus were disrupted in the removal of dead colony members, i.e. necrophoretic behavior. Furthermore, synthetic C-terminal amidated β-NP but not the non-amidated peptide had a dramatic effect on necrophoretic behavior. These data link chemical sensing of a specific peptide to a complex social behavior. Our results also confirm a new approach to insect control in which expression of host molecules in an insect pathogen can by exploited for target specific augmentation of virulence. The minimization of the development of potential insect resistance by our approach is discussed. © 2012 Fan et al.


He Y.,CAS Institute of Psychology | He Y.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Xu T.,CAS Institute of Psychology | Zhang W.,Capital Medical University | And 3 more authors.
Human Brain Mapping | Year: 2016

The amygdala plays a pivotal role in processing anxiety and connects to large-scale brain networks. However, intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) between amygdala and these networks has rarely been examined in relation to anxiety, especially across the lifespan. We employed resting-state functional MRI data from 280 healthy adults (18-83.5 yrs) to elucidate the relationship between anxiety and amygdala iFC with common cortical networks including the visual network, somatomotor network, dorsal attention network, ventral attention network, limbic network, frontoparietal network, and default network. Global and network-specific iFC were separately computed as mean iFC of amygdala with the entire cerebral cortex and each cortical network. We detected negative correlation between global positive amygdala iFC and trait anxiety. Network-specific associations between amygdala iFC and anxiety were also detectable. Specifically, the higher iFC strength between the left amygdala and the limbic network predicted lower state anxiety. For the trait anxiety, left amygdala anxiety-connectivity correlation was observed in both somatomotor and dorsal attention networks, whereas the right amygdala anxiety-connectivity correlation was primarily distributed in the frontoparietal and ventral attention networks. Ventral attention network exhibited significant anxiety-gender interactions on its iFC with amygdala. Together with findings from additional vertex-wise analysis, these data clearly indicated that both low-level sensory networks and high-level associative networks could contribute to detectable predictions of anxiety behaviors by their iFC profiles with the amygdala. This set of systems neuroscience findings could lead to novel functional network models on neural correlates of human anxiety and provide targets for novel treatment strategies on anxiety disorders. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1178-1193, 2016. © 2015 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Gao C.,Southwest University | Gao C.,Jilin University | Liu J.,Hong Kong Baptist University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

In response to an extreme event, individuals on social media demonstrate interesting behaviors depending on their backgrounds. By making use of the large-scale datasets of posts and search queries collected from Twitter and GoogleTrends, we first identify the distinct categories of human collective online concerns and durations based on the distributions of solo tweets and new incremental tweets about events. Such a characterization enables us to gain a better understanding of dynamic changes in human behaviors corresponding to different types of events. Next, we observe the heterogeneity of individual responses to events through measuring the fraction of event-related tweets relative to the tweets released by an individual, and thus empirically confirm the heterogeneity assumption as adopted in the meta-population models for characterizing collective responses to events. Finally, based on the correlations of information entropy in different regions, we show that the observed distinct responses may be caused by their different speeds in information propagation. In addition, based on the detrended fluctuation analysis, we find that there exists a self-similar evolution process for the collective responses within a region. These findings have provided a detailed account for the nature of distinct human behaviors on social media in presence of extreme events. © 2015 Gao, Liu This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Liu L.,Southwest University
Wei sheng wu xue bao = Acta microbiologica Sinica | Year: 2010

Diterpenoid is a huge group of nature products isolated from plants and fungi. Diterpene cyclase, which is responsible for the diterpene carbon skeleton formation from geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP), is a key enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of diterpene. The specificity of diterpene cyclase in different species results in structural diversity and bioactivity variety of diterpenoid. Isolation and characterization of the diterpene cyclase in various species will facilitate studies on the biosynthesis and regulation of diterpenoid in future. Compared to plant diterpenoids, few fungal diterpenoid and diterpene cyclase were studied. This article reviews the research advancement of fungal diterpene cyclase in recent years, especially describes the biosynthesis pathway of diterpenoid, the characteristics and cloning strategies of fungal diterpene cyclase, and the metabolic engineering of diterpenoid.


Guo S.F.,Southwest University | Zhang H.J.,Chongqing University | Liu Z.,Hong Kong Polytechnic University | Chen W.,Hong Kong Polytechnic University | Xie S.F.,Jiangxi Academy of science
Electrochemistry Communications | Year: 2012

It is well recognized that amorphous alloys usually offer much higher resistance to corrosion over their conventional counterparts in most aqueous solutions. Whereas, in this work, we reported an anomalous corrosion resistance of an arc melting Zr 62.3Cu 22.5Fe 4.9Al 6.8Ag 3.5 crystalline alloy, which was superior to that of the same composition in glassy state in simulated seawater. It was revealed that the easy formation of a highly protective Zr- and Al-enriched oxide layer at the surface of the crystalline alloy is responsible for the extremely high corrosion resistance. The current finding not only presents an excellent alloy candidate for potential application in seawater but provides a new insight into the understanding of corrosion behavior of amorphous/crystalline alloys in demanding corrosive media. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Yang J.,Southwest University | Lin J.,CAS Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry
Journal of the Electrochemical Society | Year: 2010

Lu2 O3: Yb3+ / Ho3+ phosphors were prepared by a Pechini sol-gel process. X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), photoluminescence (PL), cathodoluminescence (CL) spectra, as well as lifetimes were utilized to characterize the synthesized phosphors. XRD and HRTEM results reveal that the samples are obtained with high crystallinity. The FESEM images indicate that Lu2 O3: Yb3+ / Ho3+ phosphors are composed of fine and spherical grains around 50-80 nm in size. Under the excitation of UV light, 980-nm laser, and low-voltage electron beams, all Lu2 O3: Yb3+ / Ho3+ phosphors show the characteristic emission of the Ho3+ ion (F45, S25 → I85 transition) with green luminescence, which is easily observed by our naked eyes. The corresponding luminescent mechanisms have been discussed. Due to the excellent PL (including upconversion and downconversion) properties, CL properties, and cheap materials of the Lu2 O3: Yb3+ / Ho3+ phosphors, the as-prepared phosphors are potentially applied for fluorescent lamps, upconversion fluorescent labels, and field emission display devices. © 2010 The Electrochemical Society.


Luo X.W.,Southwest University
Energy Education Science and Technology Part A: Energy Science and Research | Year: 2014

To find all solutions of NP problems with multi-peak, a novel adaptive GA based on cluster search is proposed. The algorithm is divided into two phases. In the first phase all individuals are evenly dispersed in question space and all potential peaks are searched as cluster centers in the procedure of genetic operation according to distance density.In the second phase limit the search near the selected clusters by reduction of cluster radius, gene transformation operator and limit of mutation radius to implement local adaptive refinement. Each cluster can transfer constantly towards a better area and carry out the transfer strategy of asymptotic solutions until all the candidate peaks have been searched.Taken n queens problem as an example, the algorithm has an excellent effect:the amount of solutions obtained in one calculation has been improved about 10 times more than that of SGA in similar circumstances.. © Sila Science. All rights reserved.


Li L.,Southwest University
Yi chuan = Hereditas / Zhongguo yi chuan xue hui bian ji | Year: 2013

Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is becoming more and more popular as a model organism to study vertebrate organogenesis and regeneration, taking the advantage of its extra-uterine development, transparency, strong regeneration ability and suitability for the large scale genetic screen. In the past decades, a series of useful methods have been established in zebrafish, which allows studies of important questions in developmental biology including cell fate determination, differentiation, morphogenesis, and regeneration after tissue/organ injury. Recently, using large scale mutagenesis screen and improved live imaging techniques, many questions that had not been well understood in mice have been successfully investigated in zebrafish. Therefore, we are confident that the zebrafish model system will further help decipher the cellular and molecular mechanisms of organogenesis and regeneration in the future, providing valuable references for the treatment of related clinical diseases. This review just summarized the progress in the studies of the important organs development using zebrafish, such as central nervous system(CNS), liver and pancreas, blood and vessel, recently. Meanwhile, the updated informations about the regeneration of tail fin, heart, liver, retina and so on in zebrafish were also included in this paper.


Xu H.,Southwest University | O'Brochta D.A.,University of Maryland College Park
Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2015

Genetic technologies based on transposon-mediated transgenesis along with several recently developed genome-editing technologies have become the preferred methods of choice for genetically manipulating many organisms. The silkworm, Bombyx mori, is a Lepidopteran insect of great economic importance because of its use in silk production and because it is a valuable model insect that has greatly enhanced our understanding of the biology of insects, including many agricultural pests. In the past 10 years, great advances have been achieved in the development of genetic technologies in B. mori, including transposon-based technologies that relyonpiggyBac-mediated transgenesis and genome-editing technologies that relyon protein- or RNA-guided modification of chromosomes. The successful development and application of these technologies has not only facilitated a better understanding of B. mori and its use as a silk production system, but also provided valuable experiences that have contributed to the development of similar technologies in non-model insects. This review summarizes the technologies currently available for use in B. mori, their application to the study of gene function and their use in genetically modifying B. mori for biotechnology applications. The challenges, solutions and future prospects associated with the development and application of genetic technologies in B. mori are also discussed. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.


Luo Y.,Nanyang Technological University | Luo Y.,Xinyang Normal University | Luo J.,Nanyang Technological University | Jiang J.,Nanyang Technological University | And 10 more authors.
Energy and Environmental Science | Year: 2012

Highly ordered TiO 2α-Fe 2O 3 core/shell arrays on carbon textiles (TFAs) have been fabricated by a stepwise, seed-assisted, hydrothermal approach and further investigated as the anode materials for Li-ion batteries (LIBs). This composite TFA anode exhibits superior high-rate capability and outstanding cycling performance. The specific capacity of the TFAs is much higher than that of pristine carbon textiles (CTs) and TiO 2 nanorod arrays on carbon textiles (TRAs), indicating a positive synergistic effect of the material and structural hybridization on the enhancement of the electrochemical properties. This composite nanostructure not only provides large interfacial area for lithium insertion/extraction but should also be beneficial in reducing the diffusion pathways for electronic and ionic transport, leading to the improved capacity retention on cycling even at high discharge-charge rates. It is worth emphasizing that the CT substrates also present many potential virtues for LIBs as flexible electronic devices owing to the stretchable, lightweight and biodegradable properties. The fabrication strategy presented here is facile, cost-effective, and scalable, which opens new avenues for the design of optimal composite electrode materials for high performance LIBs. This journal is © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Zhao Y.,Nanyang Technological University | Chua K.T.E.,Institute of High Performance Computing of Singapore | Gan C.K.,Institute of High Performance Computing of Singapore | Zhang J.,Nanyang Technological University | And 3 more authors.
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2011

Bi2S3 has shown promise in thermoelectric and optoelectronic applications as well as biological and chemical sensors. We present here a comprehensive study on the lattice dynamics of Bi 2S3 nanostructures probed by micro-Raman scattering spectroscopy and first-principles calculations. Bi2S3 nanowires are synthesized using a physical vapor transport method via a vapor-liquid-solid mechanism on silicon substrates. Oriented Bi 2S3 nanosheets are also obtained on mica substrates. The structure of the nanowires is determined to be orthorhombic with a growth orientation of [110] by x-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. A Raman scattering study is conducted for as-prepared Bi2S3 nanostructures, in which 33, 38, 46, and 53 cm -1 phonon modes are observed for the first time. We find several modes to be very sensitive to excitation wavelength and power. First-principles calculations of orthorhombic Bi2S3 predict a series of Raman modes, in good agreement with our experiments. Phonon-dispersion curves of Bi2S3 are also presented, and the effect of Born effective charges on the longitudinal-optical-transverse-optical splitting at the zone center is taken into account. © 2011 American Physical Society.


Peng S.,CAS Chengdu Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment | Peng S.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Guo T.,Southwest University | Liu G.,CAS Chengdu Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment
Soil Biology and Biochemistry | Year: 2013

Soil aggregation is a crucial soil property that affects a wide range of physical and chemical processes in soil ecosystems. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) association is recognised as an important promoter of soil aggregation through the action of individual roots, mycelia and an insoluble, glue-like and hydrophobic proteinaceous substance, which is (at least partly) of AM fungi origin, named glomalin-related soil protein. Considering the increasing application of commercial AM inoculants, we addressed how the soil aggregates respond to the hyphal functions of AM inoculation in the field with a resident AM community.To this end, we introduced a new system in which the hyphae were separated by mesh and regular rotation to break the ingrowing hyphae as a control and to demonstrate the causal link between the hyphae and soil aggregates under conditions simulating natural parameters. The results showed the following: (i) the hyphal length was positively correlated with the mean weight diameter (r = 0.384, P < 0.05), geometric mean diameter (r = 0.257, 0.05 < P < 0.10) and easily extractable glomalin (r = 0.296, P < 0.05); (ii) the colonisation rate of the roots in the cores was increased by constantly severing the extraradical mycelium and (iii) the colonisation rate of the control plant roots (approx. 10%) was significantly lower compared to those inoculated with AM fungi (ranging from 34% to 54%). It was concluded that the hyphal networks of AM inoculations can promote the formation and stability of soil aggregates under conditions that closely simulate those occurring in nature. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Gu J.,Central South University | Song M.,Central South University | Ni S.,Central South University | Guo S.,Southwest University | He Y.,Central South University
Materials and Design | Year: 2013

In this paper, the effects of isothermal annealing on the hardness and elastic modulus of a Cu36Zr48Al8Ag8 bulk metallic glass (BMG) were investigated. It has been shown that the Vickers hardness increases from ~481Hv (as-cast state) to ~518Hv after annealed for 20min. Nanoindentation tests also showed that the hardness and elastic modulus increase from ~6.45GPa and ~113.0GPa (as-cast state) to ~7.27GPa and ~130.9GPa after annealed for 20min, respectively. The results indicated that the free volume of the BMG decreased and nanocrystals nucleated during annealing. The annihilation of the free volume decreased the nucleation ratio/sites of the shear bands, while the nucleation of nanocrystals inhibited the propagation of the shear bands. Both effects are responsible for the enhancement of the hardness and elastic modulus of the BMG. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Wu W.,Southwest University
British Food Journal | Year: 2015

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to help understanding the value of food resources (FRs). This may raise global awareness on their importance in macro- and micro-economics. Design/methodology/approach – The relationship of FRs with human life was analyzed through literature review to illustrate their real value. Association of FRs production with the probability of becoming a high income country was estimated by analyzing the relevant data published by FAOSTAT, World Bank and United Nations to illustrate their value in macro-economy. Analyzing the interrelationship of prices with their attributes through literature review and the correlation of the relevant data published by FAOSTAT and OECD was undertaken to create a mathematical model for pricing FRs. Findings – The real value of FRs is unaccountable, which makes their economic value (price) be not always determined on market. Increase in the probability of becoming a high income country with increase in FRs production indicates that their shortage may bottleneck macro-economic development. A mathematical model has been created for estimating the economic value of FRs. Practical implications – These findings are applicable for managing (or administrating), pricing or evaluating FRs, analyzing their economic status, developing business and predicting tendency in micro-economy. They are also vital for managing or developing macro-economy. The findings should be useful for farmers, food companies, governmental agents, individuals, etc. Originality/value – This is the first to report these findings. This is a significant progress in FRs research and valuable for education. © 2015 Emerald Group Publishing Limited.


Liao J.,Southwest University
Concurrency Computation | Year: 2016

Summary This paper presents a proactive data prefetching mechanism on storage servers for distributed file systems to achieve better input/output (I/O) performance. This mechanism requires keeping tracks of what blocks were accessed and the information about client I/O requests to predict which blocks will be accessed in the future. Except for showing a linear access tendency, I/O access operations on blocks also reveal a random or similar-random tendency but with certain access patterns. Thus, to address the prediction for future possible read operations, a linear regression algorithm and a chaotic prediction algorithm have been proposed to forecast the future access requests according to different access patterns. As a result, by employing the information, that is, offsets and request sizes, about the predicted future read requests on disk blocks, the storage servers in our newly presented mechanism can prefetch block data more precisely and then send it to associated client file system proactively. The experimental results illustrate that our proposed mechanism is able to shorten read latency to a great extent and then contribute to better read throughput significantly in certain application contexts. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Zhou Z.,CAS Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular | Huang H.,CAS Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular | Chen Y.,CAS Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular | Liu F.,CAS Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular | And 2 more authors.
Biosensors and Bioelectronics | Year: 2014

A new metal-enhanced fluorescence (MEF) based platform was developed on the basis of distance-dependent fluorescence quenching-enhancement effect, which combined the easiness of Ag-thiol chemistry with the MEF property of noble-metal structures as well as the molecular beacon design. For the given sized AgNPs, the fluorescence enhancement factor was found to increase with a d6 dependency in agreement with fluorescence resonance energy transfer mechanism at shorter distance and decrease with a d-3 dependency in agreement with plasmonic enhancement mechanism at longer distance between the fluorophore and the AgNP surface. As a proof of concept, the platform was demonstrated by a sensitive detection of mercuric ions, using thymine-containing molecular beacon to tune silver nanoparticle (AgNP)-enhanced fluorescence. Mercuric ions were detected via formation of a thymine-mercuric-thymine structure to open the hairpin, facilitating fluorescence recovery and AgNP enhancement to yield a limit of detection of 1nM, which is well below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regulation of the Maximum Contaminant Level Goal (10nM) in drinking water. Since the AgNP functioned as not only a quencher to reduce the reagent blank signal but also an enhancement substrate to increase fluorescence of the open hairpin when target mercuric ions were present, the quenching-enhancement strategy can greatly improve the detection sensitivity and can in principle be a universal approach for various targets when combined with molecular beacon design. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Wei M.,Shandong University | Tian D.,Shandong University | Liu S.,Shandong University | Zheng X.,Shandong University | And 2 more authors.
Sensors and Actuators, B: Chemical | Year: 2014

In the present paper, a β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) functionalized graphene modified carbon paste electrode (CD/GRs/CPE) was prepared and characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The electrochemical behaviors of 2-chlorophenol (2-CP) and 3-chlorophenol (3-CP) on different electrodes were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The results demonstrated that the CD/GRs/CPE exhibited remarkable enhancement effects towards these two chlorophenols, especially for 3-CP. Importantly, their oxidation peaks could be well separated by CVs and DPVs. Under the optimized conditions, the oxidation peak currents displayed a good linear relationship to concentration in the ranges from 0.5 to 40 μM for 2-CP and 0.4 to 77 μM for 3-CP, with detection limits of 0.2 and 0.09 μM, respectively. As a practical application, the proposed sensor was applied to quantitatively determine 2-CP and 3-CP in water samples with satisfying results. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Wu S.,Pennsylvania State University | Wu S.,Southwest University | Peiffer M.,Pennsylvania State University | Luthe D.S.,Pennsylvania State University | Felton G.W.,Pennsylvania State University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

The oral secretions of herbivores are important recognition cues that can be used by plants to mediate induced defenses. In this study, a degradation of adenosine-5′-triphosphate (ATP) in tomato leaves was detected after treatment with Helicoverpa zea saliva. Correspondingly, a high level of ATPase activity in saliva was detected and three ATP hydrolyzing enzymes: apyrase, ATP synthase and ATPase 13A1 were identified in salivary glands. To determine the functions of these proteins in mediating defenses, they were cloned from H. zea and expressed in Escherichia coli. By applying the purified expressed apyrase, ATP synthase or ATPase 13A1 to wounded tomato leaves, it was determined that these ATP hydrolyzing enzymes suppressed the defensive genes regulated by the jasmonic acid and ethylene pathways in tomato plant. Suppression of glandular trichome production was also observed after treatment. Blood-feeding arthropods employ 5′-nucleotidase family of apyrases to circumvent host responses and the H. zea apyrase, is also a member of this family. The comparatively high degree of sequence similarity of the H. zea salivary apyrase with mosquito apyrases suggests a broader evolutionary role for salivary apyrases than previously envisioned. © 2012 Wu et al.


Zou J.,Southwest University | Zou J.,Chongqing University | Gao J.,Chongqing University | Xie F.,Chongqing University
Journal of Alloys and Compounds | Year: 2010

An amorphous free-impurity TiO2 sol was synthesized only by means of ultrasonic dispersing of Ti(OH)4 precipitation without any peptizing agents. Anatase sol was obtained by hydrothermally treating the amorphous TiO2 sol. Photocatalytic tests showed that the amorphous sol exhibited higher photocatalytic activity for the photodegradation of methylene blue (MB) under visible light and UV irradiation than anatase sol and P25 TiO2. The photocatalysts were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, Raman spectrometer, photoluminescence (PL), FTIR, TEM, XRD, and XPS. The results showed the peroxide titanium complexes were formed on TiO2 sol particles sensitized with H2O2. More peroxide complexes and stronger vis absorption were observed for the amorphous TiO2 sol sensitized with H2O2.The sensitization of H2O2 would completely quench PL of the amorphous sol, but little impact on the anatase sol. The surface structure with fewer physisorbed water molecules facilitated the sensitization of H2O2 to the amorphous TiO2 sol particles, which resulted in the generation of more OH radicals and higher photocatalytic activity under both visible light and UV irradiation. Crown Copyright © 2010.


Deng Y.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Deng Y.,Southwest University | Chan F.T.S.,Hong Kong Polytechnic University | Wu Y.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Wang D.,Shanghai JiaoTong University
Expert Systems with Applications | Year: 2011

Multiple-criteria decision-making (MCDM) is concerned with the ranking of decision alternatives based on preference judgements made on decision alternatives over a number of criteria. First, taking advantage of data fusion technology to comprehensively consider each criterion data is a reasonable idea to solve the MCDM problem. Second, in order to efficiently handle uncertain information in the process of decision making, some well developed mathematical tools, such as fuzzy sets theory and Dempster Shafer theory of evidence, are used to deal with MCDM. Based on the two main reasons above, a new fuzzy evidential MCDM method under uncertain environments is proposed. The rating of the criteria and the importance weight of the criteria are given by experts' judgments, represented by triangular fuzzy numbers. Then, the weights are transformed into discounting coefficients and the ratings are transformed into basic probability assignments. The final results can be obtained through the Dempster rule of combination in a simple and straight way. A numerical example to select plant location is used to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed method. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Dai X.,Southwest University | Gao Z.,Northumbria University
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics | Year: 2013

This review paper is to give a full picture of fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) in complex systems from the perspective of data processing. As a matter of fact, an FDD system is a data-processing system on the basis of information redundancy, in which the data and human's understanding of the data are two fundamental elements. Human's understanding may be an explicit input-output model representing the relationship among the system's variables. It may also be represented as knowledge implicitly (e.g., the connection weights of a neural network). Therefore, FDD is done through some kind of modeling, signal processing, and intelligence computation. In this paper, a variety of FDD techniques are reviewed within the unified data-processing framework to give a full picture of FDD and achieve a new level of understanding. According to the types of data and how the data are processed, the FDD methods are classified into three categories: model-based online data-driven methods, signal-based methods, and knowledge-based history data-driven methods. An outlook to the possible evolution of FDD in industrial automation, including the hybrid FDD and the emerging networked FDD, are also presented to reveal the future development direction in this field. © 2013 IEEE.


Zhao W.,Hefei University of Technology | Zhang Y.,Hefei University of Technology | You X.-P.,Southwest University | Zhu Z.-H.,Beijing Normal University
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2013

Measurement of pulsar timing residuals provides a direct way to detect relic gravitational waves at the frequency f∼1/yr. In this paper, we investigate the constraints on the inflationary parameters, the tensor-to-scalar ratio r, and the tensor spectral index nt, by the current and future pulsar timing arrays. We find that the Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical Radio Telescope in China and the planned Square Kilometre Array projects have fairly strong abilities to test the phantomlike inflationary models. If r=0.1, then Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical Radio Telescope could give the constraint on the spectral index nt<0.56 and Square Kilometre Array could give nt<0.32, while an observation with total time T=20 yr, pulsar noise level σw=30 ns, and monitored pulsar number n=200 could even constrain nt<0.07. These are much tighter than those inferred from the current results of the Parkes Pulsar Timing Array, European Pulsar Timing Array, and North American Nanohertz Observatory for Gravitational Waves. By studying the effects of various observational factors on the sensitivities of pulsar timing arrays, we find that compared with σw and n, the total observation time T has the most significant effect. © 2013 American Physical Society.


Gu W.-W.,Southwest University
Guangxue Jingmi Gongcheng/Optics and Precision Engineering | Year: 2014

A transmitted fluorescence detector induced by a Light Emitting Diode (LED) was established for integrating in a microfluidic cell chip. The detector overcomes the problems of system bulky in larger size, higher energy consumption and low coupling efficiency for inducing optical path, detection zone and fluorescence optical path. The angle for induced fluorescence optical path was designed to be 135°. The exciting light produced by the LED passed through an optical lens, an exciting light filter and a diaphragm aperture with a diameter of 200 μ m, and then reached the detection zone of microfluidic chip. The induced fluorescence light and stray light passed through emitting high pass interference thin film filter fabricated at the back of the microfluidic chip, and finally was collected by a photomultiplier (PMT). The performance of the fluorescence detection micro system was verified by using HepG2 hepatoma carcinoma cells as samples. The experimental results show when the working current for LED and the control voltage for PMT are respectively set to be 200 mA and 3.5 V, the output is a peak signal which is obviously distinguished from background noise. 8 peak signals with an average value of 0.7 V are obtained within 250 s, which agrees with that from a fluorescence microscope. It shows the detection system realizes the function of cell counting detection, and is a new technological approach to micro total cell analysis systems.


