Garden City, KS, United States
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Nielsen D.C.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Lyon D.J.,Washington State University | Higgins R.K.,University of the Plains | Hergert G.W.,University Of Nebraska Panhandle Research and Extension Center | And 2 more authors.
Agronomy Journal | Year: 2016

Crop production systems in the water-limited environment of the semiarid central Great Plains may not have potential to profitably use cover crops because of lowered subsequent wheat (Triticum asestivum L.) yields following the cover crop. Mixtures have reportedly shown less yield-reducing eff ects on subsequent crops than single-species plantings. This study was conducted to determine winter wheat yields following both mixtures and single-species plantings of spring-planted cover crops. The study was conducted at Akron, CO, and Sidney, NE, during the 2012–2013 and 2013–2014 wheat growing seasons under both rainfed and irrigated conditions. Precipitation storage efficiency before wheat planting, wheat water use, biomass, and yield were measured and water use efficiency and harvest index were calculated for wheat following four single-species cover crops (flax [Linum usitatissimum L.], oat [Avena sativa L.], pea [Pisum sativum ssp. arvense L. Poir], rapeseed [Brassica napus L.]), a 10-species mixture, and a fallow treatment with proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) residue. Th ere was an average 10% reduction in wheat yield following a cover crop compared with following fallow, regardless of whether the cover crop was grown in a mixture or in a single-species planting. Yield reductions were greater under drier conditions. The slope of the wheat water use–yield relationship was not significantly different for wheat following the mixture (11.80 kg ha–1 mm–1) than for wheat following single-species plantings (12.32–13.57 kg ha–1 mm–1). The greater expense associated with a cover crop mixture compared with a single species is not justified. © 2016 by the American Society of Agronomy. 5585. Guilford Road, Madison, WI 53711. USA All rights reserved.


Nielsen D.C.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Lyon D.J.,Washington State University | Hergert G.W.,University Of Nebraska Panhandle Research and Extension Center | Higgins R.K.,University of the Plains | Holman J.D.,Southwest Research and Extension Center
Agronomy Journal | Year: 2015

The water-limited environment of the semiarid Central Great Plains may not produce enough cover crop biomass to generate benefits associated with cover crop use in more humid regions. There have been reports that cover crops grown in mixtures produce more biomass with greater water use efficiency than single-species plantings. This study was conducted to determine differences in cover crop biomass production, water use efficiency, and residue cover between a mixture and single-species plantings. The study was conducted at Akron, CO, and Sidney, NE, during the 2012 and 2013 growing seasons under both rainfed and irrigated conditions. Water use, biomass, and residue cover were measured and water use efficiency was calculated for four single-species cover crops (flax [Linum usitatissimum L.], oat [Avena sativa L.], pea [Pisum sativum ssp. arvense L. Poir], rapeseed [Brassica napus L.]) and a 10-species mixture. The mixture did not produce greater biomass nor exhibit greater water use efficiency than the single-species plantings. The slope of the water-limited yield relationship was not significantly greater for the mixture than for single-species plantings. Waterlimited yield relationship slopes were in the order of rapeseed < flax < pea < mixture < oat, which was the expected order based on previously published biomass productivity values generated from values of glucose conversion into carbohydrates, protein, or lipids. Residue cover was not generally greater from the mixture than from single-species plantings. The greater expense associated with a mixture is not justified unless a certain cover crop forage quality is required for grazing or haying. © 2015 by the American Society of Agronomy 5585 Guilford Road, Madison, WI 53711 USA All rights reserved.


Troxel T.R.,University of Arkansas at Little Rock | Gadberry M.S.,University of Arkansas at Little Rock | Beck P.A.,Southwest Research and Extension Center
Professional Animal Scientist | Year: 2016

Improving animal welfare during transit may reduce morbidity and improve subsequent animal health. The objective of this study was to determine whether temperature, relative humidity, dew point, and temperature–relative humidity index differed among 4 compartments of a commercial trailer while transporting beef calves during the summer within the mid-South region. A temperature–relative humidity data logger was fastened to the ceiling of each trailer compartment during June and July for 12 loads of cattle (BW = 344.5 ± 96.60 kg, mean ± SD) transported 542.9 ± 408.38 km. Compartment temperatures averaged 31.6 ± 0.79°C and did not differ (P > 0.10). Relative humidity in the belly (64.1 ± 2.74%), tail (62.5 ± 2.74%), and bottom nose (62.1 ± 2.74%) were not different (P > 0.10), and all were greater than the top deck (58.5 ± 2.74%; P < 0.01). Dew points in the bottom nose, belly, and top deck were 24.2, 24.2, and 24.0 ± 0.59°C, respectively, and were not different (P > 0.10); however, they differed from the dew point in the tail compartment (23.4 ± 0.59°C; P < 0.02). Temperature–relative humidity index did not differ among compartments (P > 0.10) and averaged 82.1 ± 0.89. The percentage of time temperature–relative humidity index was in the danger and emergency categories was 93.9, 86.6, 84.2 and 68.3 ± 0.04% for the bottom nose, top deck, belly, and tail compartments, respectively (P < 0.01). Hour of day differences during transport were observed for temperature, relative humidity, and temperature–relative humidity index (P < 0.10) but not dew point (P = 0.35). These differences could affect dehydration risk or shrinkage during transport. © 2016 American Registry of Professional Animal Scientists


Gadberry M.S.,University of Arkansas at Little Rock | Philipp D.,University of Arkansas | Beck P.A.,Southwest Research and Extension Center | Brown E.L.,University of Arkansas at Little Rock | Hawkins J.A.,University of Arkansas at Little Rock
Professional Animal Scientist | Year: 2011