He Q.,Southwest University
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2014

A control system for DC motor should be designed to meet the desired performance objectives with the smallest control energy. LQR controller can satisfy the requirement. In this paper, the state space model of DC motor control system is proposed. The key problem to apply LQR controller is to choose the correct weighted matrix Q and R of performance index. At present, there is no formulaic approach for this problem. This kind of LQR controller based on PSO algorithms, which can obtain satisfying control results, is presented for DC motor control system. Using Matlab 7.1, the simulation of the DC motor control system is implemented. The simulation results of it confirm that the LQR controller can reduce steady state error, improve response speed, and resist power supply disturbance. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Li N.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Li N.,Southwest University | Gugel I.L.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Giavalisco P.,Max Planck Institute of Molecular Plant Physiology | And 4 more authors.
PLoS Biology | Year: 2015

Fatty acid synthesis in plants occurs in plastids, and thus, export for subsequent acyl editing and lipid assembly in the cytosol and endoplasmatic reticulum is required. Yet, the transport mechanism for plastid fatty acids still remains enigmatic. We isolated FAX1 (fatty acid export 1), a novel protein, which inserts into the chloroplast inner envelope by α-helical membrane-spanning domains. Detailed phenotypic and ultrastructural analyses of FAX1 mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana showed that FAX1 function is crucial for biomass production, male fertility and synthesis of fatty acid-derived compounds such as lipids, ketone waxes, or pollen cell wall material. Determination of lipid, fatty acid, and wax contents by mass spectrometry revealed that endoplasmatic reticulum (ER)-derived lipids decreased when FAX1 was missing, but levels of several plastid-produced species increased. FAX1 over-expressing lines showed the opposite behavior, including a pronounced increase of triacyglycerol oils in flowers and leaves. Furthermore, the cuticular layer of stems from fax1 knockout lines was specifically reduced in C29 ketone wax compounds. Differential gene expression in FAX1 mutants as determined by DNA microarray analysis confirmed phenotypes and metabolic imbalances. Since in yeast FAX1 could complement for fatty acid transport, we concluded that FAX1 mediates fatty acid export from plastids. In vertebrates, FAX1 relatives are structurally related, mitochondrial membrane proteins of so-far unknown function. Therefore, this protein family might represent a powerful tool not only to increase lipid/biofuel production in plants but also to explore novel transport systems involved in vertebrate fatty acid and lipid metabolism. © 2015 Li et al.


Han T.,Southwest University | Han T.,National University of Singapore | Qiu C.-W.,National University of Singapore
Journal of Optics (United Kingdom) | Year: 2016

The full control of single or even multiple physical fields has attracted intensive research attention in the past decade, thanks to the development of metamaterials and transformation optics. Significant progress has been made in vector fields (e.g., optics, electromagnetics, and acoustics), leading to a host of strikingly functional metamaterials, such as invisibility cloaks, illusion devices, concentrators, and rotators. However, metamaterials in vector fields, designed through coordinate transformation of Maxwell's equations, usually require extreme parameters and impose challenges on the actual realization. In this context, metamaterials in scalar fields (e.g., thermal and dc fields), which are mostly governed by the Laplace equation, lead to more plausible and facile implementations, since there are native insulators and excellent conductors (serving as two extreme cases). This paper therefore is particularly dedicated to reviewing the most recent advances in Laplacian metamaterials in manipulating thermal (both transient and steady states) and dc fields, separately and (or) simultaneously. We focus on the theory, design, and realization of thermal/dc functional metamaterials that can be used to control heat flux and electric current at will. We also provide an outlook toward the challenges and future directions in this fascinating area. © 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd.


Li C.,University of Florida | Chen T.,University of Florida | Ocsoy I.,University of Florida | Zhu G.,University of Florida | And 8 more authors.
Advanced Functional Materials | Year: 2014

The development of nanomaterials that combine diagnostic and therapeutic functions within a single nanoplatform is extremely important for molecular medicine. Molecular imaging with simultaneous diagnosis and therapy will provide the multimodality needed for accurate diagnosis and targeted therapy. Here, gold-coated iron oxide (Fe3O4@Au) nanoroses with five distinct functions are demonstrated, integrating aptamer-based targeting, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), optical imaging, photothermal therapy. and chemotherapy into one single probe. The inner Fe3O4 core functions as an MRI agent, while the photothermal effect is achieved through near-infrared absorption by the gold shell, causing a rapid rise in temperature and also resulting in a facilitated release of the anticancer drug doxorubicin carried by the nanoroses. Where the doxorubicin is released, it is monitored by its fluorescence. Aptamers immobilized on the surfaces of the nanoroses enable efficient and selective drug delivery, imaging, and photothermal effect with high specificity. The five-function-embedded nanoroses show great advantages in multimodality. Five functions in one probe: A gold-coated iron oxide (Fe 3O4@Au) nanorose with five distinct functions, which integrate aptamer-based targeting, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), optical imaging, photothermal and chemotherapy into one single probe is developed. This multifunctional nanoplatform is used for cancer cell targeting, dual molecular imaging, and dual therapy, with enhanced specific binding, improved cellular uptake, minimum nonspecific toxicity, and side effects. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Su X.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Deng Y.,Southwest University | Deng Y.,Vanderbilt University | Mahadevan S.,Vanderbilt University | Bao Q.,Shanghai JiaoTong University
Engineering Failure Analysis | Year: 2012

Dempster-Shafer (D-S) evidence theory has been previously introduced in failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) due to its effectiveness and flexibility in dealing with uncertain and subjective information. This study applies the modified D-S evidence theory to obtain the risk priority evaluation of failure modes by aggregating different opinions of experts which may be imprecise and uncertain. However, when experts give different and precise values of the risk evaluation factors, the basic belief assignments (BBAs) become highly conflicting evidence that cannot be fused by Dempster's combination rule. In this paper, we propose an improved method to construct the basic belief assignments (BBAs) for risk evaluation. We illustrate several examples and use the modified method to deal with the risk priority evaluation of the failure modes of rotor blades of an aircraft engine. The results show that the proposed approach is more flexible and reasonable for real applications. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Liu C.,Chongqing University | Li C.,Chongqing University | Duan S.,Southwest University
International Journal of Control, Automation and Systems | Year: 2011

In this paper, we study the exponential stabilization of oscillating neural networks with time-delay through the process called intermittent control. Some exponential stability criteria for the controlled neural networks are established by Lyapunov function and matrix inequality analysis technique. The present results allow us to estimate legitimately the feasible control region of control parameters. Numerical example is also given to show the effectiveness of our proposed results. © ICROS, KIEE and Springer 2011.


Weng Z.,University of Lausanne | Peng Z.,Southwest University | Nadarajah S.,University of Manchester
Extremes | Year: 2012

We derive the joint limiting distribution and the almost sure limit theorem for the maxima and minima for a strongly dependent stationary Gaussian vector sequence. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Jiang Y.,Southwest University | Jiang Y.,Institute of Karst Environment and Rock Desertification Rehabilitation
Applied Geochemistry | Year: 2011

The Nandong Underground River System (NURS) is located in a typical karst area dominated by agriculture in SE Yunnan Province, China. Groundwater plays an important role in the social and economical development in the area. The effects of human activities (agriculture and sewage effluents) on the Sr isotope geochemistry were investigated in the NURS. Seventy-two representative groundwater samples, which were collected from different aquifers (calcite and dolomite), under varying land-use types, both in summer and winter, showed significant spatial differences and slight seasonal variations in Sr concentrations and 87Sr/86Sr ratios. Agricultural fertilizers and sewage effluents significantly modified the natural 87Sr/86Sr ratios signature of groundwater that was otherwise dominated by water-rock interaction. Three major sources of Sr could be distinguished by 87Sr/86Sr ratios and Sr concentrations in karst groundwater. Two sources of Sr are the Triassic calcite and dolomite aquifers, where waters have low Sr concentrations (0.1-0.2mg/L) and low 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7075-0.7080 and 0.7080-0.7100, respectively); the third source is anthropogenic Sr from agricultural fertilizers and sewage effluents with waters affected having radiogenic 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7080-0.8352 for agricultural fertilizers and 0.7080-0.7200 for sewage effluents, respectively), with higher Sr concentrations (0.24-0.51mg/L). Due to the overlapping 87Sr/86Sr ratios, it is difficult to distinguish the sources of Sr in groundwater samples contaminated by agricultural fertilizers or sewage effluents based only on their 87Sr/86Sr ratios. However, 87Sr/86Sr ratios do provide key information for natural and anthropogenic sources in karst groundwater. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Gao X.M.,Southwest University
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2014

B-ultrasonic is widely used in medical diagnostics and other fields, because of its non-invasive, no radiation, etc. Early B-ultrasonic with analog imaging system can't achieve B-ultrasonic image processing, data storage and other operations. With the development of computer technology and electronic technology, Digital B-ultrasonic systems are increasingly used in actual diagnosis, the paper through the use of digital imaging system to achieve B-ultrasonic front ultrasound imaging, reuse embedded microcontrollers Camera interface for B-ultrasonic acquisition of image data, and on this platform to achieve a B-ultrasonic application software development. System testing show that the system data acquisition is stability, and easy to operate, reliable, also can be widely used in medical and industrial ultrasonic fields. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Du X.,Southwest University | Chu H.,University of Georgia | Huang Y.,University of Georgia | Zhao Y.,University of Georgia
Applied Spectroscopy | Year: 2010

Silver nanorod (AgNR) array substrates are investigated to detect pure melamine dissolved in 50% methanol using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). We find that sample preparation conditions have a great influence on melamine detection. When the samples are prepared under a nitrogen glove box, the SERS characteristic peak intensities of melamine at Δv = 497′ cm -1, 704 cm -1, and 983 cm -1 are studied as functions of melamine concentration and/or the mass of melamine. The peak intensities increase almost linearly when the melamine concentration increases from 0.1 mg/L to 10 mg/L and saturate when melamine concentration is greater than 50 mg/L. The bulk melamine limit of detection (LOD) is 0.1 mg/L, which is one order of magnitude less than the current standard. This study shows that AgNR based SERS detection can be used as a fast, highly sensitive, and quantitative detection method for melamine. © 2010 Society for Applied Spectroscopy.


Ren A.,Chongqing Medical University | Qiu Y.,Chongqing Medical University | Cui H.,Southwest University | Fu G.,Chongqing Medical University
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications | Year: 2015

Objective To explore whether inhibition of H3K9 Methyltransferase G9a could exert an antitumoral effect in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Materials and methods First we checked G9a expression in two OSCC cell lines Tca8113 and KB. Next we used a special G9a inhibitor BIX01294 (BIX) to explore the effect of inhibition of G9a on OSCC in vitro. Cell growth was tested by typlan blue staining, MTT assay and Brdu immunofluorescence staining. Cell autophagy was examined by monodansylcadaverine (MDC) staining, LC3-II immunofluorescence staining and LC3-II western blot assay. Cell apoptosis was checked by FITC Annexin-V and PI labeling, tunnel staining and caspase 3 western blot assay. Finally, the effect of inhibition of G9a on clonogenesis and tumorigenesis capacity of OSCC was analyzed by soft agar growth and xenograft model. Results Here we showed that G9a was expressed in both Tca8113 and KB cells. Inhibition of G9a using BIX significantly reduced cell growth and proliferation in Tca8113 and KB. Inhibition of G9a induced cell autophagy with conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II and cell apoptosis with the expression of cleaved caspase 3. We also found that inhibition of G9a reduced colony formation in soft agar and repressed tumor growth in mouse xenograph model. Conclusion Our results suggested that G9a might be a potential epigenetic target for OSCC treatment. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Su L.,University of Connecticut | Jia W.,University of California at San Diego | Li C.-M.,Nanyang Technological University | Li C.-M.,Southwest University | Lei Y.,University of Connecticut
ChemSusChem | Year: 2014

As a new generation of power sources, fuel cells have shown great promise for application in transportation. However, the expensive catalyst materials, especially the cathode catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), severely limit the widespread commercialization of fuel cells. Therefore, this review article focuses on platinum (Pt)-based electrocatalysts for ORR with better catalytic performance and lower cost. Major breakthroughs in the improvement of activity and durability of electrocatalysts are discussed. Specifically, on one hand, the enhanced activity of Pt has been achieved through crystallographic control, ligand effect, or geometric effect; on the other hand, improved durability of Pt-based cathode catalysts has been realized by means of the incorporation of another noble metal or the morphological control of nanostructures. Furthermore, based on these improvement mechanisms, rationally designed Pt-based nanoparticles are summarized in terms of different synthetic strategies such as wet-chemical synthesis, Pt-skin catalysts, electrochemically dealloyed nanomaterials, and Pt-monolayer deposition. These nanoparticulate electrocatalysts show greatly enhanced catalytic performance towards ORR, aiming not only to outperform the commercial Pt/C, but also to exceed the US Department of Energy 2015 technical target ($30/kW and 5000?h). Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Wu W.,Southwest University
International Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2011

The selenium concentration of potato tubers (cv. Mira) obtained from Shuan He, Enshi, Hubei, China is 0.16 mg kg-1 by fresh weight (0.64 mg kg-1 dry weight), but it is as high as 20-40 mg kg-1 on dry basis in various concentrates of potato protein. The experimental results indicated a linear relationship between the amount of the protein precipitated and that of selenium coprecipitated from potato juice. Selenium concentrations in ultrafiltration, ferric chloride and citric phosphate buffer concentrates are 5.12, 5.92 and 8.08 times higher than those in potato powder when their protein contents are concentrated 6.10, 6.65 and 7.08 times, respectively. These results are important relating to the production of valuable dietary supplements, e.g. pills, capsules or foods with Se-level being accurately controlled applicable to selenium-deficient areas. Recovery of selenium by precipitating proteins from potato juice is a time- and energy-saving method may be applied to the establishment of a large-scale processing plant. © 2011 The Author. International Journal of Food Science and Technology © 2011 Institute of Food Science and Technology.


Zou J.,Southwest University | Zou J.,Chongqing University | Gao J.,Chongqing University
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2011

TiO2/SiO2 composite photocatalysts were prepared by depositing of TiO2 onto nano-SiO2 particles. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron micrograph (TEM), Raman spectrometer, UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were employed to characterize the properties of the synthesized TiO2/SiO2 composites. These results indicated that the products without calcination were amorphous, and calcination could enhance the crystallinity of TiO2. Increases in the amount of TiO2 would decrease the dispersion in the composites. H2O2-sensitized TiO2/SiO2 composite photocatalysts could absorb visible light at wavelength below 550nm. The photocatalytic activity of as-prepared catalysts was characterized by methyl-orange degradation. The results showed the uncalcined composite photocatalysts with amorphous TiO2 exhibited higher photocatalytic activity under visible light, and the activity of catalysts with TiO2 content over 30% decreased with increasing of TiO2 content. Increases in the calcination temperature and TiO2 content promote the formation of bulk TiO2 and result in a decrease in activity. © 2010.


Wu S.,Chongqing University | Li C.,Chongqing University | Liao X.,Chongqing University | Duan S.,Southwest University
Neurocomputing | Year: 2012

This paper investigates exponential stability of the equilibrium point of discrete-time delayed dynamic systems with impulsive effects. Firstly, some Razumikhin-type theorems considering stabilizing effects of impulses are introduced. These results show that even the impulse-free component of the original system is unstable; impulses may compensate the deviating trend. Then, we apply the theoretical results to a class of recurrent neural networks under stochastic perturbations and derive several stability preservation criteria; the applicable region of the impulsive strength is also estimated. Some numerical examples are provided to illustrate the efficiency of the results at the end. © 2012 Elsevier B.V..


Jiang C.D.,Southwest University
Genetika | Year: 2011

Imprinted genes play significant roles in the regulation of fetal growth and development, function of the placenta, and maternal nurturing behaviour in mammals. At present, few imprinted genes have been reported in pigs compared to human and mouse. In order to increase understanding of imprinted genes in swine, a polymorphism-based approach was used to assess the imprinting status of three porcine genes in 12 tissue types, obtained from F1 pigs of reciprocal crosses between Rongchang and Landrace pure breeds. In contrast to human and mouse homologues, porcine PPP1R9A was not imprinted, and was found to be expressed in all tissues examined. The expression of porcine NAP1L5 was detected in pituitary, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, stomach, small intestine, skeletal muscle, fat, ovary, and uterus, but undetectable in heart. Furthermore, porcine NAP1L5 was paternally expressed in the tissues where it's expression was observed. For PEG3, pigs expressed the paternal allele in skeletal muscle, liver, spleen, kidney, and uterus, but biallele in heart, lung, fat, stomach, small intestine, and ovary. Our data indicate that tissue distribution of the three gene differs among mammals, and the imprinting of NAP1L5 and PEG3 is well conserved.


Guo X.,Chongqing Three Gorges University | Zou X.,Southwest University | Sun M.,Chongqing Three Gorges University
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2010

Polysaccharides of Phellinus igniarius have many bioactivities. In this study, response surface methodology along with Box-Behnken design based on the single-factor experiments was firstly applied to optimize the extraction conditions by its liquid-cultured mycelia. According to analysis, extraction temperature and ratio of mycelia to water significantly affected extraction yield. The optimal conditions were extraction temperature 70 °C, extraction time 1.5 h and the ratio of mycelia to water 1:6.2. Under these conditions, the maximal yield of crude intracellular polysaccharide (IPS) from mycelia was 50.39 ± 0.41 mg/g, which was agreed with model predictions. The preliminary characterization was mainly β-galactan by gas chromatograph and infrared spectrum analysis. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


He Q.,Southwest University
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2014

In order to achieve a proper design and control, it is necessary to have an exact model of boost converter. In this paper, the mathematic model of boost converter is proposed by the state-space average method. In the next step, the open-loop transfer function model without compensation is deduced in detail according to the mathematic model of the boost converter, the controller is designed according to frequency domain. The phase margin and magnitude margin of the open-loop system of the boost converter with compensator have both been increased. After compensating, the control system becomes stable. Using Matlab 7.1, the simulation of the control system of boost converter was implemented. The simulation results of control system confirm that the controller can reduce steady state error and resist power supply disturbance. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Lu M.,Southwest University
Fibres and Textiles in Eastern Europe | Year: 2010

A complex of fibroin and citric acid was prepared and used for the crease resistant finishing of cotton fabrics, which increased the crease resistance of cotton and avoided fabric yellowing caused by citric acid as a finishing agent for cotton. An orthogonal experiment design and variance analysis were adopted to investigate optimum processing parameters for the multiple quality characteristics of treated cotton fabrics. According to range and variance analyses from the orthogonal experiments, fibroin was the most sensitive factor influencing the whiteness index of the fabrics, and citric acid had a more marked effect on crease recovery. The optimum combination of the processing parameters was 4% fibroin, 20 g/dm3 of citric acid, 5% sodium dihydrogen phosphate, a pH 6 finishing bath and a curing temperature of 130 °C.


The synthesis of ruthenium(II)-terpyridine complexes-containing glyconanoparticles (Ru-GNPs) for one- and two-photon excited fluorescence imaging was described. Ru-GNPs were built from diblock copolymers of pentafluorophenyl acrylate (PFA) and 2-(2′,3′,4′,6′-tetra-O-acetyl-β-D-glucosyloxy)ethyl methacryalte (AcGlcEMA), prepared by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. The pendant reactive pentafluorophenyl ester groups were substituted and the copolymer cross-linked by the two-photon absorption (TPA) chromophore, bis[4′-(4-aminophenyl)-2,2′:6′,2″-terpyridyl]ruthenium(II) hexafluorophosphate. After deacetylation of the acetyl-protecting groups in the AcGlcEMA block, TPA nanoparticles with cross-linked ruthenium(II)-terpyridine complexes as the core and glycopolymers as the corona were obtained. The resulting Ru-GNPs exhibit good water dispersity, one-photon absorption and emission and low cytotoxicity towards KB cell line. Ru-GNPs also undergo two-photon excitation when excited in the near-infrared (NIR, 720-880 nm) in water, with TPA cross-sections in the range of 0.2-22 Göppert-Mayer (GM, 1 GM = 10-50 cm4 s1 photon-1). Ru-GNPs are thus potentially useful as effective cellular labeling agents for one- and two-photon excited fluorescence imaging. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Liu Y.,Southwest University | Willison J.H.M.,Dalhousie University
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2013

Restoration of vegetation is the most viable management approach for restoring ecological functions in the drawdown zone (hydro-fluctuation belt) of the Three Gorges Reservoir. The selection of plants for this purpose is therefore critically important. Most indigenous plants are not adapted, however, to the counter-seasonal fluctuation of water levels and rapid changes of up to 30 m in water depth that characterize the management of the reservoir. As a result, the reservoir drawdown zone tends to be vegetation deficient. Mulberry (Morus alba L.) has attracted attention as a suitable woody plant for restoring woody vegetation because of its strong adaptation to environmental stresses and the finding that it survives up to 7 m of flooding in parts of the drawdown zone. Comprehensive evaluation of research is therefore required in order to provide guidance for the rational use of mulberry in vegetation restoration strategies for the drawdown zone. Knowledge of the physiology of mulberry adaptation to stress is reviewed here, along with a detailed review of the ecology and agricultural benefits and limitations of mulberry in the context of the Three Gorges Reservoir. It is proposed that a cultivation model for mulberry plants based on ecological principles should be adopted for use within the drawdown zone and that a wider range of biophysical and socio-economic research to develop this model further should be conducted in the future. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Guo Y.,Southwest University | Li G.,Charles Sturt University
Journal of Soils and Sediments | Year: 2012

Purpose: Improper utilization of composted manure might increase risk of nutrients leaching and phosphorus (P) accumulation, hence causing eutrophication and threatening the ecological safety of river. In the current study, composted manure from a goat feedlot was applied to a perennial pasture in the Three Gorges region to evaluate its effects on pasture yield, NO3-N leaching, and phosphorus accumulation in soil. Materials and methods: Composted goat manure was either topdressed by hand or incorporated by hoe in the 0-20 cm soil depth between rows at four application rates (15, 22.5, 30, and 37.5 Mg DM ha-1) and an unamended control without application of composted manure. The composted manure was applied five times, with 20 % of the designated amount each, in July, September, and November 2005 and January and April 2006. A combination leaching-incubation experiment (soil-resin-core) was conducted to measure the amount of NO3-N leached from soils. Results and discussion: Soil total nitrogen and P concentrations increased as amount of composted manure applied was increased. Soil NO3-N and NO3-N leached from soil varied across seasons. Soil available P reached 92, 132, 225, and 261 mg kg-1 when 15, 22. 5, 30, and 37. 5 Mg ha-1 of composted manure was incorporated, respectively, and soil available P reached 39, 78, 86, and 132 mg kg-1 for corresponding treatments for topdressed treatment, indicating soil available P accumulated with increased manure applied. Pasture yield increased as application rate of composted manure increased. For the topdressed treatments, the highest pasture yields were obtained at 37. 5 Mg ha-1 of composted manure applied. As a comparison, the highest pasture yields was obtained at 22.5 Mg ha-1 when composted manure was incorporated, further increase of composted manure decreased the pasture yields. Conclusions: Excess use of composted goat manure significantly increased the risk of soil NO3-N leaching and P accumulation. It is suggested that the composted goat manure should be incorporated at rate of less than 22. 5 Mg ha-1 to minimize NO3-N leaching and P accumulation while maintaining high pasture production. The split application is also recommended to meet the growth requirement of pastures, hence less NO3-N leaching and soil P accumulation, which is of importance in the Three Gorges region. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.


Xie J.,Southwest University
Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression | Year: 2014

Many bacteria can develop biofilm (BF), a multicellular structure largely combining bacteria and their extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). The formation of biofilm results in an alternative existence in which microbes ensure their survival in adverse environments. Biofilm-relevant infections are more persistent, resistant to most antibiotics, and more recalcitrant to host immunity. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis, can develop biofilm, though whether M. tuberculosis can form biofifilm within tuberculosis patients has yet to be determined. Here, we summarize the factors involved in the development and dispersal of mycobacterial biofifilms, as well as underlying regulatory factors and inhibitors against biofifilm to deepen our understanding of their development and to elucidate potential novel modes of action for future antibiotics. Key factors in biofifilm formation identifified as drug targets represent a novel and promising avenue for developing better antibiotics. © 2014 Begell House, Inc.


Chen S.-J.,Chongqing Technology and Business University | Li L.,Southwest University
Nonlinear Analysis: Real World Applications | Year: 2013

In this paper we study the following nonhomogeneous Kirchhoff equation -(a+b∫RNδu2dx)Δu+V(x)u=f(x,u)+h(x), inRN, where f satisfies the Ambrosetti-Rabinowitz type condition. Under appropriate assumptions on V, f and h, the existence of multiple solutions is proved by using the Ekeland's variational principle and the Mountain Pass Theorem in critical point theory. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


The spatial, temporal, and spatiotemporal dynamics of a reaction–diffusion predator–prey system with ratio-dependent Holling type III functional response, under homogeneous Neumann boundary conditions, are studied in this paper. Preliminary analysis on the local asymptotic stability and Hopf bifurcation of the spatially homogeneous model based on ordinary differential equation is presented. For the reaction–diffusion model, firstly the parameter regions for the stability or instability of the unique constant steady state are discussed. Then it is shown that Turing (diffusion-driven) instability occurs, which induces spatial inhomogeneous patterns. Next, it is proved that the model exhibits Hopf bifurcation, which produces temporal inhomogeneous patterns. Finally, the existence and nonexistence of nonconstant steady- state solutions are established by bifurcation method and energy method, respectively. Numerical simulations are presented to verify and illustrate the theoretical results. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Huanglongbing (HLB) is a highly destructive disease of citrus production worldwide. 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus', an unculturable alpha proteobacterium, is a putative pathogen of HLB. Information about the biology and strain diversity of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' is currently limited, inhibiting the scope of HLB research and control. A genomic region (CLIBASIA_05640 to CLIBASIA_05650) of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' showing hyper-sequence variation or locus mosaicism was identified and investigated using 262 bacterial strains (188 from China and 74 from Florida). Based on the characteristic electrophoretic profiles of PCR amplicons generated by a specific primer set, eight electrophoretic types (E-types) were identified, six E-types (A, B, C, D, E, and F) in China and four E-types (A, C, G, and H) in Florida. The 'Ca. L. asiaticus' strains from China consisted predominately of E-type A (71.3%) and E-type B (19.7%). In contrast, the 'Ca. L. asiaticus' strains from Florida was predominated by E-type G (82.4%). Diversity of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' in China was also evidenced. Strains from the high altitude Yunnan Province consisted of five E-types with E-type B being the majority (62.8%), whereas strains from the low altitude coastal Guangdong Province consisted of only two E-types with E-type A as the majority (97.0%). Sequence analyses revealed that variation of DNA amplicons was due to insertion/deletion events at CLIBASIA_05650 and the downstream intergenic region. This study demonstrated the genomic mosaicism of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' resulted from active DNA insertion/deletion activities. Analyses of strain variation depicted the significant inter- and intra-continent diversity of 'Ca. L. asiaticus'.


Yao J.M.,Free University of Colombia | Yao J.M.,Southwest University | Bender M.,University of Bordeaux 1 | Bender M.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Heenen P.-H.,Free University of Colombia
Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics | Year: 2013

Background: Nuclei located in the neutron-deficient Pb region have a complex structure, rapidly evolving as a function of neutron and proton numbers. The most famous example is 186Pb where the three lowest levels are 0 + states, the two excited 0+ states being located at low excitation energy around 600 keV. Coexisting structures with different properties are found in the neighboring nuclei. Many experiments have been performed over the last few years in which in-band and out-of-band γ-ray transition probabilities have been measured. Purpose: A detailed interpretation of experimental data requires the use of a method going beyond a mean-field approach that permits to determine spectra and transition probabilities. Such methods have already been applied to selected isotopes in this mass region. Our aim is to provide a systematic investigation of this mass region in order to determine how well experimental data can be understood using a state-of-the-art method for nuclear structure. Method: The starting point of our method is a set of mean-field wave functions generated with a constraint on the axial quadrupole moment and using a Skyrme energy density functional. Correlations beyond the mean field are introduced by projecting mean-field wave functions on angular-momentum and particle number and by mixing the symmetry-restored wave functions as a function of the axial quadrupole moment. Results: A detailed comparison with the available data is performed for energies, charge radii, spectroscopic quadrupole moments, and E0 and E2 transition probabilities for the isotopic chains of neutron deficient Hg, Pb, Po, and Rn. The connection between our results and the underlying mean field is also analyzed. Conclusions: Qualitative agreement with the data is obtained although our results indicate that the actual energy density functionals have to be improved further to achieve a quantitative agreement. © 2013 American Physical Society.


Qian L.,Justus Liebig University | Qian W.,Southwest University | Snowdon R.J.,Justus Liebig University
BMC Genomics | Year: 2015

Background: High-density single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping arrays are a powerful tool for genome-wide association studies and can give valuable insight into patterns of population structure and linkage disequilibrium (LD). In this study we used the Brassica 60kSNP Illumina consortium genotyping array to assess the influence of selection and breeding for important agronomic traits on LD and haplotype structure in a diverse panel of 203 Chinese semi-winter rapeseed (Brassica napus) breeding lines. Results: Population structure and principal coordinate analysis, using a subset of the SNPs, revealed diversification into three subpopulations and one mixed population, reflecting targeted introgressions from external gene pools during breeding. Pairwise LD analysis within the A- and C-subgenomes of allopolyploid B. napus revealed that mean LD, at a threshold of r 2 = 0.1, decayed on average around ten times more rapidly in the A-subgenome (0.25-0.30 Mb) than in the C-subgenome (2.00-2.50 Mb). A total of 3,097 conserved haplotype blocks were detected over a total length of 182.49 Mb (15.17% of the genome). The mean size of haplotype blocks was considerably longer in the C-subgenome (102.85 Kb) than in the A-subgenome (33.51 Kb), and extremely large conserved haplotype blocks were found on a number of C-genome chromosomes. Comparative sequence analysis revealed conserved blocks containing homoloeogous quantitative trait loci (QTL) for seed erucic acid and glucosinolate content, two key seed quality traits under strong agronomic selection. Interestingly, C-subgenome QTL were associated with considerably greater conservation of LD than their corresponding A-subgenome homoeologues. Conclusions: The data we present in this paper provide evidence for strong selection of large chromosome regions associated with important rapeseed seed quality traits conferred by C-subgenome QTL. This implies that an increase in genetic diversity and recombination within the C-genome is particularly important for breeding. The resolution of genome-wide association studies is also expected to vary greatly across different genome regions. © 2014 Qian et al.; licensee BioMed Central.


Suo Q.,Southwest University
Science and Engineering Ethics | Year: 2016

The Chinese academic assessment and incentive system drew mixed responses from academia. In the essay the author tried to explain why the current assessment system is appropriate in China and an opportunistic behavior in Chinese academia is exposed. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Zhou J.,Southwest University
Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering | Year: 2016

This paper deals with the spatial, temporal and spatiotemporal dynamics of a spatial plant-wrack model. The parameter regions for the stability and instability of the unique positive constant steady state solution are derived, and the existence of time-periodic orbits and non-constant steady state solutions are proved by bifurcation method. The nonexistence of positive nonconstant steady state solutions are studied by energy method and Implicit Function Theorem. Numerical simulations are presented to verify and illustrate the theoretical results.


Melanoma is one of the most lethal forms of skin cancer because of its early metastatic spread. The variant form of CD44 (CD44v), a cell surface glycoprotein, is highly expressed on metastatic melanoma. The mechanisms of regulation of CD44 alternative splicing in melanoma and its pathogenic contributions are so far poorly understood. Here, we investigated the expression level of CD44 in a large set of melanocytic lesions at different stages. We found that the expression of CD44v8–10 and a splicing factor, U2AF2, is significantly increased during melanoma progression, whereas CD82/KAI1, a tetraspanin family of tumor suppressor, is reduced in metastatic melanoma. CD44v8–10 and U2AF2 expression levels, which are negatively correlated with CD82 levels, are markedly elevated in primary melanoma compared with dysplastic nevi and further increased in metastatic melanoma. We also showed that patients with higher CD44v8–10 and U2AF2 expression levels tended to have shorter survival. By using both in vivo and in vitro assays, we demonstrated that CD82 inhibits the production of CD44v8–10 on melanoma. Mechanistically, U2AF2 is a downstream target of CD82 and in malignant melanoma facilitates CD44v8–10 alternative splicing. U2AF2-mediated CD44 isoform switch is required for melanoma migration in vitro and lung and liver metastasis in vivo. Notably, overexpression of CD82 suppresses U2AF2 activity by inducing U2AF2 ubiquitination. In addition, our data suggested that enhancement of melanoma migration by U2AF2-dependent CD44v8–10 splicing is mediated by Src/focal adhesion kinase/RhoA activation and formation of stress fibers, as well as CD44-E-selectin binding reinforcement. These findings uncovered a hitherto unappreciated function of CD82 in severing the linkage between U2AF2-mediated CD44 alternative splicing and cancer aggressiveness, with potential prognostic and therapeutic implications in melanoma.Oncogene advance online publication, 4 April 2016; doi:10.1038/onc.2016.67. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited


Hu L.,Southwest University | Peng W.,University of Hong Kong | Valentini E.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Valentini E.,Scientific Institute for Research | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Pain | Year: 2013

Nociceptive stimuli can induce a transient suppression of electroencephalographic oscillations in the alpha frequency band (ie, alpha event-related desynchronization, α-ERD). Here we investigated whether α-ERD could be functionally distinguished in 2 temporally and spatially segregated subcomponents as suggested by previous studies. In addition, we tested whether the degree of dependence of nociceptive-induced α-ERD magnitude on the prestimulus α-power would have been larger than the degree of dependence on the poststimulus α-power. Our findings confirmed the dissociation between a sensory-related α-ERD maximally distributed over contralateral central electrodes, and a task-related α-ERD (possibly affected by motor-related activity), maximally distributed at posterior parietal and occipital electrodes. The cortical sources of these activities were estimated to be located at the level of sensorimotor and bilateral occipital cortices, respectively. Importantly, the time course of the α-ERD revealed that functional segregation emerged only at late latencies (400 to 750 ms) whereas topographic similarity was observed at earlier latencies (250 to 350 ms). Furthermore, the nociceptive-induced α-ERD magnitude was significantly more dependent on prestimulus than poststimulus α-power. Altogether these findings provide direct evidence that the nociceptive-induced α-ERD reflects the summation of sensory-related and task-related cortical processes, and that prestimulus fluctuations can remarkably influence the non-phase-locked nociceptive α-ERD. Perspective: Present results extend the functional understanding of α-oscillation suppression during pain perception and demonstrate the influence of prestimulus variability on this cortical phenomenon. This work has the potential to guide pain clinicians in a more accurate interpretation on physiological and psychological modulations of α-oscillations. © 2013 by the American Pain Society.


Objective: Driving after drinking is one of the main causes associated with road accidents in China. China has been concerned about this serious problem and updated the regulations of road traffic safety law about driving after drinking 3 times in the last 10 years to deter this offense. The deterrence effect of the current punishment measures implemented since January 2013 was studied in this article. Methods: Data applied in the study were collected by questionnaire surveys carried out in Chongqing, a city in southwest China. A total of 329 drivers participated in 3 rounds of the survey and a 5-point scale rating was applied in the investigation. Results: There was a slight difference between drivers’ familiarity of the law regarding driving after drinking in April 2013 and April 2014. The perceived certainty of being caught for driving after drinking was higher in April 2013 than in April 2014 and it had a time-dependent decreasing tendency. Our investigations also show that license suspension is the most practical and effective measure and penalty points system ranks second. A monetary fine appears to be inefficient to achieve the desired effects. Conclusions: The fourth edition of the Road Traffic Safety Law of the People’s Republic of China, which took effect in January 2013 coinciding with the application of random breath testing and intensification of enforcement activity, is effective in deterring driving after drinking according to our investigation. More measures should be implemented to change the decreasing tendency of perceived certainty of being caught for driving after drinking. An increase in the monetary fine is suggested. © 2015, Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Valentini E.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Betti V.,Fondazione Santa Lucia | Betti V.,University of Chieti Pescara | Hu L.,Key Laboratory of Cognition and Personality | And 2 more authors.
Cortex | Year: 2013

Introduction: Neuroimaging studies indicate that hypnotic suggestions of increased and decreased pain intensity and unpleasantness may modulate somatosensory and cingulate cortex activity, respectively. Methods: Using a within subject design and a strict subject selection procedure, we tested in High (Highs) and Low (Lows) hypnotically suggestible individuals whether hypnotic suggestions of sensory and affective hypoalgesia or hyperalgesia differentially affected subjective ratings of laser-induced pain and nociceptive-related brain activity in the time- and time-frequency domain. Results: Hypnotic modulation of pain intensity and unpleasantness affected subjective ratings of laser-induced pain only in Highs. Such modulation was more specific for unpleasantness manipulation and more evident for suggestions of hyperalgesia. Importantly, Highs and Lows showed increase and decrease of P2a and P2b wave amplitudes and gamma band power, respectively. Conclusions: Hypnotic suggestions exerted a top-down modulatory effect on both evoked and induced-cortical brain responses triggered by selective nociceptive laser inputs. Furthermore, correlation analyses indicated that gamma power modulation and suggestions of hyperalgesia may reflect the process of allocating control resources to salient and threatening sensory-affective dimensions of pain. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Zhang J.,Nanyang Technological University | Li C.M.,Nanyang Technological University | Li C.M.,Southwest University | Li C.M.,Chongqing Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials and Technologies of Clean Energies
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2012

Nanoporous metals, a representative type of nanostructured material, possess intriguing properties to generate enormously promising potentials for various important applications. In particular, with the advances of fabrication strategies, nanoporous metals with a variety of superior properties including unique pore structure, large specific surface area and high electrical conductivity have fuelled up great interests to explore their electrocatalytic properties and greatly extend their emerging applications in electrochemical sensing and energy systems. This tutorial review attempts to summarize the recent important progress towards the development of nanoporous metals, with special emphasis on fabrication methods and advanced electrochemical applications, such as electrocatalysts, chemical sensors and energy systems. Key scientific issues and prospective directions of research are also discussed. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Li L.,Southwest University | Liu D.,CSIRO | Bouguettaya A.,CSIRO
Information Systems | Year: 2011

An aspect-oriented programming (AOP) based approach is proposed to perform context-aware service composition on the fly. It realises context-aware composition by semantically weaving context into Web service composition. The context weaver algorithm is implemented and illustrated. The proposed semantic weaving allows Web services to be composed as the context changes. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Cao M.,University of California at Riverside | Du P.,University of California at Riverside | Du P.,Peking University | Wang X.,University of California at Riverside | And 7 more authors.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2014

Antiviral immunity controlled by RNA interference (RNAi) in plants and animals is thought to specifically target only viral RNAs by the virus-derived small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Here we show that activation of antiviral RNAi in Arabidopsis plants is accompanied by the production of an abundant class of endogenous siRNAs mapped to the exon regions of more than 1,000 host genes and rRNA. These virus-Activated siRNAs (vasiRNAs) are predominantly 21 nucleotides long with an approximately equal ratio of sense and antisense strands. Genetically, vasiRNAs are distinct from the known plant endogenous siRNAs characterized to date and instead resemble viral siRNAs by requiring Dicer-like 4 and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 1 (RDR1) for biogenesis. However, loss of EXORIBONUCLEASE4/ THYLENE-INSENSITIVE5 enhances vasiRNA biogenesis and virus resistance without altering the biogenesis of viral siRNAs. We show that vasiRNAs are active in directing widespread silencing of the target host genes and that Argonaute-2 binds to and is essential for the silencing activity of vasiRNAs. Production of vasiRNAs is readily detectable in Arabidopsis after infection by viruses from two distinct supergroups of plant RNA virus families and is targeted for inhibition by the silencing suppressor protein 2b of Cucumbermosaic virus. These findings reveal RDR1 production of Arabidopsis endogenous siRNAs and identify production of vasiRNAs to direct widespread silencing of host genes as a conserved response of plants to infection by diverse viruses. A possible function for vasiRNAs to confer broad-spectrum antiviral activity distinct to the virus-specific antiviral RNAi by viral siRNAs is discussed.


Zhang W.-J.,Chinese Academy of Agriculture | Xu X.-R.,Southwest University | Schwarz S.,Institute of Farm Animal Genetics | Wang X.-M.,Chinese Academy of Agriculture | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy | Year: 2014

Objectives: To determine the complete nucleotide sequence of the multidrug resistance plasmid pSCEC2, isolated from a porcine Escherichia coli strain, and to analyse it with particular reference to the cfr gene region. Methods: Plasmid pSCEC2 was purified from its E. coli J53 transconjugant and then sequenced using the 454 GS-FLX System. After draft assembly, predicted gaps were closed by PCR with subsequent sequencing of the amplicons. Results: Plasmid pSCEC2 is 135 615 bp in size and contains 200 open reading frames for proteins of ≥100 amino acids. Analysis of the sequence of pSCEC2 revealed two resistance gene segments. The 4.4 kb cfr-containing segment is flanked by two IS256 elements in the same orientation, which are believed to be involved in the dissemination of the rRNA methylase gene cfr. The other segment harbours the resistance genes floR, tet(A)-tetR, strA/strB and sul2, which have previously been found on other IncA/C plasmids. Except for these two resistance gene regions, the pSCEC2 backbone displayed >99% nucleotide sequence identity to that of other IncA/C family plasmids isolated in France, Chile and the USA. Conclusions: The cfr gene was identified on an IncA/C plasmid, which is well known for its broad host range and transfer and maintenance properties. The location on such a plasmid will further accelerate the dissemination of cfr and co-located resistance genes among different Gram-negative bacteria. The genetic context of cfr on plasmid pSCEC2 underlines the complexity of cfr transfer events and confirms the role that insertion sequences play in the spread of cfr. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.


Zheng Q.,Southwest University
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2014

community detection in Big data society network is problem we must solve.we use the sparse coding effectively identify implicit in the internal structure of input data and model. In the same tim we use the modularity community detection cover the random structure problem of the real society networks. It was proved feasible by the results of experiment with real society networks. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Shang Y.,Southwest University | Xiong Y.L.,University of Kentucky
Journal of Food Science | Year: 2010

In this study, the effect of xanthan on dynamic rheological properties, textural profile, and water binding of transglutaminase (TG)-treated myofibrillar protein (MP) gels was investigated. In experiment 1, MP suspensions (40 mg/mL protein, 0.6 M NaCl) at pH 6.45 with or without 0.05% xanthan were treated with 0%, 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%, 0.4%, and 0.5% TG; in experiment 2, MP suspensions (40 mg/mL protein, 0.6 M NaCl) at pHs 6.13, 6.30, 6.45, 6.69 with or without 0.05% xanthan were treated with 0.3% TG. Treated samples were analyzed with differential scanning calorimetry for thermal stability and oscillatory rheometry and Instron penetration tests for gelation properties. The TG treatments lowered the transition temperature (Tm) of MP by as much as 6 °C (P < 0.05) but increased apparent enthalpy of denaturation. However, there was no detectable thermal stability difference between MP samples with or without xanthan. The shear storage modulus (G′) of MP gels increased markedly upon treatments with ≥0.3% TG, and the presence of xanthan further enhanced the gel strength (P < 0.05). The addition of 0.05% xanthan decreased cooking loss of TG-treated MP gels by 17% to 23% when compared with gels without xanthan at all pH levels evaluated (6.13 to 6.67). Thus, the combination of TG and xanthan offered a feasible means to promote cross-linking and gelation of MP while reducing cooking losses. © 2010 Institute of Food Technologists®.


Jin Z.,Southwest University
Wei sheng wu xue bao = Acta microbiologica Sinica | Year: 2011

We studied the antibiotic activity and selective cytotoxicity of beta-1,3-1,4-glucanase from endophytic Bacillus subtilis SWB8. Based on gel permeation chromatography, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry methods, protein fragments of beta-1,3-1,4-glucanase from endophytic Bacillus subtilis strain SWB8 were purified and identified. Then, beta-1,3-1,4-glucanase was used to evaluate the antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Salmonella paratyphi A, Shigella dysenteriae, Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans and cytotoxicity against human pulmonary adenocarcinoma cells (A549) and human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) by using the disc diffusion, methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium and flow cytometry methods, respectively. Bacterial beta-1,3-1,4-glucanase showed broad antimicrobial spectrum against all nine bacterial and fungal strains. Furthermore, beta-1,3-1,4-glucanase possessed significant anticancer activity against A549 cells that the IC50 and IC90 values were 11.5 and 20.1 microg/mL, respectively. The percentage of apoptotic A549 cells treated with different concentrations of beta-1,3-1,4-glucanase was significantly increased from 4.43% of the control to 43.1% of 19.2 microg/mL glucanase in a dose dependent manner. In contrast, these changes could not be observed in human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Beta-1,3-1,4-glucanase could be a potential source of desirable antimicrobial agent, or anticancer compounds with higher efficiency and lower toxicity.


Lai X.-W.,South China Agricultural University | Sun D.-L.,Southwest University | Ruan C.-Q.,South China Agricultural University | Zhang H.,South China Agricultural University | Liu C.-L.,South China Agricultural University
Journal of Separation Science | Year: 2014

A novel, simple, and rapid method is presented for the analysis of aflatoxin B1, aflatoxin B2, and ochratoxin A in rice samples by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with LC and fluorescence detection. After extraction of the rice samples with a mixture of acetonitrile/water/acetic acid, mycotoxins were rapidly partitioned into a small volume of organic solvent (chloroform) by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction. The three mycotoxins were simultaneously determined by LC with fluorescence detection after precolumn derivatization for aflatoxin B 1 and B2. Parameters affecting both extraction and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction procedures, including the extraction solvent, the type and volume of extractant, the volume of dispersive solvent, the addition of salt, the pH and the extraction time, were optimized. The optimized protocol provided an enrichment factor of approximately 1.25 and with detection of limits (0.06-0.5 μg/kg) below the maximum levels imposed by current regulations for aflatoxins and ochratoxin A. The mean recovery of three mycotoxins ranged from 82.9-112%, with a RSD less than 7.9% in all cases. The method was successfully applied to measure mycotoxins in commercial rice samples collected from local supermarkets in China. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Zhu X.,Queensland University of Technology | Zhang S.,Zhejiang Normal University | Jin Z.,Peking University | Zhang Z.,Southwest University | And 2 more authors.
IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering | Year: 2011

Missing data imputation is a key issue in learning from incomplete data. Various techniques have been developed with great successes on dealing with missing values in data sets with homogeneous attributes (their independent attributes are all either continuous or discrete). This paper studies a new setting of missing data imputation, i.e., imputing missing data in data sets with heterogeneous attributes (their independent attributes are of different types), referred to as imputing mixed-attribute data sets. Although many real applications are in this setting, there is no estimator designed for imputing mixed-attribute data sets. This paper first proposes two consistent estimators for discrete and continuous missing target values, respectively. And then, a mixture-kernel-based iterative estimator is advocated to impute mixed-attribute data sets. The proposed method is evaluated with extensive experiments compared with some typical algorithms, and the result demonstrates that the proposed approach is better than these existing imputation methods in terms of classification accuracy and root mean square error (RMSE) at different missing ratios. © 2006 IEEE.


Liao J.,Southwest University
International Journal of Computers, Communications and Control | Year: 2012

This paper presents a new routing protocol called Manager-based Routing Protocol (MBRP) for sharing resources in wired/wireless mixed networks. MBRP specifies a manager node for a designated sub-network (called as a group), in which all nodes have the similar connection properties; then all manager nodes are employed to construct the backbone overlay network with ring topology. The manager nodes act as the proxies between the internal nodes in the group and the external world, that is not only for centralized management of all nodes to a certain extent, but also for avoiding the messages flooding in the whole network. The experimental results show that compared with Gnutella2, which uses super-peers to perform similar management work, the proposed MBRP has less lookup overhead including lookup latency and lookup hop count in the most of cases. Besides, the experiments also indicate that MBRP has well configurability and good scaling properties. In a word, MBRP has less transmission cost of the shared file data, and the latency for locating the sharing resources can be reduced to a great extent in the wired/wireless mixed networks. © 2006-2012 by CCC Publications.


Zhou W.,Southwest University
Nongye Gongcheng Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering | Year: 2010

Land use/cover changes (LUCC) are crucial for sustainability of land resource in coastal zones with unstable terrestrial ecological system. It is necessary to understand distribution of LUCC for planning, exploitation and management of land resource in those tender regions. LUCC and their driving forces were analyzed in Yellow River Delta in China by remote sensing and GIS during the last decade. It was showed that lots of land use/land cover changes had been taken place and exchanged between each others in the Yellow River Delta in the last decade. Although the dynamics of land use/land cover had been affected by natural factors and human economic activities, the human activities were the main driving forces for the LUCC in Yellow River Delta. Most unites of land use/land covers had been changed or degraded with bad natural conditions because of intense human activities, poor managements, adjusted regional industry constitution, and rapid urbanization. Although fast development had been carried out for those years, some human activities which were inharmonious for sustainable development of regional land resource had induced degradation of the intender land resource in Yellow River Delta.


Luo X.W.,Southwest University
Key Engineering Materials | Year: 2011

As a hot spot of the algorithms of swarm intelligence, Ant Colony Optimization is proposed by an Italian scholar M.Dorigo by simulating the foraging actions of ants. This paper introduces the principle of this algorithm and its merit and demerit in great detail. It proposes an effective method named "four steps" based on others scholars' "three steps" to choose the optimal combinational parameter of ant colony algorithms, then analyzes the improved algorithm of ant colony. At the same time, several kinds of algorithms are compared and analyzed in performance in solving TSP problems through the experiments. the optimal results can be obtained.


Chow C.-F.,The Hong Kong Institute of Education | Ho P.-Y.,The Hong Kong Institute of Education | Gong C.-B.,Southwest University
Analyst | Year: 2014

A tetranuclear bimetallic complex, [RuII(tBubpy)(CN) 4]2-[FeIII(H2O)3Cl] 2·8H2O (1) has been synthesized and characterized. It was found to be a multifunctional device that can detect, signal amplify, and degrade an organic pollutant, oxalate. Results of the chemosensing studies of 1 toward common anions show that only oxalate selectively induces naked-eye colorimetric and luminometric responses with method detection limits down to 78.7 and 5.5 ppm, respectively from 1. Meanwhile, results of the photo-degradation studies of 1 toward oxalate show that the dissolved organic carbon content of oxalate decreased and reached complete mineralization into CO2 within 6 hours. Complex 1 was also found as the catalyst that amplified the detection signal toward oxalate. Through the photoassisted Fenton reaction by 1, methyl orange, an additional coloring agent, could be degraded so that the visual detection limit of 1 toward oxalate was magnified 50 times from 100 to 2 ppm. The detection, degradation, mineralization and signal amplification were found applicable in real water bodies such as river, pond and underground water with excellent recoveries and relative standard deviation. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.