The objective of this project was to examine the effect of grazing restriction, stage of maturity at harvest, and addition of glycerol to wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) harvested as silage. The project design was a split-split plot, and the first treatment level was nongrazed wheat compared with wheat grazed just before first hollow stem. The secondary treatment structure was harvesting the wheat at anthesis versus soft dough maturity. The third treatment structure was applying glycerol to the wheat at 0, 5, 10, or 15% of DM before ensiling. Nongrazed wheat produced more yield than did grazed wheat (P = 0.04), and harvesting at soft dough produced more yield than did harvesting at anthesis (P > 0.001). The change in NDF, ADF, and IVDMD was greater for nongrazed wheat from anthesis to soft dough maturity compared with grazed wheat (P = 0.06). Grazing had no effect on postensiling forage chemical composition. Silage pH reached acceptable levels (4.0 to 4.2) but was not affected by plant maturity. Glycerol addition, however, appeared to result in a slight improvement of IVDMD (P = 0.04). © 2011 American Registry of Professional Animal Scientists.


Semeao A.A.,Kansas State University | Campbell J.F.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Whitworth R.J.,Kansas State University | Sloderbeck P.E.,Southwest Research and Extension Center
Journal of Stored Products Research | Year: 2011

Tribolium castaneum and Tribolium confusum can be monitored in food processing facilities using traps baited with pheromones and kairomones, but beetle response to traps might be enhanced by adding visual cues. Against a white background, T. castaneum adults were more likely to visit black pillars than white pillars when presented with a choice (e.g., 73% of beetles visited black and 17% visiting white pillar), and visits to black pillars increased with pillar height. When tested against a black background, beetles did not show a significant preference for either color pillar regardless of height. When comparing beetle's captures in pheromone/kairomone baited traps placed in front of a white or black panel in a white arena under high, low, or dark light conditions, more beetles were captured in traps in front of black panels under both high and low light conditions, but not under dark conditions. A similar pattern of capture under low light and dark conditions was also found for the closely related species T. confusum. In a larger scale choice test, the same pattern of greater T. castaneum captures in traps in front of black panels than white panels was obtained, whether traps were placed in corners or along walls. Our results suggest that captures in monitoring traps could be increased by adding dark vertical shapes behind trap locations or placing traps near dark structures. © 2011.


Semeao A.A.,Kansas State University | Campbell J.F.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Hutchinson J.M.S.,Kansas State University | Whitworth R.J.,Kansas State University | Sloderbeck P.E.,Southwest Research and Extension Center
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment | Year: 2013

Grain storage and processing facilities consist of a landscape of indoor and outdoor habitats that can potentially support stored-product insect pests, and understanding patterns of species diversity and spatial distribution in the landscape surrounding structures can provide insight into how the outdoor environment can be more effectively monitored and managed. The spatial and temporal distribution of stored-product pests was assessed at three food processing facilities using two types of traps and the influence of landscape features on their outside distribution was evaluated. For corrugated traps, targeting walking individuals, placed both inside and outside facilities, the predominant groups, accounting for 59% of captures, were Cryptolestes spp. (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae), Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.) (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) and Sitophilus spp. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Numbers captured in outside corrugated traps tended to be less than captures inside structures, and while level of species diversity was similar fungal feeding species were more common in outside traps. In outside corrugated traps, Cryptolestes spp., Typhaea stercorea (L.) (Coleoptera: Mycetophagidae) and O. surinamensis were most abundant and in outside Lindgren traps that targeted flying individuals, T. stercorea, Cryptolestes spp. and Ahasverus advena (Waltl) (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) were most abundant. No correlation was observed between total captures and species diversity between inside and outside traps. Distribution of stored-product insects in corrugated traps tended not to be spatially clustered (Global Moran's I values ranged from -0.25 to 0.22). However, Anselin local Moran's I indicated that at local level some traps with greatest captures had traps in the vicinity with similar values, but these specific locations were temporally variable. Landscape around each outside corrugated trap was characterized, and increased captures were associated with proximity to grain storage or processing structures, but not with presence of spillage as originally hypothesized. Overall, results support hypothesis that there is considerable movement of insects in landscape surrounding facilities, resulting in limited spatial pattern other than temporally variable hot spots inside or near structures. © 2013.


Ma J.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Jaraba J.,University of Córdoba, Colombia | Kirkpatrick T.L.,Southwest Research and Extension Center | Rothrock C.S.,University of Arkansas
Phytopathology | Year: 2014

Effects of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita and the fungal pathogen Thielaviopsis basicola on cotton seedling growth and root morphology were evaluated in controlled environmental experiments. Four pathogen treatments, including noninfested soil, soil infested with M. incognita, soil infested with T. basicola, and soil infested with both pathogens were evaluated at soil bulk densities (BDs) of 1.25 and 1.50 g/cm3. Plant growth and the morphology of the root systems were evaluated 44 days after planting. Infestation with M. incognita and T. basicola together significantly reduced seedling emergence, number of stem nodes, and root system volume compared with either pathogen alone. Either M. incognita or T. basicola reduced plant height, root fresh weight, top dry weight; root parameters total root length, surface area, and links; and root topological parameters magnitude, altitude, and exterior path length. M. incognita infection increased root radius. Root colonization by T. basicola increased with the presence of M. incognita at the lower soil BD. In contrast to previous research with Pythium spp., root topological indices (TIs) were similar with all of the treatments. Root TIs were near 1.92, indicating a herringbone (less branching) root architectural structure. Studying root architecture using a topological model offers an additional approach to evaluating fungi and nematodes and their interactions for soilborne-pathogen systems. © 2014 The American Phytopathological Society.

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