Ren W.,Beijing Normal University | Ren W.,Southwest University | Zhou E.,Beijing Normal University | Fang B.,Beijing Normal University | And 4 more authors.
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2014

The reaction of the base-free terminal thorium imido complex [{η5-1,2,4-(Me3C)3C5H2}2Th=N(p-tolyl)] (1) with p-azidotoluene yielded irreversibly the tetraazametallacyclopentene [{η5-1,2,4-(Me3C)3C5H2}2Th{N(p-tolyl)N=N-N(p-tolyl)}] (2), whereas the bridging imido complex [{[η5-1,2,4-(Me3C)3C5H2]Th(N3)2}2{μ-N(p-tolyl)}2][(n-C4H9)4N]2 (3) was isolated from the reaction of 1 with [(n-C4H9)4N]N3. Unexpectedly, upon the treatment of 1 with 9-diazofluorene, the NN bond was cleaved, an N atom was transferred, and the η2-diazenido iminato complex [{η5-1,2,4-(Me3C)3C5H2}2Th{η2-[N=N(p-tolyl)]}{N=(9-C13H8)}] (4) was formed. In contrast, the reaction of 1 with Me3SiCHN2 gave the nitrilimido complex [{η5-1,2,4-(Me3C)3C5H2}2Th{NH(p-tolyl)}{N2CSiMe3}] (5), which slowly converted into [{η5-1,2,4-(Me3C)3C5H2}{η5:κ-N-1,2-(Me3C)2-4-CMe2(CH2NN=CHSiMe3)C5H2}Th{NH(p-tolyl)}] (6) by intramolecular C-H bond activation. The experimental results are complemented by density functional theory (DFT) studies. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Zhang X.Q.,Southwest University
Zhongguo Zhong yao za zhi = Zhongguo zhongyao zazhi = China journal of Chinese materia medica | Year: 2012

To establish the hair roots culture system of Datura metel and study the hair roots growth and biosynthesis of scopolamine and hyoscyamine in hair roots culturing system. Direct degermed cotyledon of wild D. metel was infected by Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain C58C1 to obtain hair roots. Growth curves and scopolamine and hyoscyamine biosynthesis curves were determined. The scopolamine and hyoscyamine from different hair roots lines were examined by HPLC. Hair roots induction rate reached 70%. After 25 days cultured in 1/2 MS liquid nutrient medium, the hair roots weight, content of scopolamine and hyoscyamine reached maximum, tow high efficient accumulation hyoscyamine and scopolamine hair roots lines M1 and M2 were obtained. The medial accumulation coefficient of hyoscyamine and scopolamine were 2.53 times and 5.37 times compared with the leaves of wild D. metel respectively. The established hair roots induction and culture system of D. metel provided a foundation for further obtaining scopolamine and hyoscyamine.


Deng Y.,Southwest University | Jiang W.,Northwestern Polytechnical University | Sadiq R.,University of British Columbia
Expert Systems with Applications | Year: 2011

Contaminant intrusion in a water distribution network is a complex but a commonly observed phenomenon, which depends on three elements - a pathway, a driving force and a contamination source. However, the data on these elements are generally incomplete, non-specific and uncertain. In an earlier work, Sadiq, Kleiner, and Rajani (2006) have successfully applied traditional Dempster-Shafer theory (DST) to estimate the "risk" of contaminant intrusion in a water distribution network based on limited uncertain information. However, the method used for generating basic probability assignment (BPA) was not very flexible, and did not handle and process uncertain information effectively. In this paper, a more pragmatic method is proposed that utilizes "soft" computing flexibility to generate BPAs from uncertain information. This paper compares these two methods through numerical examples, and demonstrates the efficiency and effectiveness of modified method. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Wen Q.,Southwest University
Zhong yao cai = Zhongyaocai = Journal of Chinese medicinal materials | Year: 2012

To study the physiological mechanism of anti-stress of Coptic chinensis and provide theoretical basis for its cultivation and promoting its quality. Different degrees of the range of time and intensity of UV-B radiation were set in the experiment. Used the technique of polyacrylamide gelatin vertical board electrophoresis (PAGE) to analyse the isozyme and related stress index. The isoenzymic bands of SOD1 (Rf = 0.125), SOD2 (Rf = 0.312), CAT1 (Rf = 0.428), POD3 (Rf = 0.290), POD4 (Rf = 0.636) were induced by UV-B radiation after 3 hours, with the increase of the time of UV-B radiation, those isoenzymic bands was going to vanish or became unclear. Moreover, isoenzymic bands of CAT1 (Rf = 0.428), POD3 (Rf = 0.290) disappeared in advance under heavy intensity of UV-B radiation. Furthermore, the contents of MDA, soluble sugar, proline were higher dramatically than those of control group under UV-B radiation. However, excluding the increases of proline in UL group, the content of MDA, soluble sugar, proline of other groups commenced to decrease slowly and isoenzymic bands of soluble protein increase after 7 hours of UV-B radiation. The increase of the expression of antioxidase isozyme, accumulation of soluble sugar, soluble protein and other antioxidase matter is induced by the short-time UV-B radiation, which can protect Coptis chinensis from being harmed by UV-B radiation. However, regulation system of Coptis chinensis are broken, metabolism is disordered, the bands of antioxidase isozyme vanish or weaken, the bands of soluble protein are increased and widened, these phenomenon is caused by 7 hours of UV-B radiation.


Hu T.,Southwest University
Wei sheng wu xue bao = Acta microbiologica Sinica | Year: 2012

The aim of this study is to clone and express the nucleotidylytransferase encoding gene-amiE from the biosynthetic gene cluster of amicetin, a disaccharide nucleoside antibiotic, and to characterize AmiE in vitro. The amiE, encoding a nucleotidylytransferase of 257 amino acid, was PCR amplified and cloned into pET28a, resulting in the plasmid pCSG4001, which was transformed into E. coli BL21(DE3) for expressing N-(His)6-tag AmiE. The recombinant AmiE was purified by affinity chromatography via AKTA Purifier 10 system. The AmiE-catalyzed reactions were performed using TTP (or UTP) and glucose-1-phosphate as substrates. The enzyme assays were analyzed by HPLC; the substrate flexibility of AmiE was probed with three unnatural sugars-1-phosphate, including galactose-1-phosphate, galactosamine-1-phosphate and mannos-1-phosphate. The N-(His)6-tag AmiE was expressed in E. coli in soluble form and was successfully purified via Ni2+ mediated affinity chromatography; in vitro biochemical experiments showed that AmiE could convert glucose-1-phosphate into TDP-glucose (or UDP-glucose) in the presence of TTP (or UTP). However, galactose-1-phosphate, galactosamine-1-phosphate and mannos-1-phosphate were not substrates of AmiE. The amiE was successfully cloned and expressed in E. coli, and the purified AmiE was biochemically confirmed to be a nucleotylyltransferase in amicetin biosynthesis pathway.


Deng Y.,Southwest University | Sadiq R.,University of British Columbia | Jiang W.,Northwestern Polytechnical University | Tesfamariam S.,University of British Columbia
Expert Systems with Applications | Year: 2011

Performing risk analysis can be a challenging task for complex systems due to lack of data and insufficient understanding of the failure mechanisms. A semi quantitative approach that can utilize imprecise information, uncertain data and domain experts' knowledge can be an effective way to perform risk analysis for complex systems. Though the definition of risk varies considerably across disciplines, it is a well accepted notion to use a composition of likelihood of system failure and the associated consequences (severity of loss). A complex system consists of various components, where these two elements of risk for each component can be linguistically described by the domain experts. The proposed linguistic approach is based on fuzzy set theory and Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence, where the later has been used to combine the risk of components to determine the system risk. The proposed risk analysis approach is demonstrated through a numerical example. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Liu T.-B.,Rutgers University | Subbian S.,Rutgers University | Pan W.,Shanghai University | Eugenin E.,Rutgers University | And 2 more authors.
Cell Communication and Signaling | Year: 2014

Background: Cryptococcus neoformans is the most common cause of fungal meningitis among individuals with HIV/AIDS, which is uniformly fatal without proper treatment. The underlying mechanism of disease development in the brain that leads to cryptococcal meningoencephalitis remains incompletely understood. We have previously demonstrated that inositol transporters (ITR) are required for Cryptococcus virulence. The itr1aΔ itr3cΔ double mutant of C. neoformans was attenuated for virulence in a murine model of intra-cerebral infection; demonstrating that Itr1a and Itr3c are required for full virulence during brain infection, despite a similar growth rate between the mutant and wild type strains in the infected brain. Results: To understand the immune pathology associated with infection by the itr1aΔ itr3cΔ double mutant, we investigated the molecular correlates of host immune response during mouse brain infection. We used genome-wide transcriptome shotgun sequencing (RNA-Seq) and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) methods to examine the host gene expression profile in the infected brain. Our results show that compared to the wild type, infection of mouse brains by the mutant leads to significant activation of cellular networks/pathways associated with host protective immunity. Most of the significantly differentially expressed genes (SDEG) are part of immune cell networks such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) regulon, indicating that infection by the mutant mounts a stronger host immune response compared to the wild type. Interestingly, a significant reduction in glucuronoxylomannan (GXM) secretion was observed in the itr1aΔ itr3cΔ mutant cells, indicating that inositol utilization pathways play a role in capsule production. Conclusions: Since capsule has been shown to impact the host response during Cryptococcus-host interactions, our results suggest that the reduced GXM production may contribute to the increased immune activation in the mutant-infected animals. © 2014 Liu et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Arxiden A.,Southwest University
Journal of Computational Information Systems | Year: 2013

Recently, users' influence in the Micro-blog has been studied extensively in the field of social network. Most previous studies are based on a single indicator, including the number of followers or that of retweets or that of mentions. However, Micro-blog is different from other social network services, it is difficult to truly reflect the users' influence depending on a single indicator in the service. In this paper, we present a way to measure users' influence in terms of users' activities and quality of tweets for specific topics, the experimental evaluation is based on a large-scaled real dataset from Sina Micro-blog. The experimental results show that our algorithm has relatively high accuracy and convergence rate compared with the existing ranking. © 2013 Binary Information Press.


Ma M.,Southwest University
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2011

We study some mathematical aspects of public announcement logic (PAL) and its several variants. By a model-theoretic approach, we explore van Benthem's result that uses recursion axioms to characterize the submodel operation, and show some model-theoretic results on the respecting phenomena. The second approach to understand public announcements is algebraic. Based on a joint work with A. Palmigiano and M. Sadrzadeh, we treat public announcements as devices for getting a new quotient algebra updated by an element in the original one. Then we show the algebraic soundness and completeness result for PAL and generalize this approach to PAL extension of epistemic intuitionistic modal logic. Finally, we give some observations on the PAL extensions of first-order logic as well as epistemic predicate modal logic. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.


Chen J.,Lanzhou University | Chen J.,Southwest University | Liu M.,Lanzhou University
RSC Advances | Year: 2014

Well-defined and nontoxic core-shell polymeric micelles, containing fluorescence units, were employed for efficient drug delivery of doxorubicin (DOX). The self-assembled structures were generated from triblock copolymers of poly(ε-caprolactone)-block-poly(glycidyl methacrylate)-block- poly(poly(ethylene glycol)methyl ether methacrylate) (PCL-b-PGMA-b-P(PEGMA)) with fluorescence units. Various experiments like structural characterization, fluorescence properties, cell viability studies, encapsulation studies, measuring cytotoxicity against fibroblasts and bladder cancer cells are performed on these polymeric micelles. All of these results demonstrate that these self-assembled micelles may be promising carriers for intravesical delivery of DOX for bladder cancer therapy. © 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Schneiders J.A.,Saarland University | Opitz B.,Saarland University | Tang H.,CAS Institute of Psychology | Deng Y.,CAS Institute of Psychology | And 3 more authors.
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience | Year: 2012

Working memory training has been widely used to investigate working memory processes. We have shown previously that visual working memory benefits only from intra-modal visual but not from across-modal auditory working memory training. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging study we examined whether auditory working memory processes can also be trained specifically and which training-induced activation changes accompany theses effects. It was investigated whether working memory training with strongly distinct auditory materials transfers exclusively to an auditory (intra-modal) working memory task or whether it generalizes to a (across-modal) visual working memory task. We used adaptive n-back training with tonal sequences and a passive control condition. The memory training led to a reliable training gain. Transfer effects were found for the (intra-modal) auditory but not for the (across-modal) visual transfer task. Training-induced activation decreases in the auditory transfer task were found in two regions in the right inferior frontal gyrus. These effects confirm our previous findings in the visual modality and extents intra-modal effects in the prefrontal cortex to the auditory modality. As the right inferior frontal gyrus is frequently found in maintaining modality-specific auditory information, these results might reflect increased neural efficiency in auditory working memory processes. Furthermore, task-unspecific (amodal) activation decreases in the visual and auditory transfer task were found in the right inferior parietal lobule and the superior portion of the right middle frontal gyrus reflecting less demand on general attentional control processes. These data are in good agreement with amodal activation decreases within the same brain regions on a visual transfer task reported previously. © 2012 Schneiders, Opitz, Tang, Deng, Xie, Li and Mecklinger.


Zhou J.,Southwest University
Computers and Mathematics with Applications | Year: 2016

This paper deals with a doubly degenerate parabolic system with special volumetric moisture content, which is called a Non-Newton polytropic filtration system. Under appropriate hypotheses, we prove that the solution either exists globally or blows up in finite time. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.


Wu G.-R.,Southwest University | Wu G.-R.,Ghent University | Marinazzo D.,Ghent University
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences | Year: 2016

The haemodynamic response function (HRF) is a key component of the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal, providing the mapping between neural activity and the signal measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Most of the time the HRF is associated with task-based fMRI protocols, in which its onset is explicitly included in the design matrix. On the other hand, the HRF also mediates the relationship between spontaneous neural activity and the BOLD signal in resting-state protocols, in which no explicit stimulus is taken into account. It has been shown that resting-state brain dynamics can be characterized by looking at sparse BOLD 'events', which can be retrieved by point process analysis. These events can be then used to retrieve the HRF at rest. Crucially, cardiac activity can also induce changes in the BOLD signal, thus affecting both the number of these events and the estimation of the haemodynamic response. In this study, we compare the resting-state haemodynamic response retrieved by means of a point process analysis, taking the cardiac fluctuations into account. We find that the resting-state HRF estimation is significantly modulated in the brainstem and surrounding cortical areas. From the analysis of two high-quality datasets with different temporal and spatial resolution, and through the investigation of intersubject correlation, we suggest that spontaneous point process response durations are associated with the mean interbeat interval and low-frequency power of heart rate variability in the brainstem. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.


Xu B.,Southwest University
Zhong yao cai = Zhongyaocai = Journal of Chinese medicinal materials | Year: 2012

To study the chemical constituents of Herpetospermum caudigerum. The chemical constituents were isolated by silica gel, Sephedex LH-20 and MCI methods. Their structures were elucidated by physical-chemical properties and spectroscopic methods such as UV, IR, ESI-MS, H-NMR and 13 C-NMR. Seven compounds were isolated and identified as Herpetolide A (1), Herpetolide B (2), Dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol (3), Herpetol (4), Arbutin, 1-acetate (5), Dodecanoic acid (6) and 10-Eicosenoic acid (7). compounds 5-7 are isolated from this plant for the first time.


Ye M.,Southwest University
Key Engineering Materials | Year: 2011

Wireless sensor real-time control network is important construction part. With same Real-time system, this network need Real-time and reliability. Modern network mainly is Ethernet. This network speed is fast than the older, the simple protocol, the lower cost and integrate TCP/IP technique in the IT world. But because its self mechanism decide that it is a no-realtime network. This paper propose a novel wireless sensor real-time control network protocol model based on Ethernet hardware, including protocol logic, communication strategy logic, server logic, communication control logic and CMIB. At the same time, this paper introduce work flows and main function of main constructing part of this real-time protocol model. © (2011) Trans Tech Publications.


DiMartino A.,NYU Langone Medical Center | Fair D.A.,Oregon Health And Science University | Kelly C.,NYU Langone Medical Center | Satterthwaite T.D.,University of Pennsylvania | And 11 more authors.
Neuron | Year: 2014

The vast majority of mental illnesses can be conceptualized as developmental disorders of neural interactions within the connectome, or developmental miswiring. The recent maturation of pediatric invivo brain imaging is bringing the identification of clinically meaningful brain-based biomarkers of developmental disorders within reach. Even more auspicious is the ability to study the evolving connectome throughout life, beginning in utero, which promises to move the field from topological phenomenology to etiological nosology. Here, we scope advances in pediatric imaging of the brain connectome as the field faces the challenge of unraveling developmental miswiring. We highlight promises while also providing a pragmatic review of the many obstacles ahead that must be overcome to significantly impact public health. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.


Zhan C.,Fudan University | Li C.,Southwest University | Wei X.,Fudan University | Lu W.,University of Maryland Baltimore County | Lu W.,Fudan University
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews | Year: 2015

Protein and peptide toxins offer an invaluable source for the development of actively targeted drug delivery systems. They avidly bind to a variety of cognate receptors, some of which are expressed or even up-regulated in diseased tissues and biological barriers. Protein and peptide toxins or their derivatives can act as ligands to facilitate tissue- or organ-specific accumulation of therapeutics. Some toxins have evolved from a relatively small number of structural frameworks that are particularly suitable for addressing the crucial issues of potency and stability, making them an instrumental source of leads and templates for targeted therapy. The focus of this review is on protein and peptide toxins for the development of targeted drug delivery systems and molecular therapies. We summarize disease- and biological barrier-related toxin receptors, as well as targeted drug delivery strategies inspired by those receptors. The design of new therapeutics based on protein and peptide toxins is also discussed. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Zhu G.,Hunan University | Zhu G.,University of Florida | Zhang S.,Hunan University | Song E.,University of Florida | And 7 more authors.
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2013

DNA nanotrain: Anchoring of preformed fluorescent DNA nanodevices (NDs; see picture) and insitu self-assembly of fluorescent DNA NDs on target living cell surfaces are reported. The insitu self-assembly of the nanodevice was further shown on surfaces of living cells in cell mixtures. These DNA NDs exhibited fluorescence emission and underwent fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) on living cell surfaces. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Hagino K.,Tohoku University | Hagino K.,Japan National Astronomical Observatory | Yao J.M.,Tohoku University | Yao J.M.,Southwest University
Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics | Year: 2015

We describe low-lying collective excitations of atomic nuclei with the multireference covariant density functional theory and combine them with coupled-channels calculations for heavy-ion fusion reactions at energies around the Coulomb barrier. To this end, we use the calculated transition strengths among several collective states as inputs to the coupled-channels calculations. This approach provides a natural way to describe anharmonic multiphonon excitations, as well as a deviation of rotational excitations from a simple rigid rotor. We apply this method to subbarrier fusion reactions of Ni58+Ni58,Ni58+Ni60, and Ca40+Ni58 systems. We find that the effect of anharmonicity tends to smear the fusion barrier distributions, better reproducing the experimental data compared to the calculations in the harmonic oscillator limit. © 2015 American Physical Society.


Guo P.T.,Southwest University
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2013

Silica films prepared by the base catalyzed sol-gel process show poor mechanical property. In this study, silica anti-reflective films with good mechanical property have been prepared by the catalyzed sol-gel process with dimethyl formamide added as drying control chemical additives. The silica sol was first dip deposited onto substrate to form films on both sides of the substrate and then subjected to thermal treatment. After thermal treatment, the film was achieved due to the formation of porous structure in the resultant film as a result of decomposing tetraethylorthosilicate and dimethyl formamide. Nano-indenter measurement shows that the Young's modulus and hardness of base catalyzed films are 10-20GPa and 0.25-0.55GPa, respectively. But the films added with dimethyl formamide are much better than those films derived from base-catalyzed silica sols, the Young's modulus and hardness are 32-39GPa and 1.22-1.47GPa, respectively. The good mechanical properties make such films potential in both military and civil applications. © (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Diogo R.,Howard University | Peng Z.,Southwest University | Wood B.,George Washington University
Journal of Anatomy | Year: 2013

Here we provide the first report about the rates of muscle evolution derived from Bayesian and parsimony cladistic analyses of primate higher-level phylogeny, and compare these rates with published rates of molecular evolution. It is commonly accepted that there is a 'general molecular slow-down of hominoids', but interestingly the rates of muscle evolution in the nodes leading and within the hominoid clade are higher than those in the vast majority of other primate clades. The rate of muscle evolution at the node leading to Homo (1.77) is higher than that at the nodes leading to Pan (0.89) and particularly to Gorilla (0.28). Notably, the rates of muscle evolution at the major euarchontan and primate nodes are different, but within each major primate clade (Strepsirrhini, Platyrrhini, Cercopithecidae and Hominoidea) the rates at the various nodes, and particularly at the nodes leading to the higher groups (i.e. including more than one genera), are strikingly similar. We explore the implications of these new data for the tempo and mode of primate and human evolution. © 2013 Anatomical Society.


Zhu X.,Nanyang Technological University | Wang M.,Southwest University
RSC Advances | Year: 2016

The electronic and optical properties of surface hydrogenated armchair graphene nanoribbons (H-AGNRs) are investigated by first-principle ab initio calculations with quasi-particle corrections. The variation in band gaps is scrutinized in terms of bonding characteristics and the localization of wavefunctions. Optical absorption spectra, exciton binding energies and exciton wavefunctions are investigated with the consideration of different hydrogen adsorption row positions and coverages. Instead of the traditional family effect in pristine AGNRs, we introduce an effective width model to provide a more general understanding for H-AGNRs. The calculations show that the effective width segment in H-AGNRs plays an important role in the band gaps and excitons. Moreover, the spatial distributions of the electronic and exciton wavefunctions are confined by hydrogen atoms, revealing a self-confinement pseudo quantum well. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2016.


Zou J.,Southwest University
Dyes and Pigments | Year: 2013

Cr-doped rutile pigments were prepared by calcination of doped rutile precursors resulting from the hydrolysis-precipitation method. The pigment properties were investigated by X-ray diffraction, Thermogravimetry-differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, diffuse reflection spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and colourimetry. The pigments were found to have a rutile phase composition. Rutile pigments with good colour properties can be acquired by calcination from 500 °C to 900 °C. The pigment with 1.25% dopant and calcination at 700 °C presented optimal colour properties (L* = 75.46, a* = 15.24, b* = 39.46). The pigments presented high dispersion and could be dispersed directly into polyurethane paint and polyurethane epoxy resin without further modification. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Zhou Z.,Southwest University | Guo C.,Sichuan University of Arts and Science
Automatica | Year: 2013

In this paper, the stabilization of a linear heat equation with a heat source at intermediate point is discussed applying the backstepping method. Firstly, we prove the existence of kernels in the forward and inverse transformation by some special techniques; secondly, we obtain the exponential stability with any prescribed decay rate of a closed-loop system; finally, the effectiveness of the explicit feedback stabilization controller design is illustrated with some numerical examples. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Dong Y.,Nanyang Technological University | Pang H.,Nanyang Technological University | Yang H.B.,Nanyang Technological University | Guo C.,Nanyang Technological University | And 6 more authors.
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2013

Helpful elements: A facile bottom-up method using citric acid and L-cysteine as a precursor has been developed to prepare graphene quantum dots (GQDs) co-doped with nitrogen and sulfur. A new type and high density of surface state of GQDs arises, leading to high yields (more than 70 %) and excitation-independent emission. FLQY=fluorescence quantum yield. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Zhang L.,Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications | Tang Y.,Southwest University
Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Computer Science and Education, ICCSE 2013 | Year: 2013

Keywords Extraction plays a very important role in the text mining domain, since the keywords can represent the asserted main point in a document. Based on term network and deleting actor index, an effective keywords extraction algorithm is proposed to extract high frequent terms as well as important terms with low frequency. The experiment results support the conclusion. © 2013 IEEE.


Song C.-Y.,Beijing University of Technology | Yao J.-M.,Southwest University
Chinese Physics C | Year: 2010

The polarization effect on the spin symmetry for anti-Lambda spectrum in 16O+Λ̄ system has been studied in relativistic mean-field theory. The PK1 effective interaction is used for nucleon-meson couplings and G-parity symmetry with a reduction factor ξ= 0.3 is adopted for anti-Lambda-meson couplings. The energy differences between spin doublets in the anti-Lambda spectrum are around 0.10-0.73 MeV for pΛ̄ state. The dominant components of the Dirac spinor for the anti-Lambda spin doublets are found to be near identical. It indicates that the spin symmetry is still well-conserved against the polarization effect from the valence antiLambda hyperon, which leads to a highly compressed cold nucleus with the central density up to 2 -3 times of saturated density. © 2010 Chinese Physical Society and the Institute of High Energy Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Institute of Modern Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and IOP Publishing Ltd.


Zhang F.X.,Southwest University
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2014

This paper focus on the dynamic server algorithms, and the servers are used for scheduling soft aperiodic tasks. Many types of servers and their schedulability analysis are reviewed, these properties can be used for constructing hierarchical embedded systems, where the soft aperiodic tasks and the hard real-time tasks can be scheduled in the same system. The aperiodic tasks in the server are not preemptable, and they are executed in a first-come first-served (FCFS) manner. If it is not specified, there is only one server in the system, and rest of the processes in the system are ordinary periodic tasks. The servers could be scheduled by fixed priority or dynamic algorithms. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Wang F.,University of Manitoba | Zhang J.Z.,Southwest University
Chinese Science Bulletin | Year: 2013

Mercury is one of the primary contaminants of global concern. As anthropogenic emissions of mercury are gradually placed under control, evidence is emerging that biotic mercury levels in many aquatic ecosystems are increasingly driven by internal biogeochemical processes, especially in ecosystems that have been undergoing dramatic environmental changes. Here we review the unique properties of mercury that are responsible for the exceptional sensitivity of its biogeochemical cycles to changes in climatic, geochemical, biological and ecological processes. We show that, due to rapid climate warming, a shift from sources-driven to processes-driven mercury bioaccumulation is already happening in the Arctic marine ecosystem. We further suggest that such a shift might also be operating in the Three Gorges Reservoir due to changes in these biogeochemical processes induced by the damming. As a result, the effectiveness of mercury emission control is expected to be followed by long delays before ensuing reduction is seen in food-web levels, making it all the more pressing to control and reduce mercury emissions to the reservoir. Long-term monitoring and targeted studies are urgently needed to understand how biotic mercury levels in the reservoir are responding to changes in mercury emissions and in biogeochemical processes. © 2012 The Author(s).


Guo N.,Southwest University | Guo N.,Chongqing University | Luan B.,Chongqing University | Liu Q.,Chongqing University
Materials and Design | Year: 2013

The influences of pre-torsion deformation on microstructures, tensile strength and microhardness of cold drawing pearlitic steel wires have been investigated in this study by twisting the wires to different number of revolutions. The results indicated that the tensile strength is very sensitive to torsion deformation and reduced distinctly after pre-torsion. Microhardness in the center layer and surface layer displayed different evoluting process with increasing number of the pre-torsion revolutions. Boundary strengthening reduced by fragmentation of cementite lamellae and work hardening enhanced by strain gradient induced by the pre-torsion were discussed to reveal the changes of the tensile strength and microhardness. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Liu Y.,Nanyang Technological University | Du Y.,Nanyang Technological University | Li C.M.,Nanyang Technological University | Li C.M.,Southwest University | Li C.M.,Chongqing Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials and Technologies of Clean Energies
Electroanalysis | Year: 2013

Direct electrochemistry of redox proteins provides exciting platforms for performance improvement of biosensors and power enhancement of biofuel cells. Nanomaterials with tailored structures and unique properties are promising building blocks to promote direct electron transfer (DET) between redox-active cofactors of proteins and electrodes. This paper reviews the advances of nanostructured materials for DET of redox proteins in recent years, and is divided into applications in biosensors and biofuel cells. Both of them focus on the performance improvement, together with discussion on major challenges and opportunities for future research. The enhancement mechanism for direct electrochemistry is also reviewed for fundamental insights. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


In this contribution, an organic small molecule (OSM)-participating interaction between its aptamer and graphene oxide (GO) is investigated by taking coralyne as an example. Based on their interactions, a simple, rapid, highly sensitive and selective fluorometric method for the detection of coralyne is developed. GO can effectively quench the fluorescence of dye-labeled aptamer, while stronger binding of the aptamer and its target can make the fluorescence be recovered, which have been well demonstrated by the studies of the fluorescence spectra, fluorescence anisotropy, and circular dichroism spectra. In this case, the coralyne can be quantificationally detected by the variation of the fluorescence intensity, where GO acts as an efficient signal-to-background enhancer. With the increase of the coralyne, the fluorescence intensity increases gradually and linearly proportional to the concentration of the coralyne in the range of 10-700 nmol L(-1). This method is reliable, and has been successfully applied for the detection of coralyne in complicated matrixes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Lai L.,Southwest University | Barnard A.S.,CSIRO
Nanoscale | Year: 2016

Like many of the useful nanomaterials being produced on the industrial scale, the surface of diamond nanoparticles includes a complicated mixture of various atomic and molecular adsorbates, attaching to the facets following synthesis. Some of these adsorbates may be functional, and adsorption is encouraged to promote applications in biotechnology and nanomedicine, but others are purely adventurous and must be removed prior to use. In order to devise more effective treatments it is advantageous to know the relative strength of the interactions of the adsorbates with the surface, and ideally how abundant they are likely to be under different conditions. In this paper we use a series of explicit electronic structure simulations to map the distribution of small hydrocarbons, amines and thiols on a 2.9 nm diamond nanoparticle, with atomic level resolution, in 3-D. We find a clear relationship between surface reconstructions, facet orientation, and the distribution of the different adsorbates; with a greater concentration expected on the (100) and (110) facets, particularly when the supersaturation in the reservoir is high. Adsorption on the (111) facets is highly unlikely, suggesting that controlled graphitization may be a useful stage in the cleaning and treatment of nanodiamonds, prior to the deliberate coating with functional adsorbates needed for drug delivery applications. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Wei S.-Y.,Southwest University
Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi | Year: 2015

Puerarin is one of the most important effective components of Pusraria lobata which exhibited classic estrogen-like biological activities and had remarkable cardiovascular protections in vio and in vitro experiments. These protections of puerarin are mainly exhibited on improving the myocardial cefls membrane potential and arrhythmia based on effecting the Na+ , K+ , and Ca2+ channels,resisting myocardial fibrosis damage, diastolic erect on blood vessels, promoting angiogenesis, resisting calcification and atherosclerosis, improving blood flow, antiplatelet aggregation, reducing lipid and resisting diabetes. The main mechanisms are to improve the mem-brane potential and reduce cardiovascular damage caused by inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis, and the main regulated signal pathways are the PI3K/Akt, the NF-kappa B and the caspases.


Xu W.,Southwest University
International Journal of Applied Linguistics and English Literature | Year: 2016

V. S. Naipaul’s depiction of the dull London life in Mr Stone and the Knights Companion challenges metropolitancentrism in cosmopolitanism. Criticising the self-consciousness and insularity of English people, Naipaul illustrates the point that the multiplication of cultural contacts and exchanges facilitated in the metropolis does not necessarily mean that the metropolitan locals exposed to it are pre-disposed toward cosmopolitan openness. He also points out the allure and danger of cosmopolitanism: consumption of various cultural products and luxurious stylisation of metropolitan life are superficially understood as signals of access and openness to differences, while xenophobia toward immigrants lurking under such a consumer orientation. © 2016, Australian International Academic Centre PTY LTD. All rights reserved.


Xu W.,Southwest University
International Journal of Applied Linguistics and English Literature | Year: 2016

This paper aims to identify the disillusionment with metropolitan-centred cosmopolitanism in Naipaul’s The Mimic Men. The immigrants are chosen as the focal point to reveal the dissociation between them and the metropolis. Examining Naipaul’s description of the immigrant population’s metropolitan life, I contend that the cosmopolitan ideology is in stark contrast with the reality of coexistence, intermingling and hybridisation. Mere coexistence of people of heterogeneous cultural, national, religious or other identity formations cannot guarantee the uptake or expression of cosmopolitan openness. Making using of cosmopolitan theories in marketing and sociology and taking subaltern and third world experiences as forces of intervention and interruption into account, the fraudulence and infeasibility of cosmopolitanism as hedonistic consumption of global products and luxurious stylisation of metropolitan life in the novel is highlighted. This study reveals that it is colonial education that builds unreal colonial fantasy of the metropolis and cosmopolitanism on the one hand and leads to disillusionment on the other. © 2016, Australian International Academic Centre PTY LTD. All rights reserved.


Gao C.,Hong Kong Baptist University | Gao C.,Southwest University | Liu J.,Hong Kong Baptist University
IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing | Year: 2013

Viruses and malwares can spread from computer networks into mobile networks with the rapid growth of smart cellphone users. In a mobile network, viruses and malwares can cause privacy data leakage, extra charges, and remote listening. Furthermore, they can jam wireless servers by sending thousands of spam messages or track user positions through GPS. Because of the potential damages of mobile viruses, it is important for us to gain a deep understanding of the propagation mechanisms of mobile viruses. In this paper, we propose a two-layer network model for simulating virus propagation through both Bluetooth and SMS. Different from previous work, our work addresses the impacts of human behaviors, i.e., operational behavior and mobile behavior, on virus propagation. Our simulation results provide further insights into the determining factors of virus propagation in mobile networks. Moreover, we examine two strategies for restraining mobile virus propagation, i.e., preimmunization and adaptive dissemination strategies drawing on the methodology of autonomy-oriented computing (AOC). The experimental results show that our strategies can effectively protect large-scale and/or highly dynamic mobile networks. © 2002-2012 IEEE.


Ren L.,Hohai University | Xiang X.-Y.,Southwest University | Ni J.-J.,Hohai University
Journal of Hydrologic Engineering | Year: 2013

There is no real periodicity in the changes of hydrological systems. Changes in a hydrological system take place with different periodic variations from time to time. In this paper, a new method was utilized to predict monthly runoff with a wavelet analysis technique. Taking advantage of localized characteristics of wavelet transform and the approximation function of an adaptive neural fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), the combined approach of wavelet transform and ANFIS was used to predict monthly runoff. The ANFIS forecast model for monthly runoff was established based on wavelet analysis. To solve the problems related to the large amplitudes of intra- and interannual variation of monthly runoff, a resolving and reconstructing technique of wavelets was utilized to decompose runoff series into different information subspaces, by which decomposition signals with different frequencies were obtained. Based on the evaluation of simulated and measured values in Yichang Station, it was found that the percent of the pass of relative error was 100% and the effect of prediction was acceptable. The certainty factor, dy, was 0.91 and the prediction level was A. By comparing the measured and predicted values, it was found that with this model, the trend of originals could be forecasted, but improvements are still needed. Because the new model is sensitive to sudden changes in rainfall, combined with the irregular monthly runoff variation, it is difficult to forecast runoff with this model, which should be improved in the future. © 2013 American Society of Civil Engineers.


Zhang J.,Chongqing Medical University | Wei L.,Chongqing Medical University | Hu X.,Chongqing Medical University | Xie B.,Chongqing Medical University | And 4 more authors.
Parkinsonism and Related Disorders | Year: 2015

Background: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a surprisingly heterogeneous neurodegenerative disorder. It is well established that different subtypes of PD present with different clinical courses and prognoses. However, the neural mechanism underlying these disparate presentations is uncertain. Methods: Here we used resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) and the regional homogeneity (ReHo) method to determine neural activity patterns in the two main clinical subgroups of PD (akinetic-rigid and tremor-dominant). Results: Compared with healthy controls, akinetic-rigid (AR) subjects had increased ReHo mainly in right amygdala, left putamen, bilateral angular gyrus, bilateral medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), and decreased ReHo in left post cingulate gyrus/precuneus (PCC/PCu) and bilateral thalamus. In contrast, tremor-dominant (TD) patients showed higher ReHo mostly in bilateral angular gyrus, left PCC, cerebellum_crus1, and cerebellum_6, while ReHo was decreased in right putamen, primary sensory cortex (S1), vermis_3, and cerebellum_4_5. These results indicate that AR and TD subgroups both represent altered spontaneous neural activity in default-mode regions and striatum, and AR subjects exhibit more changed neural activity in the mesolimbic cortex (amygdala) but TD in the cerebellar regions. Of note, direct comparison of the two subgroups revealed a distinct ReHo pattern primarily located in the striatal-thalamo-cortical (STC) and cerebello-thalamo-cortical (CTC) loops. Conclusion: Overall, our findings highlight the involvement of default mode network (DMN) and STC circuit both in AR and TD subtypes, but also underscore the importance of integrating mesolimbic-striatal and CTC loops in understanding neural systems of akinesia and rigidity, as well as resting tremor in PD. This study provides improved understanding of the pathophysiological models of different subtypes of PD. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


He X.,Southwest University | Li C.,Southwest University | Huang T.,Texas A&M University at Qatar | Li C.,University of Ballarat
Neural Networks | Year: 2014

In this paper, using the idea of successive approximation, we propose a neural network to solve convex quadratic bilevel programming problems (CQBPPs), which is modeled by a nonautonomous differential inclusion. Different from the existing neural network for CQBPP, the model has the least number of state variables and simple structure. Based on the theory of nonsmooth analysis, differential inclusions and Lyapunov-like method, the limit equilibrium points sequence of the proposed neural networks can approximately converge to an optimal solution of CQBPP under certain conditions. Finally, simulation results on two numerical examples and the portfolio selection problem show the effectiveness and performance of the proposed neural network. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Gao L.,Chongqing University | Liao X.,Chongqing University | Li H.,Southwest University
IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs | Year: 2014

Pinning control synchronization of complex networks is a fascinating and hot issue in the field of nonlinear science. However, the existing works are all based on a continuous-time feedback control strategy and assume that each network node can have continuous access to the states of its neighbors. This brief presents a novel distributed event-triggered mechanism for pinning control synchronization of complex networks. The control of nodes is only triggered at their own event time, which effectively reduces the frequency of controller updates compared with continuous-time feedback control. Considering limited communication, the new approach successfully avoids the continuous communication used for calculating the error thresholds in the event-triggered mechanism. In addition, we also develop a new alternative iterative algorithm that can further reduce the consumption of computing and communication resources to some extent. Finally, simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed approaches and illustrate the correctness of the theoretical results. © 2004-2012 IEEE.


He X.,Southwest University | Li C.,Southwest University | Huang T.,Texas A&M University at Qatar | Li C.,University of Ballarat | Huang J.,Chongqing University
IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems | Year: 2014

In this brief, based on the method of penalty functions, a recurrent neural network (NN) modeled by means of a differential inclusion is proposed for solving the bilevel linear programming problem (BLPP). Compared with the existing NNs for BLPP, the model has the least number of state variables and simple structure. Using nonsmooth analysis, the theory of differential inclusions, and Lyapunov-like method, the equilibrium point sequence of the proposed NNs can approximately converge to an optimal solution of BLPP under certain conditions. Finally, the numerical simulations of a supply chain distribution model have shown excellent performance of the proposed recurrent NNs. © 2013 IEEE.


Li M.,Southwest University
Procedia Environmental Sciences | Year: 2011

The fast urbanization in Chongqing metropolitan has had a great impact on the environment and resources. The water resource has been recognized as one of the key elements to the sustainable development of this region. This paper presents a method of predicting the regional Water Resource Carrying Capacity (WRCC) using the supply-demand balance model. The method predicts that the WRCC of Chongqing metropolitan is from 8.8 million persons to 14 million persons in 2020 and it will not become the bottleneck of the social and economic development of Chongqing Metropolitan in the coming period of time. However the climate change and its impact on the regional ecology will have an effect on it. The results show that the usable capacity of Passing-by water is the most important element of the WRCC of Chongqing metropolitan therefore the protection of the ecological environment in the upstream area is very important. This paper has proposed tangible advice on the sustainable social and economic development in context of water resource © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.


Guo J.,Nanyang Technological University | Li C.M.,Southwest University | Kang Y.,Nanyang Technological University
Biomedical Microdevices | Year: 2014

Microfluidic impedance sensor has been introduced as a cost effective platform in biological cell sensing and counting since several decades ago. Conventional microfluidic impedance sensor usually requires the patterned gold electrodes directly in contact with the carrying buffer to measure the electrical current change due to the blockage of cells. However, patterning metal electrode probes on the silicon or glass substrate is a non-trivial task, which increases the fabrication cost of the impedance sensor. In this paper, we demonstrate an alternating current (AC) impedance based microfluidic cytometer built on a printed circuit board (PCB) coated with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) thin film. In addition, circulating tumor cells (Hela cells) are used to successfully demonstrate the feasibility of the microfluidic AC impedance sensor in tumor cell detection. The electrodes pre-deposited PCB costs less than US$2.00 and is widely available in the market. This device has a good potential for point-of-care diagnosis in resource-poor settings. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Agar-Wilson M.,Southwest University
European journal of pain (London, England) | Year: 2012

Although emotion regulation capacities have been linked to adjustment among people with chronic pain, researchers have yet to determine whether these capacities are related to functioning independent of established facets of pain coping. The present study was designed to address this gap. A sample 128 Australian adults with chronic pain (44 men, 84 women) completed self-report measures of adjustment (quality of life, negative affect, and pain-related disability), pain coping, and features of emotion regulation (emotion appraisal, perceived efficacy in emotion regulation, emotion utilization). Hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that efficacy in emotion regulation was related to quality of life and reduced negative affect even after statistically controlling for effects of other measures of adjustment, pain coping efficacy, and pain coping. Conversely, features of emotion regulation did not improve the prediction model for pain-related disability. Findings suggest emotion regulation capacities may have a unique role in the prediction of specific facets of adjustment among people with chronic pain. © 2011 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters.


Yang L.-X.,Chongqing University | Yang X.,Chongqing University | Yang X.,Southwest University
Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications | Year: 2014

Due to the high dimensionality of an epidemic model of computer viruses over a general scale-free network, it is difficult to make a close study of its dynamics. In particular, it is extremely difficult, if not impossible, to prove the global stability of its viral equilibrium, if any. To overcome this difficulty, we suggest to simplify a general scale-free network by partitioning all of its nodes into two classes: higher-degree nodes and lower-degree nodes, and then equating the degrees of all higher-degree nodes and all lower-degree nodes, respectively, yielding a reduced scale-free network. We then propose an epidemic model of computer viruses over a reduced scale-free network. A theoretical analysis reveals that the proposed model is bound to have a globally stable viral equilibrium, implying that any attempt to eradicate network viruses would prove unavailing. As a result, the next best thing we can do is to restrain virus prevalence. Based on an analysis of the impact of different model parameters on virus prevalence, some practicable measures are recommended to contain virus spreading. The work in this paper adequately justifies the idea of reduced scale-free networks. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Zhou J.,Southwest University
Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Mathematik und Physik | Year: 2014

In this paper, we consider a diffusive Leslie-Gower predator-prey model with Bazykin functional response and zero Dirichlet boundary condition. We show the existence, multiplicity and uniqueness of positive solutions when parameters are in different regions. Results are proved by using bifurcation theory, fixed point index theory, energy estimate and asymptotical behavior analysis. © 2013 Springer Basel.


Yao J.M.,Free University of Colombia | Yao J.M.,Southwest University | Bender M.,Bordeaux Gradignan Center of Nuclear Studies | Heenen P.-H.,Free University of Colombia
Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics | Year: 2015

Background: Electron scattering provides a powerful tool to determine charge distributions and transition densities of nuclei. This tool will soon be available for short-lived neutron-rich nuclei. Purpose: Beyond-mean-field methods have been successfully applied to the study of excitation spectra of nuclei in the whole nuclear chart. These methods permit determination of energies and transition probabilities starting from an effective in-medium nucleon-nucleon interaction but without other phenomenological ingredients. Such a method has recently been extended to calculate the charge density of nuclei deformed at the mean-field level of approximation [J. M. Yao, Phys. Rev. C 86, 014310 (2012)PRVCAN0556-281310.1103/PhysRevC.86.014310]. The aim of this work is to further extend the method to the determination of transition densities between low-lying excited states. Method: The starting point of our method is a set of Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov wave functions generated with a constraint on the axial quadrupole moment and using a Skyrme energy density functional. Correlations beyond the mean field are introduced by projecting mean-field wave functions on angular momentum and particle number and by mixing the symmetry-restored wave functions. Results: We give in this paper detailed formulas derived for the calculation of densities and form factors. These formulas are rather easy to obtain when both initial and final states are 0+ states but are far from being trivial when one of the states has a finite J value. Illustrative applications to Mg24 and to the even-mass Ni58-68 have permitted an analysis of the main features of our method, in particular the effect of deformation on densities and form factors. An illustrative calculation of both elastic and inelastic scattering form factors is presented. Conclusions: We present a very general framework to calculate densities of and transition densities between low-lying states that can be applied to any nucleus. Achieving better agreement with the experimental data will require improving the energy density functionals that are currently used and also introducing quasiparticle excitations in the mean-field wave functions. © 2015 American Physical Society.


Guo S.,Southwest University | Wang C.,State University of New York at Stony Brook | Yang Y.,State University of New York at Stony Brook
IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing | Year: 2014

The emerging wireless energy transfer technology enables charging sensor batteries in a wireless sensor network (WSN) and maintaining perpetual operation of the network. Recent breakthrough in this area has opened up a new dimension to the design of sensor network protocols. In the meanwhile, mobile data gathering has been considered as an efficient alternative to data relaying in WSNs. However, time variation of recharging rates in wireless rechargeable sensor networks imposes a great challenge in obtaining an optimal data gathering strategy. In this paper, we propose a framework of joint wireless energy replenishment and anchor-point based mobile data gathering (WerMDG) in WSNs by considering various sources of energy consumption and time-varying nature of energy replenishment. To that end, we first determine the anchor point selection strategy and the sequence to visit the anchor points. We then formulate the WerMDG problem into a network utility maximization problem which is constrained by flow, energy balance, link and battery capacity and the bounded sojourn time of the mobile collector. Furthermore, we present a distributed algorithm composed of cross-layer data control, scheduling and routing subalgorithms for each sensor node, and sojourn time allocation subalgorithm for the mobile collector at different anchor points. We also provide the convergence analysis of these subalgorithms. Finally, we implement the WerMDG algorithm in a distributed manner in the NS-2 simulator and give extensive numerical results to verify the convergence of the proposed algorithm and the impact of utility weight, link capacity and recharging rate on network performance. © 2014 IEEE.


Liao J.,Southwest University
Journal of Circuits, Systems and Computers | Year: 2014

This paper proposes a framework, which requires keeping tracks of both logical I/O access operations and their corresponding physical access on the storage servers in a parallel file system, to build a self-tuning storage system. Thus, the built self-tuning storage system is able to support dynamical data migrating and data pre-fetching transparently from the view point of clients to boost I/O performance. To this end, we first devised an approach to find out the pairs of logical I/O operations and their associated physical I/O operations. We then employed working set modeling to form I/O access patterns and their corresponding disk access patterns. Finally, with the information about existing access patterns and the similarity analysis of access patterns, it is not difficult to predict the future I/O access operations for possible I/O optimization. Through a series of experiments based on several realistic benchmarks, we show that the newly proposed self-tuning storage system is capable of enabling data migration and data pre-fetching dynamically by using the information about I/O access patterns and the predicted future I/O operations. Therefore, it can improve I/O data throughput significantly for the applications with complicated access patterns; especially, for the applications that require to process multiple-dimensional data, such as medical image processing applications and geographic information system (GIS) applications. © 2014 World Scientific Publishing Company.


Hu L.,Southwest University | Valentini E.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Valentini E.,Scientific Institute for Research | Zhang Z.G.,University of Hong Kong | And 2 more authors.
NeuroImage | Year: 2014

Nociceptive laser pulses elicit temporally-distinct cortical responses (the N1, N2 and P2 waves of laser-evoked potentials, LEPs) mainly reflecting the activity of the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) contralateral to the stimulated side, and of the bilateral operculoinsular and cingulate cortices. Here, by performing two different EEG experiments and applying a range of analysis approaches (microstate analysis, scalp topography, single-trial estimation), we describe a distinct component in the last part of the human LEP response (P4 wave). We obtained three main results. First, the LEP is reliably decomposed in four main and distinct functional microstates, corresponding to the N1, N2, P2, and P4 waves, regardless of stimulus territory. Second, the scalp and source configurations of the P4 wave follow a clear somatotopical organization, indicating that this response is likely to be partly generated in contralateral S1. Third, single-trial latencies and amplitudes of the P4 are tightly coupled with those of the N1, and are similarly sensitive to experimental manipulations (e.g., to crossing the hands over the body midline), suggesting that the P4 and N1 may have common neural sources. These results indicate that the P4 wave is a clear and distinct LEP component, which should be considered in LEP studies to achieve a comprehensive understanding of the brain response to nociceptive stimulation. © 2013.


Zhu W.-Z.,CAS Chengdu Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment | Xiang J.-S.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Wang S.-G.,Southwest University | Li M.-H.,Swiss Federal Institute of forest | Li M.-H.,CAS Shenyang Institute of Applied Ecology
Forest Ecology and Management | Year: 2012

Resprouting is the main regeneration mechanism of most Quercus species after severe disturbance such as fire or coppicing. Yet little is known about the relationships between the amounts of resources stored in the roots and resprouting ability when the total aboveground part of plants/trees was fully removed or destroyed, and about the resprouting ability in relation to increasing elevation associated with decreasing site productivity. The present study investigated the non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) concentrations and its pool size in roots of Quercus aquifolioides clumps grown at 3000. m, 3500. m, and 3950. m a.s.l. on Zheduo Mt., southwestern China, to test two competing hypotheses that (1) decreases in net primary productivity and growing season length with increasing elevation result in less allocation to storage of belowground NSC reserves, so that after coppicing, shrubs at higher elevations produce fewer resprouts and less total biomass than those at lower elevations, vs. (2) the shrubs growing at high-elevation sites with low-productivity produce more resprouts and biomass than those at low-elevation sites after coppicing, as it is expected that resprouting is favored in low-productivity environments. Our results indicated that early resprouting of Q. aquifolioides shrubs after coppicing is largely determined by the initial carbohydrate pool but not by the carbohydrate concentrations in roots. The large resprouting vigor of this species may be mainly ascribed to its large ratios of root to shoot biomass or root NSC pool to shoot NSC pool. The resprouting vigor of clumps decreased significantly with increasing elevation, which corresponds to significant decreases in the root biomass or root NSC pool size per clump with increasing elevation. Resprouts self-thinned more early and rapidly in clumps at lower elevations than at higher elevations, which may be mainly resulted from competition occurred more early in the more productive sites at lower elevations compared to higher elevations. Our results support the 1st but not the 2nd hypothesis. The present study has important implications for resources storage dealing with ecophysiology-based management strategy of coppicing woodland across scales. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Rong Y.,Southwest University
Polish Journal of Environmental Studies | Year: 2015

Pharmaceutical wastewaters are generated through complex manufacturing processes that contain a variety of organic and inorganic constituents, and are usually characterized by a high concentration of chemical oxygen demand (COD), suspended solids, dissolved solids (salts), toxicity, and refractory compounds. Therefore, it must be treated. The treatment of a pharmaceutical wastewater (PWW) using the supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) method was investigated to improve the degradation of the complex-mixture of organic compounds present in the wastewater. The effects of H2O2 dosage, reaction time, temperature, initial COD, and concentration of ethylene glycol on COD removal were studied with laboratory bench-scale experiments. The results indicated that the removal process was more effective under experimental conditions. Adding ethylene glycol accelerates the destruction of pharmaceutical wastewater. The best COD removal of pharmaceutical wastewater reached 97.8%. This investigation will provide a fundamental method for developing a pretreatment method of industrial pharmaceutical wastewater with flexibility, simplicity and high activity. © 2015, HARD Publishing Company. All rights reserved.


Fu A.L.,Southwest University | Wu S.P.,Beijing Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications | Year: 2010

Paraoxonase-1 (PON1, EC 3.1.8.1) is a high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-associated antioxidant enzyme, and its activity correlates negatively with the level of plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglyceridemia (TG). In this study, we examined the therapeutic effect of plasmid DNA containing the human PON1 gene (pcDNA/PON1) in hyperlipidemic model rats. The rats were fed a high-fat and highcholesterol diet for 25 days to produce a hyperlipidemic animal model. Single intravenous injection of pcDNA/PON1 into model rats prevented dyslipidemia and hepatic lipid accumulation. The mechanisms of pcDNA/PON1 in treating hyperlipidemia were associated with increases of serum antioxidant PON1 and SOD activities, and with reduction of the levels of total cholesterol (TC), LDL-C and TG. The results suggest the potential therapeutic effect of pcDNA/PON1 on hyperlipidemia. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.


Gao J.,Southwest University
Zhong yao cai = Zhongyaocai = Journal of Chinese medicinal materials | Year: 2011

To study the effects of different auxcin regulators on rooting of Periplocaforrestii cuttings as well as dynamic change rules of endogenous plant hormones and oxidases related to adventitious root formation. Cuttings propagation characters of Periploca forrestii were investigated and compared with different concentration treatments of indolebutyric acid (IBA), Rooting Powder No. 1 (ABT1) and naphthylacetic acid (NAA). The dynamic changes of contents of endogenous hormones including indole acetic acid (IAA), abscisic acid (ABA), zeatin ribosides (ZRs) as well as the activities of indoleacetic acid oxidase( IAAO), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), peroxidase (POD) were tested. Rooting percentage of cutting with 150 mg/L IBA, 150 mg/L ABT1 treatment and NAA treatment were 80% ,70% and 68% respectively, rooting percentage of cuttings of the control was 23% only. The adventitious rooting displayed three distinct phases i. e. root-inducing, root-formating and root-elongating phases. During root-inducing phase the contents of IAA, ABA and ZRs decreased,whereas IAAO activity kept at a higher level. The IAA content reached the peak and PPO activity increased obviously during root-formating phase, while activities of IAAO, POD and contents of ABA, ZRs declined to minimum. During root-elongating phase contents of IAA, ABA, ZRs were much steadfast and activities of PPO, IAAO, POD were increased. After that, the activities of the three oxidases decreased slowly. 150 mg/L IBA treatment increased the content of IAA and PPO activity in cuttings during rooting,while the opposite result occurred in contents of ZRs, ABA and the activities of IAAO, POD. The dynamic changes of endogenous hormones (IAA, ABA, ZRs) contents and IAAO, PPO, POD activities are tightly related to the rooting process of cuttings in Periploca forrestii.


Zhang Z.G.,Southwest University
Zhong yao cai = Zhongyaocai = Journal of Chinese medicinal materials | Year: 2011

Study the chemical constituents of the rhizomes of Paris bashanensis to search after the alternative resourc for the Chinese medicinal material Rhizoma Paridis. The n-BuOH extracts of P. bashanensis was applied to silica gel column and eluted with EtOAc-EtOH,then the gained fractions were further purified by chromatography on Sephadex LH-20 column and PreRP-HPLC to give pure compounds whose structures were elucidated mainly on the basis of analyzing the spectral data of MS,1H-NMR, 13C-NMR,2D-NMR. Five compounds were isolated and identified as P-ecdysone (1), pinnatasterone(2), pennogenin-3-0-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1-->2)-[alpha-L-arabinofuranosyl ( 1- -4) ] -pf-D-glycopyranoside (3), diosgenin-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1-->2) - [ a-L-arabinofuranosyl (1-->4)]-beta-D-glycopyranoside(4), pennogenin-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1-->4) -a-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1-4)-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1-->2)]-beta-D-glycopyranoside (5). Compound 1-5 are obtained from this plant for the first time.


Tang X.,Southwest University | Shao F.,Chongqing Educational Science Academy
Journal of Science Education and Technology | Year: 2014

Group preparation for teaching contest, or lesson polishing, is a teacher professional development activity unique to China. Through participant observation and discourse analysis of a typical case, this study explores how a science lesson evolved through lesson-polishing process and how such process influenced individual learning and the development of local teaching community. Our work illustrates both the values and the issues of lesson polishing as a type of teacher professional development activity. On one hand, combining professional interactions and trial lessons, lesson-polishing activity opens up space for critical yet cooperative professional interactions and tryouts of different designs and teaching strategies, providing opportunities for individual learning and development of practical rationalities within local community. On the other hand, the functions of such activities are greatly limited by the tendency of refining every detail in lesson design, the existence of overriding dispositions and authorities with overriding power, as well as the focus on practical suggestions that can be directly implemented. Suggestions for improvement are made in the final discussion. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Shi R.,Southwest University
Procedia Environmental Sciences | Year: 2011

The ecological and environmental problems of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area have different effects on its ecological security. This paper aims to make certain contributions in this area by examining the ecological problems of the TGA. It reveals that Scarce arable land, water and soil erosion, non-point agriculture pollution are critical environmental issues. On the positive side, countermeasures that are discussed include: developing eco-agriculture, reforestation and constructing a green belt in the peripheral zone of the reservoir, and economic adjustment and control to the agriculture nonpoint pollution. © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.


Wang Z.,Southwest University
Procedia Environmental Sciences | Year: 2011

There are a great deal of discussions and questions on how to establish and develop low-carbon economy, not excepting China. In order to provide suggestions and countermeasure, this paper considers that every country must masters key elements of the low-carbon system so as to promote it in a proper way. All elements in the huge lowcarbon economy system are operating cooperatively, however, low-carbon technology is indispensable because it provides strategic sustention for low-carbon economy, especially in developing countries. Proceed from China's actual conditions, by introducing the significance of low-carbon technology, this paper expounds the most key and emergent low-carbon technologies, i.e., clean coal technology and CCS(carbon capture and storage) technology. Furthermore, proposes the strategic path of low-carbon technology system in China, and suggests that related departments of the state should place coal gasification technology or polygeneration in combination with CCS at the heart of China's low-carbon technology strategy. © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.


Cheng J.,Southwest University
Advances in Information Sciences and Service Sciences | Year: 2012

In the paper, we use ontology technology to construct a web courseware authoring system and realize the semantic interoperation in heterogeneous e-learning systems. We set up a domain ontology model which is core component of the system, and can be related with the knowledge concept in domain ontology base with learning resources in the learning resources repository. Then we use the SCORM simple sequencing model to set up the clusters of learning activity to form the agile and adaptive course structure, and map the learning activity clusters encapsulated by SCORM onto OWL language. Based on the domain ontology, a semantic conflict elimination model is put forward, which is the foundation to resolve semantic confliction in authoring courseware cooperatively. Finally we prove that by using the technology of semantic web and all kinds of learning recourses standards we can resolve the interoperation of heterogeneous e-learning systems.


Li Z.P.,Southwest University | Niksic T.,University of Zagreb | Vretenar D.,University of Zagreb
Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics | Year: 2016

A quantitative analysis of the evolution of nuclear shapes and shape phase transitions, including regions of short-lived nuclei that are becoming accessible in experiments at radioactive-beam facilities, necessitate accurate modeling of the underlying nucleonic dynamics. Important theoretical advances have recently been made in studies of complex shapes and the corresponding excitation spectra and electromagnetic decay patterns, especially in the 'beyond mean-field' framework based on nuclear density functionals. Interesting applications include studies of shape evolution and coexistence in N = 28 isotones, the structure of lowest 0+ excitations in deformed N ≈ 90 rare-earth nuclei, and quadrupole and octupole shape transitions in thorium isotopes. © 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd.


Wang Y.-J.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Shi X.-P.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Zhong Z.-C.,Southwest University
Russian Journal of Ecology | Year: 2013

Reproductive behaviour of clonal plants might change in contrasting habitats. In field and simulated experiments, we studied the relative importance of sexual reproduction and clonal propagation in rhizomatous herb, Iris japonica Thunb. in two forest habitats (BF, bamboo forest and OAFE, open area of forest edge), and effects of population origin (BF vs. OAFE) and environmental effects (shading) on sexual vs. clonal reproduction. In field experiment, the relative importance of reproduction in I. japonica populations was different in two habitats, which showed predominantly sexual reproduction in OAFE and clonal propagation in BF. In simulated experiment, the effect of population origin and light treatment (shading) was significant for reproduction of I. japonica. Clonal propagation was only influenced by population origin, and sexual reproduction was determined both by population origin and light treatment. A trade-off between two reproductive modes exhibited in both experiments. The trade-offs was more obvious in OAFE than in BF because sexual reproduction, resource and inter-specific competition obviously lacked in BF. The results indicated that the selective forces shaping reproduction of I. japonica in contrasting habitats might demonstrate pronounce adaptive population differentiation among forest habitats. Thus, I. japonica populations formed local differentiation by adaptation of reproduction to local heterogeneous forest habitats. © 2013 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.


Zhang C.,Southwest University
Yi chuan = Hereditas / Zhongguo yi chuan xue hui bian ji | Year: 2011

To study the relationship between the concentrations of INH B (Inhibin B), ACT A (Activin A), and FSH (Follicle stimulating hormone) in blood plasma and fecundity, Dazu black goat with high productivity and Sannen dairy goat with low productivity were used as experiment objects in this research. The concentrations of INH B, ACT A, and FSH in blood plasma were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in order to study the secretion rule of INH B, ACT A, and FSH during an estrus cycle of two goat breeds. The results indicated that the secretion of FSH showed a positive correlation with ACT A and a negative correlation with INH B. The mean concentration of FSH in Dazu black goat was higher than that in Sanen dairy goat during a estrous cycle. However, during the time from obviously estrus to ovulation, the mean concentration of FSH in Dazu black goat was significantly higher than that in Sannen dairy goat (0.01


Background: Huanglongbing (HLB) is arguably the most destructive disease for the citrus industry. HLB is caused by infection of the bacterium, Candidatus Liberibacter spp. Several citrus GeneChip studies have revealed thousands of genes that are up- or down-regulated by infection with Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus. However, whether and how these host genes act to protect against HLB remains poorly understood. Results: As a first step towards a mechanistic view of citrus in response to the HLB bacterial infection, we performed a comparative transcriptome analysis and found that a total of 21 Probesets are commonly up-regulated by the HLB bacterial infection. In addition, a number of genes are likely regulated specifically at early, late or very late stages of the infection. Furthermore, using Pearson correlation coefficient-based gene coexpression analysis, we constructed a citrus HLB response network consisting of 3,507 Probesets and 56,287 interactions. Genes involved in carbohydrate and nitrogen metabolic processes, transport, defense, signaling and hormone response were overrepresented in the HLB response network and the subnetworks for these processes were constructed. Analysis of the defense and hormone response subnetworks indicates that hormone response is interconnected with defense response. In addition, mapping the commonly up-regulated HLB responsive genes into the HLB response network resulted in a core subnetwork where transport plays a key role in the citrus response to the HLB bacterial infection. Moreover, analysis of a phloem protein subnetwork indicates a role for this protein and zinc transporters or zinc-binding proteins in the citrus HLB defense response. Conclusion: Through integrating transcriptome comparison and gene coexpression network analysis, we have provided for the first time a systems view of citrus in response to the Ca. Liberibacter spp. infection causing HLB. © 2013 Zheng and Zhao; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Song Y.,Southwest University | Song Y.,University of Iowa | Buettner G.R.,University of Iowa
Free Radical Biology and Medicine | Year: 2010

The quinone/semiquinone/hydroquinone triad (Q/SQ.-/H2Q) represents a class of compounds that has great importance in a wide range of biological processes. The half-cell reduction potentials of these redox couples in aqueous solutions at neutral pH, E°', provide a window to understanding the thermodynamic and kinetic characteristics of this triad and their associated chemistry and biochemistry in vivo. Substituents on the quinone ring can significantly influence the electron density "on the ring" and thus modify E°' dramatically. E°' of the quinone governs the reaction of semiquinone with dioxygen to form superoxide. At near-neutral pH the pKa's of the hydroquinone are outstanding indicators of the electron density in the aromatic ring of the members of these triads (electrophilicity) and thus are excellent tools to predict half-cell reduction potentials for both the one-electron and two-electron couples, which in turn allow estimates of rate constants for the reactions of these triads. For example, the higher the pKa's of H2Q, the lower the reduction potentials and the higher the rate constants for the reaction of SQ.- with dioxygen to form superoxide. However, hydroquinone autoxidation is controlled by the concentration of di-ionized hydroquinone; thus, the lower the pKa's the less stable H2Q to autoxidation. Catalysts, e.g., metals and quinone, can accelerate oxidation processes; by removing superoxide and increasing the rate of formation of quinone, superoxide dismutase can accelerate oxidation of hydroquinones and thereby increase the flux of hydrogen peroxide. The principal reactions of quinones are with nucleophiles via Michael addition, for example, with thiols and amines. The rate constants for these addition reactions are also related to E°'. Thus, pKa's of a hydroquinone and E°' are central to the chemistry of these triads. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.


Gao G.,Southwest University | Xu J.,Jilin University
Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression | Year: 2013

Brucellosis caused by Brucella spp. is a common zoonosis in many parts of the world. Humans are infected through contact with infected animals or their dirty products. Many mechanisms are needed for this successful infection, although the mechanisms are still unclear. Host immune response and some signaling molecules play an important role in the infection event. Bacterial pathogens operate by attacking crucial intracellular pathways or some important molecules in each of these pathways for survival in their hosts. The crucial components (molecules) of immunity or pathway play a critical role in the whole process of Brucella infection. Here we summarize the findings of the Brucella-host interactions' immune system and signaling molecular cascades involved in the TLR-initiated immune response to Brucella spp. infection. The paper serves to deepen our understanding of this complex process and to provide some clues regarding the discovery of drug targets for prevention and control. © 2013 Begell House, Inc.


Yu P.,Chongqing Normal University | Guo S.F.,Southwest University | Wang J.F.,Chongqing University
Materials and Design | Year: 2012

The structural evolution and mechanical properties of a Zr-based bulk metallic glass during superplastic gas pressure forming were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and nanoindentation measurements at the optimum temperature of 676. K under different stress states. It was found that the crystallized volume fraction of the deformed specimens with die aspect ratios of 1:1 and 3:2 are estimated to be 15% and 25%, respectively. The high resolution TEM results show that more particles at the nanometer level exist in the deformed specimen with the aspect ratio of 3:2. The nanoindentation tests further illustrate that the Young's modulus and hardness of the deformed specimens have increased, and the deformed sample with the aspect of 1:1 shows slightly smaller modulus and hardness. The nano-scale crystalline structure induced by gas pressure forming process is considered to be the main reason for the change of the mechanical properties, and in addition to thermal and strain energy. In addition, the structural evolution is also affected by the stress state in the process of gas pressure forming. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Zhou J.,Southwest University
Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Mathematik und Physik | Year: 2014

The aim of this paper is to investigate the asymptotic behavior of positive solutions to the following degenerate and singular parabolic system ut = (xαux)x + ∫a 0 v p1 dx - k1cq1, 0 < x < a, t > 0, vt = (xβvx)x + ∫a0vp2dx - k2vq2, 0 < x < a, t < 0, u(0,t) = u(a,t) = v(0,t) = v(a,t) = 0, t > 0, u(x,0) = u0(x) ≥ 0, v(x,0) = v0(x) ≥ 0, 0 ≤ x ≤ a, where the constants 0 ≤ α, β < 1, p1, p2, q1, q2, k1, k2 > 0. Under appropriate hypotheses, we first prove a local existence of classical solution by a regularization method. Then, we discuss the global existence and blowup of positive solutions by using a comparison principle. Finally, we give the precise blowup rate estimates and the uniform blowup profiles by using the method developed by Souplet [19]. © 2013 Springer Basel.


Hai L.,Southwest University
Wei sheng wu xue bao = Acta microbiologica Sinica | Year: 2011

To explore new resource from inactive actinomycete strains, we screened resistant mutant strains by ribosome engineering, and analyzed the products derived from the selected mutant strains. Three Gorges reservoir area-derived actinomycete strains including BD20, FJ3, WZ20 and FJ5 were used as initial strains, which showed no-antibacterial activities. The streptomycin-resistant (str(R)) mutants and rifampicin-resistant (rif(R)) mutants were screened by single colony isolation on streptomycin-containing plates and rifampicin-containing plates according to the method for obtaining drug-resistant mutants in ribosome engineering. The four initial strains and their str(R)-mutants and rif(R)-mutants were fermented in a liquid medium with the same composition. Mutants with anti-Staphylococcus aureus activity were obtained by paper chromatography. The components of fermentation broth were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Furthermore, FJ3 strain was identified by 16S rDNA and morphology. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of streptomycin and rifampicin for FJ3 was: 0.5 microg/mL and 110 microg/mL, respectively. Twenty-four strR-mutant strains and 20 rif(R)-mutant strains of FJ3 mutant strains were selected for bioassay. The result of the antibacterial activity screening demonstrated that six strains inhibited bacteria. Two strains (FJ3-2 and FJ3-6) were screened from the streptomycin-resistance mutants of inactive strain FJ3. The result of bioassay showed that the fermentation broth of FJ3-2 and FJ3-6 exhibited obvious anti-Staphylococcus aureus activity. The assay of paper chromatography showed that the active substance may be nucleic acid class antibiotic via using solvent system Doskochilova. Moreover, the results of HPLC and LC-MS exhibited that this substance may be thiolutin. Ribosome engineering for changing the secondary metabolic function of the inactive wild-type actinomycete strains was a feasible method for the acquirement of active mutant strains, which will be beneficial to exploit the new medical actinomycete strains.


Wang Z.H.,Lanzhou University | Xiang J.,Lanzhou University | Long W.H.,Lanzhou University | Li Z.P.,Southwest University
Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics | Year: 2015

The structure of low-lying excitation states of even-even N = 40 isotones is studied using a five-dimensional collective Hamiltonian with the collective parameters determined from the relativistic mean-field plus BCS method with the PC-PK1 functional in the particle-hole channel and a separable paring force in the particle-particle channel. The theoretical calculations can provide a reasonable description not only for the systematics of the low-lying states along the isotonic chain but also for the detailed structure of the spectroscopy in a single nucleus. We find a picture of spherical-oblate-prolate shape transition along the isotonic chain of N = 40 by analyzing the potential energy surfaces. The coexistence of low-lying excited states has also been shown to be a common feature in neutron-deficient N = 40 isotones. © 2015 IOP Publishing Ltd.


Nayak M.K.,Fisheries and Forestry | Nayak M.K.,Plant Biosecurity Cooperative Research Center | Collins P.J.,Fisheries and Forestry | Collins P.J.,Plant Biosecurity Cooperative Research Center | And 2 more authors.
Annual Review of Entomology | Year: 2014

Previously regarded as minor nuisance pests, psocids belonging to the genus Liposcelis now pose a major problem for the effective protection of stored products worldwide. Here we examine the apparent biological and operational reasons behind this phenomenon and why conventional pest management seems to be failing. We investigate what is known about the biology, behavior, and population dynamics of major pest species to ascertain their strengths, and perhaps find weaknesses, as a basis for a rational pest management strategy. We outline the contribution of molecular techniques to clarifying species identification and understanding genetic diversity. We discuss progress in sampling and trapping and our comprehension of spatial distribution of these pests as a foundation for developing management strategies. The effectiveness of various chemical treatments and the availability and potential of nonchemical control methods are critically examined. Finally, we identify research gaps and suggest future directions for research. © Copyright ©2014 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.


He R.,Southwest University | He R.,University of Nebraska - Lincoln | Zeng X.C.,University of Nebraska - Lincoln
Chemical Communications | Year: 2015

This study is motivated by the recent discovery of the first all-boron fullerene analogue, a B40 cluster with D2d point-group symmetry, dubbed borospherene (Nat. Chem., 2014, 6, 727). Insight into the electronic structures and spectral properties of B40 is timely and important to understand the borospherene and the transition from open-ended plate or ribbon-like structures to a hollow-cage structure at B40. Optimized geometries of borospherene B40 for both the ground state and the first excited state allow us to compute spectral properties including UV-vis absorption, infrared (IR) and Raman spectra. Highly resolved absorption and emission spectra are obtained, for the first time, for the fullerene at the time-dependent density-functional theory (TD-DFT) level within the Franck-Condon approximation and including the Herzberg-Teller effect. Assigned vibrational modes in absorption and emission spectra are readily compared with future spectroscopy measurements to distinguish the hollow-cage structure of D2d-B40 from other quasi-planar boron structures. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015.


Wen C.,Sichuan University | Xiaoming D.,Southwest University | Tao L.,Sichuan University | Tao Y.,Sichuan University
Knowledge-Based Systems | Year: 2014

Negative selection algorithm (NSA) is an important algorithm for the generation of artificial immune detectors. However, the randomly generated candidate detectors have to be compared with the whole self set to exclude self reactive detectors. The inefficiency of the comparing process seriously limited the application of immune algorithms. Therefore, a new negative selection algorithm GF-RNSA is proposed in the paper. Firstly, the feature space is divided into a number of grid cells, and then detectors are separately generated in each cell. As candidate detectors just need to compare with the self antigens located in the same cell rather than with the whole self set, the detector training can be more efficient. The theoretical analysis demonstrated that the time complexity of GF-RNSA is effectively reduced that the exponential relationships between self size and time complexity in traditional NSAs is eliminated. The experimental results showed that: not only the time cost of negative selection, but also the time cost of data preprocess and detection are reduced, while the detection accuracy is not much declined. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Zhang F.X.,Southwest University
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2014

This paper focus on the schedulability analysis of fixed priority servers. A number of fixed priority servers and their schedulability analysis are reviewed, these results and properties can be used for constructing systems with different timing constraints, where real-time tasks with hard deadlines and the soft aperiodic tasks can be scheduled in the same system. The aperiodic tasks in the fixed priority servers are not preemptable, and they are scheduled in a first-come first-served manner. There is only one server with many periodic or sporadic tasks in the system. The tasks and the server are scheduled by a fixed priority algorithm such as rate monotonic or deadline monotonic. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Zhang Y.,Southwest University
Wuli Xuebao/Acta Physica Sinica | Year: 2010

Periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) is investigated by micro-Raman spectrum and luminescence in a confocale microscopy configuration. It is observed that there exists a different in fluorescence strength between reversed domain and non reversed domain. And the Raman result shows that a Raman forbidden line occurs in the interface between the two domains. Results suggests a new non-destructive method to image polarisation gratings and provide important information about the mechanism involved in the polarisation reversal process. © 2010 Chin. Phys. Soc.


Shi J.,Nanyang Technological University | Guo C.X.,Nanyang Technological University | Chan-Park M.B.,Nanyang Technological University | Li C.M.,Nanyang Technological University | Li C.M.,Southwest University
Advanced Materials | Year: 2012

The performance of all-printed flexible electronics is still much lower than silicon devices and significantly limits their commercially viable production. All-printed flexible carbon nanotube (CNT) fin field-effect transistors (FETs) with dielectric-wrapped CNT network are demonstrated with remarkable performance, making it possible to mass-produce high-performance, all-printed flexible electronics on large-area substrates. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Wang S.H.,Southwest University
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2014

Identifying the most important node is a research hotspot in complex networks. For different types of network there are different methods to cope with. In this paper, we use five methods: degree method, betweenness method, node contraction method, node importance evaluation matrix method, K-shell decomposition method to identify the key node and compare the effects through SIR propagation model. In the simulation experiments, we use three artificial networks: random network (ER), small-world network(NW) and scale-free network(BA). The experimental results show that the nodes identified by node importance evaluation matrix method and K-shell method are more important. Besides, in BA the infection velocity is faster and the infection scale is larger than in ER and NW. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


We analyze the computational collision problem on a hash algorithm based on chaotic tent map, and then present an improvement of the original algorithm in this paper. More specifically, we utilize message extension to enhance the correlation of plaintexts in the message and aggregation operation to improve the correlation of sequences of message blocks, which significantly increase the sensitivity between message and hash values, thereby greatly resisting the collision. Finally, we evaluate the performance of the improved algorithm by computer simulation, and the results show that it can resist the computational collision and can satisfy the requirements of a more secure hash algorithm. © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.


Cui H.-J.,Chinese Institute of Urban Environment | Cui H.-J.,CAS Nanjing Institute of Soil Science | Wang M.K.,National Taiwan University | Fu M.-L.,Chinese Institute of Urban Environment | Ci E.,Southwest University
Journal of Soils and Sediments | Year: 2011

Purpose: Biochar amendments can alter phosphorus (P) availability in soils, though the influencing mechanisms are not yet fully understood. This work investigated the adsorption and desorption of P on ferrihydrite (F, a Fe-oxide widely distributed in surface environments) in order to evaluate the interactions between P and Fe-oxide in the absence or presence of biochar (F or ferrihydrite-biochar (F-B) interaction) in soils. Materials and methods: Biochar was produced by pyrolysis of rice straw at 600°C in steel ring furnaces. Two-line ferrihydrite was synthesized by dropwise addition of 1 mol L-1 KOH into Fe(NO3)3 solution until the pH reached 7-8 while stirring vigorously. An F-B complex was prepared under similar conditions, except that a mixture of 10 g biochar and the Fe(NO3)3 solution was used as the starting material instead of Fe(NO3)3 alone. A batch equilibration method was used to determine sorption or desorption of P. The mechanisms of P adsorption on F and F-B complex materials were discussed. Results and discussion: Adsorption of P on F decreased as the pH was increased from 3.0 to 10, but the adsorption capacity of F decreased by about 30-40% in the presence of biochar. The P chemisorption rates on F also decreased in the presence of biochar. The Freundlich model showed that the active adsorption sites on the surface of the F-B complex were energetically heterogeneous. The desorbability of adsorbed P on F was enhanced by combination with biochar. The mechanisms of P adsorption on F and F-B complex materials are different. Conclusions: The results showed that the amount and rate of P adsorption on the surface of ferrihydrite decreased with the presence of biochar, and the desorbability of adsorbed P on ferrihydrite can be enhanced when combined with biochar. Thus, the presence of biochar can decrease P adsorption on the Fe-oxides and enhance P availability in soils. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.


Fu A.,University of Massachusetts Amherst | Fu A.,Southwest University | Tang R.,University of Massachusetts Amherst | Hardie J.,University of Massachusetts Amherst | And 2 more authors.
Bioconjugate Chemistry | Year: 2014

The direct delivery of functional proteins into the cell cytosol is a key issue for protein therapy, with many current strategies resulting in endosomal entrapment. Protein delivery to the cytosol is challenging due to the high molecular weight and the polarity of therapeutic proteins. Here we review strategies for the delivery of proteins into cells, including cell-penetrating peptides, virus-like particles, supercharged proteins, nanocarriers, polymers, and nanoparticle-stabilized nanocapsules. The advantages and disadvantages of these approaches including cytosolar delivery are compared and contrasted, with promising pathways forward identified. (Figure Presented). © 2014 American Chemical Society.


Xiao Y.H.,Southwest University
Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) | Year: 2011

Overlap extension PCR (OE-PCR) has been widely used in site-directed mutagenesis. The original OE-PCR included two rounds of PCRs and required tedious steps to purify the first-round PCR product. By combining asymmetric PCR and overlap extension, a novel asymmetric overlap extension PCR (AOE-PCR) method has been developed. This method consists of two separate asymmetric PCRs of around 30 cycles and a single cycle of annealing and extension after directly mixing the first-round PCR products. AOE-PCR eliminates intermediate purification steps and amplification of wild-type template and requires fewer PCR cycles, and is, therefore, a much simpler and faster and more efficient site-directed mutagenesis method than the original OE-PCR approach.


Zhang H.-H.,Chongqing University | Xu H.-E.,TU Munich | Shen Y.-H.,Southwest University | Han M.-J.,Chongqing University | Zhang Z.,Chongqing University
Genome Biology and Evolution | Year: 2013

Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are a specific group of nonautonomous DNA transposons, and they are distributed in a wide range of hosts. However, the origin and evolutionary history of MITEs in eukaryotic genomes remain unclear. In this study, six MITEs were identified in the silkworm (Bombyx mori). Five elements are grouped into four known superfamilies of DNA transposons, and one represents a novel class of MITEs. Unexpectedly, six similar MITEs are also present in the triatomine bug (Rhodnius prolixus) that diverged from the common ancestor with the silkworm about 370 Ma. However, they show different lengths in two species, suggesting that they are different derivatives of progenitor transposons. Three direct progenitor transposons (Sola1, hobo/Ac/Tam [hAT], and Ginger2) are also identified in some other organisms, and several lines of evidence suggested that these autonomous elements might have been independently and horizontally transferred into their hosts. Furthermore, it is speculated that the twisted-wing parasites may be the candidate vectors for these horizontal transfers. The data presented in this study provide some new insights into the origin and evolutionary history of MITEs in the silkworm and triatomine bug. © The Author(s) 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.


Deng Y.,Northwestern Polytechnical University | Liu Y.,Southwest University | Zhou D.,Northwestern Polytechnical University
Mathematical Problems in Engineering | Year: 2015

A new initial population strategy has been developed to improve the genetic algorithm for solving the well-known combinatorial optimization problem, traveling salesman problem. Based on the k-means algorithm, we propose a strategy to restructure the traveling route by reconnecting each cluster. The clusters, which randomly disconnect a link to connect its neighbors, have been ranked in advance according to the distance among cluster centers, so that the initial population can be composed of the random traveling routes. This process is k-means initial population strategy. To test the performance of our strategy, a series of experiments on 14 different TSP examples selected from TSPLIB have been carried out. The results show that KIP can decrease best error value of random initial population strategy and greedy initial population strategy with the ratio of approximately between 29.15% and 37.87%, average error value between 25.16% and 34.39% in the same running time. © 2015 Yong Deng et al.


Zhong D.-Z.,Wuyi University | Wu Z.-M.,Southwest University
Wuli Xuebao/Acta Physica Sinica | Year: 2012

Based on the wave coupling theory of linear electrooptic effect in quasi-phase-matched periodical poled LiNbO 3 (PPLN), the control of the vector chaotic polarization of VCSEL output with external optical feedback by electro-optic modulation is numerically investigated. The investigation results show the polarization state of VCSEL output switching periodically with the applied external electronic field or the length of the crystal. The original chaotic polarized state of its output caused by different parameters of VCSEL can be converted into the other arbitrary chaotic polarized state. In particular, by controlling a certain applied external electronic field or the length of the crystal, any chaotic polarization model of VCSEL output can be converted into two complete identical linear chaotic polarization models (x̂ and ŷ polarizations). In the case, the energies of two linear chaotic polarization models can steadily realize balanced status. © 2012 Chinese Physical Society.


Li J.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | Liu Z.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | Wang D.,Southwest University | Cheng C.H.K.,Chinese University of Hong Kong
Biology of Reproduction | Year: 2011

The gonad-specific expression of a recently discovered Igf subtype (Igf3) in teleost has indicated the important role of this novel Igf in the reproductive functions of fish. In the present study using zebrafish as the model organism, we have further examined the gene expression patterns and the physiological role of Igf3 in the ovary. The igf3 gene in zebrafish was found to be alternatively spliced into two transcripts, with transcript variant 1 exclusively expressed in the gonads, and transcript variant 2 only expressed during early development. Using specific antibodies developed for zebrafish Igf3, both the Igf3 prepropeptide and the mature peptide forms of Igf3 were found to be predominantly expressed in the zebrafish ovary. Real-time PCR and in situ hybridization revealed that igf3 mRNA is relatively low in the early follicles, but is significantly increased after the mid-vitellogenic stage (midstage III), and is high in the full-grown follicles. In the full-grown follicles, igf3 mRNA was detected mainly in the somatic follicular cells with a low level of expression in the oocytes. Igf3 immunoreactivity was confined to the follicular cells only. The expression of igf3 was significantly up-regulated in both ovarian fragments and isolated follicles upon treatment with human chorionic gonadotropin in dose- and time-dependent manners. Treatment with 8-bromoadenosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate or 3-isobutyl-1- methylxanthine also up-regulated the expression of igf3 in full-grown follicles. Incubation of follicles with recombinant zebrafish Igf3 significantly enhanced oocyte maturation in time-, dose-, and stage-dependent manners. The actions of Igf3 could be blocked by cycloheximide, but not by actinomycin D. Taken together, these results support an important role of Igf3 in the ovarian functions of zebrafish, especially in oocyte maturation. © 2011 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.


Deng Y.,Southwest University | Deng Y.,Vanderbilt University
Journal of Information and Computational Science | Year: 2012

How to efficient modelling uncertain information is still an open issue. Many methods such as probability theory, fuzzy sets theory, Dempster-Shafer theory, and possibility theory, have been proposed. All the previous methods have some desirable properties while with some shortcomings. In this paper, a new method, named as D numbers is proposed to handle uncertain information. It can be seen a special kind of random sets. The arithmetic operations on D numbers are developed. An numerical example is used to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed method. © 2012 Binary Information Press.


Yin K.,Chongqing Normal University | Xiao Y.,Southwest University
Energy Procedia | Year: 2011

Ministry of Land has been highly concerned about energy -saving emission reduction and the land use impact on global change. In 2008 they had set up a special project on commonweal industry research named "the effect and control of carbon emission reduction in land use planning", which sought to build low-carbon land use structure and layout through creating land use planning technique on the basis of revealing the mechanism of land use carbon emission effect. This study evaluates preliminary research results which are the study on carbon emissions effects of land use in China. On this basis we proposed some suggestion: (a). We can reduce direct carbon emissions from the four aspects: the reduction of ground hardening, promoting green building, low-carbon infrastructure, thrift and intensive utilization of land; (b). The indirect carbon emissions are mainly from anthropogenic source, so we can use policy instruments to control; (c). Conservation of land carbon sinks is an essential part of low-carbon land use. © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.


Fu L.-N.,Southwest University
Letters in Organic Chemistry | Year: 2014

Novel optically active spiro-sultam-oxindole compounds with middle yields and excellent stereoselectivites were prepared through consecutive N-mesylation/cyclization reactions. The enantioselectivities of the reactants could transfer to the desired products completely. © 2014 Bentham Science Publishers.


Bao H.-B.,Southwest University | Cao J.-D.,Nanjing Southeast University | Cao J.-D.,King Abdulaziz University
Neural Networks | Year: 2015

This paper investigates the projective synchronization of fractional-order memristor-based neural networks. Sufficient conditions are derived in the sense of Caputo's fractional derivation and by combining a fractional-order differential inequality. Two numerical examples are given to show the effectiveness of the main results. The results in this paper extend and improve some previous works on the synchronization of fractional-order neural networks. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Zhuge H.,CAS Institute of Computing Technology | Zhuge H.,Southwest University | Zhang J.,CAS Institute of Computing Technology
Concurrency Computation Practice and Experience | Year: 2011

Knowing semantic links among resources is the basis of realizing machine intelligence over large-scale resources. Discovering semantic links among resources with limited human interference is a challenge issue. This paper proposes an approach to automatically discovering and predicting semantic links in a document set based on a model of document semantic link network (SLN). The approach has the following advantages: it supports probabilistic relational reasoning; SLNs and the relevant rules automatically evolve; and, it can adapt to the update of the adopted techniques. The approach can support cyber space applications, such as documentation recommendation and relational queries, on large documents. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Lei K.,Southwest University
Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Software Engineering and Service Sciences, ICSESS | Year: 2014

Because of the complexity of super high-dimensional complex functions with the large numbers of global and local optima, the general particle swarm optimization methods are slow speed on convergence and easy to be trapped in local optima. In this paper, a highly efficient particle swarm optimizer is proposed, which employ the adaptive strategy of inertia factor, global optimum, search space and velocity in each cycle to plan large-scale space global search and refined local search as a whole according to the fitness change of swarm in optimization process of the functions, and to quicken convergence speed, avoid premature problem, economize computational expenses, and obtain global optimum. We test the new algorithm and compare it with other published methods on several super high dimensional complex functions, the experimental results showed clearly the revised algorithm can rapidly converge at high quality solutions. © 2014 IEEE.


Lei K.,Southwest University
Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Software Engineering and Service Sciences, ICSESS | Year: 2014

The packing problem with the behavioral constraints is difficult to solve due to its NP-hard nature. Tabu search (TS) has strong global search ability but the convergence accuracy is low. particle swarm optimization (PSO) is quick in convergence, but likely to be premature at the initial stage. Considering both the advantages and disadvantages, a fast hybrid optimization algorithm based on improved TS and PSO for this problem is proposed, which employ the novel intensification search and diversification search balance strategy of TS and the refined search of PSO as a whole to plan large-scale space global search according to the fitness change, and to quicken convergence speed, avoid repeated search work, economize computational expenses, and obtain global optimum. The proposed algorithm is tested and compared it with other published methods on constrained layout examples, demonstrated that the revised algorithm is feasible and efficient. © 2014 IEEE.


You X.P.,Southwest University | Coles W.A.,University of California at San Diego | Hobbs G.B.,CSIRO | Manchester R.N.,CSIRO
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2012

The magnetic field of the solar wind near the Sun is very difficult to measure directly. Measurements of Faraday rotation of linearly polarized radio sources occulted by the solar wind provide a unique opportunity to estimate this magnetic field, and the technique has been widely used in the past. However, Faraday rotation is a path integral of the product of electron density and the projection of the magnetic field on the path. The electron density near the Sun can be measured by several methods, but it is quite variable. Here we show that it is possible to measure the path-integrated electron density and the Faraday rotation simultaneously at 6-10R ⊙ using millisecond pulsars as the linearly polarized radio source. By analysing the Faraday rotation measurements with and without the simultaneous electron density observations, we show that these observations significantly improve the accuracy of the magnetic field estimates. © 2012 The Authors Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society © 2012 RAS.


Huang T.,Texas A&M University at Qatar | Li C.,Chongqing University | Duan S.,Southwest University | Starzyk J.A.,Ohio University | Starzyk J.A.,Rzeszow University of Technology
IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems | Year: 2012

This paper focuses on the hybrid effects of parameter uncertainty, stochastic perturbation, and impulses on global stability of delayed neural networks. By using the Ito formula, Lyapunov function, and Halanay inequality, we established several mean-square stability criteria from which we can estimate the feasible bounds of impulses, provided that parameter uncertainty and stochastic perturbations are well-constrained. Moreover, the present method can also be applied to general differential systems with stochastic perturbation and impulses. © 2012 IEEE.


Li L.,Chongqing University | Xu J.,Chongqing University | Lei J.,Chongqing University | Zhang J.,Chongqing University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Materials Chemistry A | Year: 2015

Nickel hydroxide (Ni(OH)2) is considered to be a promising alternative to the expensive and toxic RuO2 electrode material for high-performance supercapacitors; however, the fabrication method and electrochemical performance of suitable Ni(OH)2 structures are unsatisfactory. In the present work, a facile, cost-effective green method is developed to in situ fabricate Ni(OH)2 hexagonal platelets on Ni foam as a binder-free supercapacitor electrode with high performance. The Ni(OH)2 hexagonal platelets are self-grown on three-dimensional (3D) Ni foam by a one-step hydrothermal treatment of Ni foam in a 15 wt% H2O2 aqueous solution without the use of nickel salts, acids, bases, or post-treatments. The as-prepared Ni(OH)2 hexagonal platelets-Ni foam (HNF) electrode can be used directly as a supercapacitor electrode material, thereby avoiding the need for binders and conducting agents. The Ni(OH)2 hexagonal platelets demonstrate high capacitance (2534 F g-1 at a scan rate of 1 mV s-1) and excellent cycling stability (97% capacitance retention after 2000 cycles at a scan rate of 50 mV s-1). The fabrication method developed here has the significant advantage of low-cost, facile, green, and additive-free processing, and it is therefore a promising route for preparing self-supported metal (hydr)oxide electrodes for high-performance supercapacitors and other energy-storage devices. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015.


Xu M.,University of Texas at Austin | Xu M.,Southwest University | Xiao P.,University of Texas at Austin | Stauffer S.,University of Texas at Austin | And 3 more authors.
Chemistry of Materials | Year: 2014

A single-phase crystalline Na3V2O2(PO 4)2F material has been prepared by the solvothermal method. Partial ion exchange between Na and Li was then used to form Na 3-xLixV2O2(PO4) 2F. The two materials were studied as positive cathodes by physical characterization, electrochemical measurements, and simulation. With density functional theory calculations, four stable phases of NaxV 2O2(PO4)2F were identified at the Na concentrations of x = 0, 1, 2, 3. The transitions between these phases give rise to three values of the Na chemical potential and three voltage plateaus for Na intercalation. The lower two voltages, corresponding to removal of the first two Na per formula unit, agree well with the corresponding experimental electrochemical measurements. Removal of the third Na, however, is not observed experimentally, because it is outside of the (4.8 V) stability window of the electrolyte. This observation is consistent with our calculations that show that the last Na will only be removed at 5.3 V, owing to the stability of the V-O bonding state and a strong Coulomb attraction between the Na and the anions. Computational modifications of the material were considered to activate the third Na with an oxidation energy in the electrolyte stability window, including swapping the anions from O and F to less-electronegative Cl and Br. The most promising material, Na3V2Cl2(PO 4)2F, is found to be stable and a good candidate as a Na cathode because all three Na ions can be reversibly removed without significant reduction in the cell potential or energy density of the material. Finally, we show that Li can partially replace Na and that these Li intercalate into the material with a higher rate owing to a lower diffusion barrier as compared to Na. © 2014 American Chemical Society.


Zhang H.J.,Chongqing University | Zhang D.F.,Chongqing University | Ma C.H.,Chongqing University | Guo S.F.,Southwest University
Materials Letters | Year: 2013

The current work presents the room-temperature mechanical properties and the corrosion resistance in 3.5% NaCl solution of conventional casting and rapidly solidified Mg-6Zn-Mn (ZM61) magnesium alloys. It is found that the mechanical properties of rapidly solidified ZM61 alloy are dramatically enhanced, with the ultimate strength increased from 335 MPa to 460 MPa (37% increment), which can be attributed to the formation of the refined dendrite microstructure and the strengthening MgZn2 phase distributed within the matrix. Furthermore, the rapidly solidified ZM61 alloy performs better in corrosion resistance than the extruded ZK60 and pure Mg alloys, suggesting that the rapid-solidification technique is a promising way to improve the strength and corrosion resistance of magnesium alloy for the structural and corrosive media utilization. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Ma X.,Xinjiang University | Yang X.,Xinjiang University | Li Q.,Xinjiang University | Guo S.,Southwest University
Journal of Alloys and Compounds | Year: 2013

Magnetic Fe80xNixP13C 7 (x = 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 at.%) bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) with the diameters up to 2.5 mm were prepared by the combination method of fluxing treatment and J-quenching technique. The effect of Ni substitution for Fe on the glass formation ability (GFA), thermal stability, mechanical properties and magnetic properties has been systematically investigated. It was found that the partial substitution of Ni for Fe can enhance the GFA of Fe 80P13C7 alloy, while excessive substitution will lead to the degradation of the GFA. The saturation magnetization of Fe 80xNixP13C7 (x = 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 at.%) BMGs gradually decrease from 1.47 T to 1.15 T with increasing Ni content from x = 0 to x = 30, and the Curie temperature firstly increases with the Ni content and then deceases when × > 20. More importantly, the quaternary monolithic Fe60Ni20P13C7 glassy alloy shows a significant plastic strain of more than 10%, which is the largest one reported to date for Fe-based BMGs. The potential beneficial effects of Ni in enhancing the GFA and the compressive plasticity of the FePC alloy system are discussed. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Yang X.,Xinjiang University | Ma X.,Xinjiang University | Li Q.,Xinjiang University | Li Q.,Central South University | Guo S.,Southwest University
Journal of Alloys and Compounds | Year: 2013

Bulk magnetic Fe80-xMoxP 13C7 (x = 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 at.%) glassy alloys were successfully prepared by the fluxing technique and J-quenching technique. The effect of Mo substitution for Fe on the glass formation ability (GFA), thermal stability, mechanical properties and magnetic properties has been studied systematically. It was found that the substitution of a small amount of Mo for Fe can dramatically enhance the GFA, which in turn, the critical maximum diameter for fully glass formation reached to 5.5 mm for x = 3 and 6.0 mm for x = 6, respectively. However, excessive substitution will promote the formation of Fe2Mo3 competition crystalline phase leading to the degradation of the GFA. Furthermore, the substitution of proper content of Mo for Fe can obviously enhance the mechanical properties of the present Fe-based alloys, which can be identified that the current FeMoPC bulk metallic glass possesses a high fracture strength (over 3000 MPa) as well as a large room temperature plasticity (above 5%). In addition, the Mo doping FePC bulk metallic glasses exhibit good soft magnetic properties with a relatively high saturation magnetization of over 1.0 T at room temperature. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Chen H.,Southwest University | Cao F.-G.,Massey University | Signal A.I.,Massey University
Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics | Year: 2010

The strange and antistrange quark distributions of the nucleon are less constrained by experimental data than the non-strange quarksea. The combination of light quark sea distributions, Δ(x) = d̄(x)+ū(x)-s(x)- s̄(x), originates mainly from non-perturbative processes and can be calculated using non-perturbative models of the nucleon. We have calculated Δ(x) using the meson cloud model, which, when combined with the relatively well-known non-strange light antiquark distributions obtained from global analysis of the available experimental data, enables us to make new estimatesof the total strange sea distributions of the nucleon and the strange sea suppression factor. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd.


Shen Y.,Southwest University
26th Chinese Control and Decision Conference, CCDC 2014 | Year: 2014

For multiple self-oscillations in sliding mode control (SMC) caused by different initial values of state variables or external disturbance, eliminating undesired limit cycles by rational tuning control system parameters. Firstly, estimating the number and stability of limit cycles by the generalized describing function (DF) approach; then adjusting the open loop phase-frequency characteristic by parameters tuning to eliminate undesired limit cycles; finally, the simulation results show the effectiveness of the chattering adjusting method. © 2014 IEEE.


Qi X.,Southwest University
Molecular genetics and genomics : MGG | Year: 2014

Anthocyanins are natural food colorants produced by plants that play important roles in their growth and development. Mulberry fruits are rich in anthocyanins, which are the most important active components of mulberry and have many potentially beneficial effects on human health. The study of anthocyanin biosynthesis will bring benefits for quality improvement and industrial exploration of mulberry fruits. In the present study, nine putative genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis in mulberry plants were identified and cloned. Sequence analysis revealed that the mulberry anthocyanin biosynthetic genes were conserved and had counterparts in other plants. Spatial transcriptional analysis showed detectable expression of eight of these genes in different tissues. The results of expression and UPLC analyses in two mulberry cultivars with differently colored fruit indicated that anthocyanin concentrations correlated with the expression levels of genes associated with anthocyanin biosynthesis including CHS1, CHI, F3H1, F3'H1, and ANS during the fruit ripening process. The present studies provide insight into anthocyanin biosynthesis in mulberry plants and may facilitate genetic engineering for improvement of the anthocyanin content in mulberry fruit.


Lei X.,Southwest University
2012 5th International Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Informatics, BMEI 2012 | Year: 2012

We have recently proposed a electromagnetic brain imaging based on multiple fMRI spatial priors: NEtwork-based SOurce Imaging (NESOI) [Lei et al. 'fMRI Functional Networks for EEG Source Imaging,' Human Brain Mapping, vol. 32, pp. 1141-1160, 2011]. In our previous method, the spatial priors is extracted from the fMRI dataset on the same subject within the same paradigm. In this paper, we present a resting-state NEtwork-based SOurce Imaing (rsNESOI), which includes fMRI priors without extra fMRI scan. While simultaneous electroencephalogram (EEG) recording within fMRI scanner is available currently, rsNESOI is more convenient for EEG source reconstruction. The real data test suggests that rsNESOI is distinctly valuable in improvement of distributed source localization in contrast to the previous methods. © 2012 IEEE.


Liao X.,Southwest University | Ji L.,Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications
Neurocomputing | Year: 2014

In this paper, we focus on investigating group consensus of dynamical multi-agent networks via pinning scheme. The topology of the network is a general digraph, which needs neither being symmetric nor containing a spanning directed tree, and some criteria are proposed to guarantee the realization of group consensus instead of relying on other conservative assumptions presented by majority of the relevant research works, such as in-degree balance. In addition, it is interesting to find that the nodes with zero in-degree should be pinned first based on the property of M-matrix. Furthermore, an adaptive pinning control approach is developed to obtain the appropriate control gains. Finally, the effectiveness and correctness of our theoretical findings are verified by some numerical simulations. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Liu R.,Jining University | Liu R.,Southwest University
Computational and Theoretical Chemistry | Year: 2013

Periodic density functional theory (DFT) calculations using plane waves were performed to systematically investigate the stable adsorption of H2O on Au(111) surface and the corresponding dehydrogenated reaction. The equilibrium configuration on top, bridge, and hollow (fcc and hcp) site were determined by relaxation of the system. The adsorptions of H2O on top site and OH on bridge site are favorable on Au(111) surface, while the adsorption of O on hollow(fcc) site is preferred. The adsorbates are adsorbed on the gold surface due to the interaction between p orbital of adsorbates and d orbital of gold atoms, and the interaction is more evident on the first layer than that on any others. We also investigated the dissociation reaction of H2O on clean and oxygen-covered gold surface. The results show that the hydrogen atom dissociating from H2O need the energy of 255.54kJ/mol on clean gold surface, while the dissociating energy decreases to 44.61kJ/mol with the aid of adsorbed O atom (Oads). These phenomena indicate that the dehydrogenated reaction energy barrier on the pre-covered oxygen gold surface is lower and Oads can promote the dehydrogenation of H2O. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Jackson T.,Southwest University
European journal of pain (London, England) | Year: 2012

This experiment investigated the impact of brief training in acceptance versus distraction-based pain management on experimental pain tolerance in conditions of lower and higher potential threats. One hundred fifty-one pain-free Chinese adults (93 women, 58 men) randomly assigned to acceptance, distraction or pain education control conditions engaged in a cold pressor test (CPT) after reading validated orienting information designed to prime either the safety of the CPT (lower threat) or symptoms and damaging effects of exposure to extreme cold (higher threat). A 2 (threat level) × 3 (training strategy) analysis of covariance, controlling for pre-intervention pain tolerance and education, indicated the acceptance group was more pain tolerant than other training groups. This main effect was qualified by an interaction with threat level: in the lower threat condition, acceptance group participants were more pain tolerant than peers in the distraction or pain education groups while no training group differences were found in the higher threat condition. Supplementary analyses identified catastrophizing as a partial mediator of training group differences in pain tolerance. In summary, findings suggested acceptance-based coping is superior to distraction as a means of managing experimental pain, particularly when pain sensations are viewed as comparatively low in potential threat. © 2011 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters.


Liu J.,Hunan University | Wang C.,Hunan University | Jiang Y.,Hunan University | Hu Y.,Hunan University | And 7 more authors.
Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2013

Fluorescence anisotropy (FA) is a reliable, sensitive, and robust assay approach for determination of many biological targets. However, it is generally not applicable for the assay of small molecules because their molecular masses are relatively too small to produce observable FA value changes. To address this issue, we report herein the development of a FA signal amplification strategy by employing graphene oxide (GO) as the signal amplifier. Because of the extraordinarily larger volume of GO, the fluorophore exhibits very high polarization when bound to GO. Conversely, low polarization is observed when the fluorophore is dissociated from the GO. As proof-of-principle, the approach was applied to FA detection of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) with a fluorescent aptamer. The aptamer exhibits very high polarization when bound to GO, while the FA is greatly reduced when the aptamer complexes with ATP, which exhibits a maximum signal change of 0.316 and a low detection limit of 100 nM ATP in buffer solution. Successful application of this strategy has been demonstrated that it can be constructed either in a "signal-off" or in a "signal-on" detection scheme. Moreover, because FA is less affected by environmental interferences, FA measurements could be conveniently used to directly detect as low as 1.0 μM adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in human serum. The universality of the approach could be achieved to detect an array of biological analytes when complemented with the use of functional DNA structures. © 2013 American Chemical Society.


Le Cook B.,Harvard University | Wayne G.F.,Harvard University | Kafali E.N.,Harvard University | Liu Z.,Southwest University | And 2 more authors.
JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association | Year: 2014

IMPORTANCE: Significant progress has been made in reducing the prevalence of tobacco use in the United States. However, tobacco cessation efforts have focused on the general population rather than individuals with mental illness, who demonstrate greater rates of tobacco use and nicotine dependence. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether declines in tobacco use have been realized among individuals with mental illness and examine the association between mental health treatment and smoking cessation. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Use of nationally representative surveys of noninstitutionalized US residents to compare trends in smoking rates between adults with and without mental illness and across multiple disorders (2004-2011 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey [MEPS]) and to compare rates of smoking cessation among adults with mental illness who did and did not receive mental health treatment (2009-2011 National Survey of Drug Use and Health [NSDUH]). The MEPS sample included 32 156 respondents with mental illness (operationalized as reporting severe psychological distress, probable depression, or receiving treatment for mental illness) and 133 113 without mental illness. The NSDUH sample included 14 057 lifetime smokers with mental illness. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Current smoking status (primary analysis; MEPS sample) and smoking cessation, operationalized as a lifetime smoker who did not smoke in the last 30 days (secondary analysis; NSDUH sample). RESULTS: Adjusted smoking rates declined significantly among individuals without mental illness (19.2%[95%CI, 18.7-19.7%] to 16.5%[95%CI, 16.0%-17.0%]; P < .001) but changed only slightly among those with mental illness (25.3%[95%CI, 24.2%-26.3%] to 24.9%[95% CI, 23.8%-26.0%]; P = .50), a significant difference in difference of 2.3%(95%CI, 0.7%-3.9%) (P = .005). Individuals with mental illness who received mental health treatment within the previous year were more likely to have quit smoking (37.2%[95%CI, 35.1%-39.4%]) than those not receiving treatment (33.1%[95%CI, 31.5%-34.7%]) (P = .005). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Between 2004 and 2011, the decline in smoking among individuals with mental illness was significantly less than among those without mental illness, although quit rates were greater among those receiving mental health treatment. This suggests that tobacco control policies and cessation interventions targeting the general population have not worked as effectively for persons with mental illness. Copyright 2014 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.


Chen A.,Southwest University | Bailey K.,Iowa State University | Tiernan B.N.,Iowa State University | West R.,Iowa State University
International Journal of Psychophysiology | Year: 2011

Two sources of interference (i.e., stimulus and response) are believed to contribute to the Stroop interference effect. Some neurophysiological evidence reveals that different neuro-cognitive processes are related to stimulus and response interference in the Stroop and related tasks. However, other evidence indicates that similar patterns of neural recruitment may be associated with these two types interference. Given these discrepant findings, the current study used a 2-1 mapping Stroop task in combination with event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to examine the neural correlates of stimulus and response interference. The response time data revealed that stimulus interference was constant across the response time distribution. In contrast, response interference increased in magnitude across the response time distribution for all but the slowest trials. The stimulus-locked ERP data revealed that early and later modulations of the medial frontal negativity may be sensitive to response interference, but not stimulus interference. These data also revealed that the conflict slow potential (SP) over the parietal and right lateral frontal regions was sensitive to both stimulus and response interference; in contrast, the conflict SP over the left lateral frontal region was only sensitive to response interference. Together the stimulus- and response-locked data lead to the conclusion that the parietal region is primarily involved in response selection in the Stroop task, and that the lateral frontal regions may participate in response monitoring and conflict adaption. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Zhang B.,Fuzhou University | Liu B.,Fuzhou University | Liao J.,Southwest University | Chen G.,Fuzhou University | Tang D.,Fuzhou University
Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2013

A novel homogeneous immunoassay protocol was designed for quantitative monitoring of small molecular biotoxin (brevetoxin B, PbTx-2, as a model) by using target-responsive cargo release from polystyrene microsphere-gated mesoporous silica nanocontainer (MSN). Initially, monoclonal mouse anti-PbTx-2 capture antibody was covalently conjugated onto the surface of MSN (mAb-MSN), and the electroactive cargo (methylene blue, MB) was then trapped in the pores of mAb-MSN by using aminated polystyrene microspheres (APSM) based on the electrostatic interaction. Upon addition of target PbTx-2, the positively charged APSM was displaced from the negatively charged mAb-MSN because of the specific antigen-antibody reaction. Thereafter, the molecular gate was opened, and the trapped methylene blue was released from the pores. The released methylene blue could be monitored by using a square wave voltammetry (SWV) in a homemade microelectrochemical detection cell. Under optimal conditions, the SWV peak current increased with the increasing of PbTx-2 concentration in the range from 0.01 to 3.5 ng mL-1 with a detection limit (LOD) of 6 pg mL -1 PbTx-2 at the 3Sblank criterion. Intra- and interassay coefficients of variation with identical batches were ≤6% and 9.5%, respectively. The specificity and sample matrix interfering effects were acceptable. The analysis in 12 spiked seafood samples showed good accordance between results obtained by the developed immunoassay and a commercialized enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Importantly, the target-responsive controlled release system-based electrochemical immunoassay (CRECIA) offers a promising scheme for the development of advanced homogeneous immunoassay without the sample separation and washing procedure. © 2013 American Chemical Society.


Song E.,Southwest University | Xu L.,Huazhong University of Science and Technology
Journal of Chromatographic Science | Year: 2013

In the present study, a rapid fingerprint analysis of Ligusticum chuanxiong (L. chuanxiong) was developed based on ultra-fast liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection (UFLC-DAD). The analysis time was shortened from approximately 75 min on conventional high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to 40 min on UFLC. This method was validated in terms of stability [<4.40% relative standard deviation (RSD)], precision (<4.26% RSD) and repeatability (<2.82% RSD). Six batches of L. chuanxiong from different sources were analyzed by UFLC-DAD, and the results were systematically processed using professional analytical software that was recommended by the State Food and Drug Administration of China. The similarities of these six batches of samples were evaluated. Compared to conventional HPLC, the UFLC-DAD method was fast and sensitive and consumed less solvent, and is widely applicable for quality monitoring of traditional Chinese medicine. © 2013 The Author.


In this study, a new local region-based active contour model in a variational level set formulation for ultrasound (US) image segmentation is proposed. An energy function based on the region-scalable fitting (RSF) term and the local Bhattacharyya distance term is formulated. The RSF term is dominant near object boundaries and responsible for attracting the contour towards object boundaries, and the local Bhattacharyya distance term including local region statistical information improves the robustness of the proposed method. The model can handle blurry boundaries and noise problems. In addition, the regularity of a level set function is intrinsically preserved by the level set regularisation term to ensure accurate computation. A level set function is used to define the partition of image domain into two disjoined regions. Experimental results demonstrate the desirable performance of the proposed method for synthetic images with different levels of noise and US images with weak boundaries and noise. © The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2012.


Sports as one of important parts in current social culture development, on which government effects are indispensible, public sports service form is a form that government mainly implements sports functions. The paper mainly carries out statement evaluation from public sports service, financial investment, government functions positioning and other directions, applies factor analysis's clustering analysis to define three levels indicators evaluation system targeted main factors of the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China involved from them, and gets their importance rank, which provides a reference for future government functions' transformation and public sports service research aspects. © 2014 Trade Science Inc. - INDIA.


Tao Y.,Southwest University
Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications | Year: 2015

Abstract General equilibrium equations in economics play the same role with many-body Newtonian equations in physics. Accordingly, each solution of the general equilibrium equations can be regarded as a possible microstate of the economic system. Since Arrow's Impossibility Theorem and Rawls' principle of social fairness will provide a powerful support for the hypothesis of equal probability, then the principle of maximum entropy is available in a just and equilibrium economy so that an income distribution will occur spontaneously (with the largest probability). Remarkably, some scholars have observed such an income distribution in some democratic countries, e.g. USA. This result implies that the hypothesis of equal probability may be only suitable for some "fair" systems (economic or physical systems). From this meaning, the non-equilibrium systems may be "unfair" so that the hypothesis of equal probability is unavailable. © 2015 Published by Elsevier B.V.


Liu S.,Southwest University
Journal of Mathematical Physics | Year: 2015

For an arbitrary p ∈ N, a new and computable method is proposed, which can, through a recursive algorithm, calculate the eigenvalues of the string constraint operators corresponding to the t-function of the p-reduced Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (KP) hierarchy. It shows that not all of these eigenvalues equal 0. In this process, a connection between the W algebra and the p-reduced W algebra is introduced, which can be used to calculate the algebraic structure of the p-reduced W algebra. And it is proved that the p-reduced W algebra includes a Virasoro algebra as its subalgebra. In addition, based on the obtained eigenvalues, it is also showed that the t-function of the p-reduced KP hierarchy constrained by the string equation is a vacuum vector for a Virasoro algebra for any p ∈ N. When p = 2, it is coincident with the classical fact that the t-function of the Korteweg-de Vries hierarchy constrained by the string equation is a vacuum vector for a Virasoro algebra. © 2015 AIP Publishing LLC.


Zhang W.,Southwest University
Journal of Computational and Theoretical Nanoscience | Year: 2016

The well known LLE, i.e., Locally Linear Embedding, is a famous manifold learning algorithm. It has been extensively applied in many real-world problems in recent years. Successful applications of LLE rely on the associated adjacency graph, which is generally constructed by κ-nearest neighbor (κ-NN) method. Since the κ-NN method requires a fixed size of the neighborhood for each data point on the manifolds, it may result in a bad adjacency graph, especially in the case that multiple manifolds intersect each other. This paper proposes an improved locally linear embedding algorithm, called iLLE. To construct the proper adjacency graph, the iLLE combines the sparsity property of κ-norm with convex hull constraint. It can be formed as an optimization program and a model of recurrent neural networks is designed to solve it. Rigorous mathematical analysis is provided to show that the network model can efficiently solve this optimization program, and a suitable adjacency graph can be constructed thereafter. Unlike the original LLE, the iLLE can not only select the neighborhood for each point adaptively, but also find the nonlinear intrinsic structures among multiple manifolds. Experiments demonstrate that the iLLE achieves significant improvements over the original LLE. It also gives a good example of applying recurrent neural networks to manifold learning problems. © 2016 American Scientific Publishers All rights reserved.


Lan C.,University of Electronic Science and Technology of China | Gong J.,Hohai University | Jiang Y.,Southwest University
Journal of Alloys and Compounds | Year: 2013

String-like ZnO/SnO nanowire/nanosheet nano-heterostructures were synthesized by a two-stage vapor transport and condensation method. ZnO nanowire backbones and SnO nanosheets were single crystalline. Several pieces of SnO nanosheets were threaded by a single ZnO nanowire, forming string-like nanoheterostructures. A preliminary growth model was proposed to explain the formation of the nano-heterostructures. PL measurements showed the band related emission of ZnO had a blue shift for ZnO/SnO nano-heterostructures, which was due to the doping of Sn in ZnO nanowires. A broad emission ranging from 450 to 730 nm of the ZnO/SnO nano-heterostructures might be related to defects in both ZnO nanowires and SnO nanosheets. This special nanostructure may find applications in gas sensors, photodetectors, etc. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Zhou J.,Southwest University
Acta Mathematica Scientia | Year: 2013

We consider the growth rate and quenching rate of the following problem with singular nonlinearity ut=δu-u-λ,ut=δu-u-μ,(x,t)∈ℝn×(0,∞), u(x,0)=u0(x),u(x,0)=u0(x),x∈ℝn for any n≥ 1, where λ,μ 0 are constants. More precisely, for any u0(x), v0(x) satisfying A11(1+|x|2)α11≤u0≤A12(1+|x|2)α12,A21(1+|x|2)α21≤u0≤A22(1+|x|2)α22 for some constants α12 ≥ α11, α22 ≥ α21, A12 ≥ A11, A22 ≥ A21, the global solution (u,v) exists and satisfies A11(1+|x|2+b1t)α11≤u≤A12(1+|x|2+b2t)α12,A21(1+|x|2+b1t)a21≤u≤A22(1+|x|2+b2t)α22 for some positive constants b1,b2 (see Theorem 3.3 for the parameters Aij, αij, bi, i,j = 1,2). When (1-λ)(1-λμ) > 0, (1-λ)(1-λμ) > 0 and 02nA11-λ1-λμ,A1-μ>2nA21-μ1-λμ and 0


Jackson L.A.,Michigan State University | Wang J.-L.,Southwest University
Computers in Human Behavior | Year: 2013

This research compared social networking site (SNS) use in a collectivistic culture, China, and an individualistic culture, the United States (US). Over 400 college student participants from a Southwestern University in Chongqing, China, and 490 college participants from a Midwestern University in the US completed a survey about their use of SNSs-time spent, importance and motives for use. They then rated themselves on a variety of personal characteristics, namely the Big Five Personality factors, Loneliness, Shyness and Life Satisfaction. Results revealed cultural differences in SNS use. US participants spent more time in SNS, considered them to be more important and had more friends in SNSs than did Chinese participants. Self-ratings of personal characteristics also differed in the two cultures as did the personal characteristics that predicted SNS use. In general, personal characteristics were less effective in predicting SNS use in China than in the US. Findings suggest that in collectivistic cultures the importance of the family, friends and one's groups may be partly responsible for Chinese participants' lesser use of SNSs, whereas in individualistic cultures the importance of self and having more but less close and enduring friendships may be partly responsible for US participants' greater use of SNSs. Personal characteristics predicted SNS use in both cultures but were stronger predictors in an individualistic culture than in a collectivistic, consistent with the emphasis on self in the former and on family, friends and one's groups in the latter. Future research is needed to identify whether cultural values always take precedence over personal characteristics and motives in determining behavior in the virtual world. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Liu S.,Wuhan Polytechnic University | Zou Q.,Southwest University
Journal of Computational Information Systems | Year: 2012

The existence of self-similarity in realistic web server workloads has been demonstrated by both the visual and statistical evidences in our previous work. In this paper, we mainly implement an I/O workload model in which the inputs are the measured properties of the available trace data. Experimental results show that this model can more accurately characterize the complex arrival behaviors of real web server than the conventional models such as Poisson and Norm, particularly the heavy-tail characteristics. © 2012 Binary Information Press.


Guo S.-F.,Southwest University | Shen Y.,Huazhong University of Science and Technology
Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China (English Edition) | Year: 2011

Bulk metallic glass (BMG) rods Fe 71Mo 5-xNb xP 12C 10B 2 (x=1, 2, 3, 4 and 5) with diameter of 1 or 2 mm were synthesized by copper mold casting. The effects of Nb substitution for Mo on the structure, thermal and mechanical properties of Fe 71Mo 5-xNb xP 12C 10B 2 alloys were studied by X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry and compressive testing. The results show that the substitution of Nb for Mo leads to a decreased glass forming ability, but with plasticity of 1.0, the fracture strength of Fe 71Mo 2Nb 3P 12C 10B 2 alloy increases up to 4.0 GPa. The improvement of the fracture strength is discussed in terms of the enhancement of atomic bonding nature and the favorite formation of a network-like structure due to the substitution of Nb for Mo. © 2011 The Nonferrous Metals Society of China.


Mu R.-Z.,Southwest University
Acta Crystallographica Section E: Structure Reports Online | Year: 2012

In the title compound, C 19H 17N 3O, the triazole and benzene rings adopt a Z configuration with respect to the C=C bond. The phenyl and benzene rings form dihedral angles of 66.20 (9) and 14.36 (9)°, respectively, with the triazole ring. The dihedral angle between the phenyl and benzene rings is 52.64 (8)°.


Yang Y.,Southwest University
BioTechnology: An Indian Journal | Year: 2014

Rural sports as an important part of Chinese sports, moment affects the overall development of China's sports. At present, China's rural sports there are many problems, lack of investment, the structure is not sound, sports consciousness is not thorough and so on are the factors restricting its development, thus the study of rural sports optimization countermeasures is the key of the development of China's rural sports. In this paper, using the comparative method and goal programming method made a comprehensive analysis of the rural sports in China. First Chinese rural sports and city were analyzed, from the urban and rural residents in the sports fitness awareness, by way of fitness education, as well as the three aspects of the organization of the sports activities, the study of the gap between urban and rural sports and analysis of urban and rural residents satisfaction for sports activities, to discover: rural sports relative to the urban sports development is slow, there is a larger gap between urban and rural sports development. Secondly, on this basis, quantitative research by using the goal programming is most suited to China's rural sports development of sports activities, through the establishment of objective function, calculated the optimal solution, further concluded: badminton, ballroom and square dance is the most suitable for China's rural sports development projects, and rural residents on their satisfaction is higher. © Trade Science Inc.


Ren W.,Southwest University | Ren W.,Beijing Normal University | Zhao N.,Beijing Normal University | Chen L.,Beijing Normal University | Zi G.,Beijing Normal University
Inorganic Chemistry Communications | Year: 2013

Treatment of the chloride metallocene [η5-1,3-(Me 3C)2C5H3]2ThCl 2 or [η5-1,2,4-(Me3C)3C 5H2]2ThCl2 with 2 equiv of PhCH 2K in diethyl ether at room temperature gives, after recrystallization from a benzene solution, the benzyl metallocenes [η5-1,3-(Me3C)2C5H 3]2Th(CH2Ph)2 (1) and [η5-1,2,4-(Me3C)3C5H 2]2Th(CH2Ph)2 (2), respectively, in good yields. Complexes 1 and 2 have been characterized by various spectroscopic techniques, elemental analyses, and X-ray diffraction analyses. They are active catalysts for the polymerization of rac-lactide, leading to the atactic polylactides with high molecular weights and narrow molecular weight distributions. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Zou X.,Southwest University | Zou X.,Ohio State University | Zhou Y.,Ohio State University | Zhou Y.,Boprocessing Innovative Company | Yang S.-T.,Ohio State University
Biotechnology and Bioengineering | Year: 2013

Malic acid is a dicarboxylic acid widely used in the food industry and also a potential C4 platform chemical that can be produced from biomass. However, microbial fermentation for direct malic acid production is limited by low product yield, titer, and productivity due to end-product inhibition. In this work, a novel process for malic acid production from polymalic acid (PMA) fermentation followed by acid hydrolysis was developed. First, a PMA-producing Aureobasidium pullulans strain ZX-10 was screened and isolated. This microbe produced PMA as the major fermentation product at a high-titer equivalent to 87.6g/L of malic acid and high-productivity of 0.61g/Lh in free-cell fermentation in a stirred-tank bioreactor. Fed-batch fermentations with cells immobilized in a fibrous-bed bioreactor (FBB) achieved the highest product titer of 144.2g/L and productivity of 0.74g/Lh. The fermentation produced PMA was purified by adsorption with IRA-900 anion-exchange resins, achieving a ∼100% purity and a high recovery rate of 84%. Pure malic acid was then produced from PMA by hydrolysis with 2M sulfuric acid at 85°C, which followed the first-order reaction kinetics. This process provides an efficient and economical way for PMA and malic acid production, and is promising for industrial application. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Caty G.,Catholic University of Louvain | Hu L.,Southwest University | Legrain V.,Catholic University of Louvain | Legrain V.,Ghent University | And 2 more authors.
Pain | Year: 2013

The aim of this study was to assess the function of the thermo-nociceptive system in 25 patients with long-lasting, medium-to-severe refractory complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS)-1 using behavioral (detection rates and reaction times) and electrophysiological (event-related brain potentials) responses to brief (50 milliseconds) and intense (suprathreshold for Aδ-nociceptors) carbon dioxide laser stimuli delivered to the affected and contralateral limbs, and by comparing these responses to the responses obtained in the left and right limbs of age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Compared with healthy controls and compared with the contralateral limb, the detection rate of pricking pain related to the activation of Aδ-fibers was markedly reduced at the affected limb. Furthermore, reaction times were substantially prolonged (>100 milliseconds in 84% of patients and >300 milliseconds in 50% of patients). Finally, the N2 and P2 waves of laser-evoked brain potentials were significantly reduced in amplitude, and their latencies were significantly increased. Taken together, our results show that in the majority of patients with chronic CRPS-1, thermo-nociceptive pathways are dysfunctional. A number of pathological mechanisms involving the peripheral nervous system and/or the central nervous system could explain our results. However, the primary or secondary nature of these observed changes remains an open question. © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Wu T.,Chongqing University | Chen S.,Chongqing University | Zhang D.,Chongqing Normal University | Hou J.,Southwest University
Journal of Materials Chemistry A | Year: 2015

The production of clean and renewable H2 by photocatalytic water splitting has attracted much attention due to the increasing energy crisis. In this work, semimetallic MoP2 nanoparticles are discovered as a new photocatalyst to efficiently degenerate methyl orange and produce H2 from water under visible light irradiation. MoP2 nanoparticles were prepared using a solid-state reaction route via a vacuum encapsulation technique followed by acid washing. Both first-principle band-structure calculations and experimental measurements reveal typical semimetallic characteristics for MoP2. The obtained MoP2 nanoparticles display superior photocatalytic performances for the degradation of methyl orange with a good stability and the reduction of water assisted by sacrificial elemental Pt under visible light. The detection of hydroxyl radicals in the solution in the presence of MoP2 with fluorescence spectroscopy confirmed its photodegradable activities. The present study points out a new direction for developing semimetallic photocatalysts for H2 production through water splitting. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015.


Yao J.M.,Southwest University | Yao J.M.,Beijing University of Technology | Yao J.M.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | Meng J.,Beijing University of Technology | And 3 more authors.
Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics | Year: 2010

The framework of relativistic energy-density functionals is extended to include correlations related to the restoration of broken symmetries and to fluctuations of collective variables. The generator coordinate method is used to perform configuration mixing of angular-momentum-projected wave functions, generated by constrained self-consistent relativistic mean-field calculations for triaxial shapes. The effects of triaxial deformation and of K mixing is illustrated in a study of spectroscopic properties of low-spin states in Mg24. © 2010 The American Physical Society.


Zhou Z.,Southwest University
26th Chinese Control and Decision Conference, CCDC 2014 | Year: 2014

In this paper, the stabilization of a cascaded heat-ODE system with time-dependent coefficient is discussed by choosing suitable backstepping transformation transferring the original heat-ODE system into an exponentially stable object system. We prove the existence of time-dependent kernels in forward and invertible transformation via successive approximation method, which is the novelty of the paper, at the same time, the exponential stability of closed-loop system is proved. © 2014 IEEE.


Shang Y.,Southwest University | Qin J.,Zunyi Normal College
Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering | Year: 2016

By combining the best algorithmic features of two-grid discretization method and a recent variational multiscale method, a two-level finite element variational multiscale method based on two local Gauss integrations for convection dominated incompressible Navier-Stokes equations is proposed and analyzed. In this method, a fully nonlinear Navier-Stokes problem is first solved on a coarse grid, and then a linear problem is solved on a fine grid to correct the coarse grid solution, where the numerical forms of the Navier-Stokes equations both on coarse and fine grids are stabilized by a stabilization term defined by the difference between a consistent and an under-integrated matrix of the velocity gradient. Error bounds of the approximate solution are analyzed. Algorithmic parameter scalings of the method are derived. Numerical tests are also given to verify the theoretical predictions and demonstrate the efficiency and promise of the method. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Liao J.,Southwest University
Computing and Informatics | Year: 2012

This paper presents a new transparent, incremental, concurrent checkpoint mechanism for embedded multi-core systems. It allows the checkpointed process (also called checkpointee) to continue running without stopping while checkpoints are set to a large extent. Through tracing TLB misses to block the accesses to target memory pages first time while dumping memory pages (the most timeconsuming step when setting a checkpoint). At that time, a kernel thread, called checkpointer, copies the memory access target pages to the designated memory buffer for constructing a consistent state of the checkpointee, and then resumes the memory accesses. From the experimental results, in contrast to a traditional concurrent checkpoint system, the proposed mechanism reduces the downtime of the checkpointed process by more than 10.1%. Moreover, the incremental checkpointing functionality has been implemented in this new concurrent checkpoint mechanism as well. Compared with full checkpointing, incremental checkpointing can reduce the checkpoint time more than 95.5% and 89.2% while the benchmark is the matrix multiplication at the checkpoint intervals of 10 seconds and 20 seconds, respectively.


Wang Y.,University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center | Pascoe H.G.,University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center | Brautigam C.A.,University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center | He H.,University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center | And 2 more authors.
eLife | Year: 2013

Plexins are cell surface receptors that