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Graham E.E.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Mitchell R.F.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Reagel P.F.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Barbour J.D.,Southwest Idaho Research and Extension Center | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Economic Entomology | Year: 2010

The most effective traps for capturing cerambycids and other saproxylic beetles are intercept designs such as funnel traps and cross-vane panel traps. We have observed that adult cerambycids of many species often alight and walk upon panel traps, and few are actually captured. In an effort to improve trap capture and retention, researchers have treated intercept traps with Rain-X, a polysiloxane formulation that renders surfaces more slippery. Here, we summarize experiments that compared the efficacies of Rain-X and Fluon, a PTFE fluoropolymer dispersion, as surface treatments for panel traps that are deployed to capture cerambycid beetles, using untreated traps as controls. Fluon-treated traps captured on average >14× the total number of beetles, and many more cerambycid species, than were captured by Rain-X-treated or control traps. Beetles captured by Fluon-treated traps ranged in body length by 350%. They could not walk on vertical panels treated with Fluon but easily walked on those treated with Rain-X and on untreated traps. Moreover, a single Fluon treatment remained effective for the entire field season, even in inclement weather. We conclude that treating panel traps with Fluon greatly improves their efficiency in capturing cerambycid beetles. This increased efficacy will be particularly important when traps are deployed to detect very low-density populations, such as incursions of exotic species, or remnant communities of rare and endangered species. The influence of Fluon on trap efficiency may vary with product formulation and its source and also with climatic conditions. © 2010 Entomological Society of America. Source


Maki E.C.,Southwest Idaho Research and Extension Center | Millar J.G.,University of California at Riverside | Rodstein J.,University of California at Riverside | Hanks L.M.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Barbour J.D.,Southwest Idaho Research and Extension Center
Journal of Economic Entomology | Year: 2011

Larvae of Prionus californicus Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) feed on the roots of many types of woody perennial crops and are serious pests of hop in the northwestern United States. The adult males are strongly attracted to a volatile sex pheromone, (3R,5S)-3,5-dimethyldodecanoic acid, that is produced by females. Here, we summarize the results of field experiments that evaluated the potential for using the synthetic pheromone (in a blend of all four possible stereoisomers) to manage infestations of P. californicus in commercial hop yards by mass trapping or mating disruption. Our research provides evidence that mass trapping may be effective in reducing mating success of the females: positioning surrogate females (sentinel traps baited with a low dose of pheromone) within a square of eight pheromone-baited traps resulted in an 88% reduction in the number of wild males that reached the sentinel traps compared with sentinel traps that were surrounded by traps baited with blank lures. Similarly, surrogate females that were surrounded by pheromone lures (without traps) were reached by 84% fewer wild males than surrogate females surrounded by blank lures, suggesting that mating disruption also may be effective. A mark-recapture experiment indicated that male P. californicus were attracted to traps baited with 1 mg of pheromone from as far away as 585 m. These studies indicate that 3,5-dimethyldodecanoic acid has very good potential for managing P. californicus in hop yards, and perhaps in other crops where it is a pest. © 2011 Entomological Society of America. Source


Maki E.C.,Southwest Idaho Research and Extension Center | Rodstein J.,University of California at Riverside | Millar J.G.,University of California at Riverside | Barbour K.S.,Southwest Idaho Research and Extension Center | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Chemical Ecology | Year: 2011

Earlier work has shown that adult male Prionus californicus Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) are attracted to the female-produced compound (3R,5S)-3,5-dimethyldodecanoic acid, and to a synthetic mixture of the four stereoisomers of 3,5-dimethyldodecanoic acid. Here, we report the results of field trials that tested whether or not three structurally related compounds (methyl 3,5-dimethyldodecanoate, 3,5-dimethyltridecanoic acid, and 3,5-dimethylpentadecanoic acid), present in extracts of virgin females, are attractive, and whether or not they influence attraction to 3,5-dimethyldodecanoic acid. In a trial with single components, only traps baited with the acid or its methyl ester captured more beetles than did control traps; catches to the acid were five times higher than to the methyl ester. Another trial, excluding 3,5-dimethyldodecanoic acid, confirmed the activity of the methyl ester. Finally, addition of the three compounds to 3,5-dimethyldodecanoic acid, in the ratio found in extracts from female beetles, gave a catch similar to that of traps baited with 3,5-dimethyldodecanoic acid alone. Consequently, the function of these minor compounds remains undetermined. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source


Barbour J.D.,Southwest Idaho Research and Extension Center | Millar J.G.,University of California at Riverside | Rodstein J.,University of California at Riverside | Ray A.M.,Xavier University | And 4 more authors.
Annals of the Entomological Society of America | Year: 2011

Males of the longhorned beetle Prionus californicus Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) are significantly attracted to the female-produced sex pheromone (3R,5S)-3,5-dimethyldodecanoic acid. Males respond equally well to the synthetic blend of the four stereoisomers of 3,5-dimethyldodecanoic acid as to the single natural enantiomer, suggesting that the unnatural isomers are not inhibitory. Males of the congener Prionus lecontei Lameere also are attracted to the (3R,5S)-enantiomer but not to the (3S,5R)-enantiomer, suggesting that the (3R,5S)-enantiomer is also an important pheromone component of that species. Here, we report the results of field trials that test the hypothesis that synthetic 3,5-dimethyldodecanoic acid will serve as a general attractant for males of other Prionus species. We conducted field bioassays of synthetic 3,5-dimethyldodecanoic acid at study sites in six different regions of North America and one site in the United Kingdom. Traps baited with the synthetic pheromone blend captured males of P. californicus (southwestern Idaho, southern California, and northwestern Utah), P. lecontei (southern California and northwestern Utah), and six additional species of Prionus: Prionus integer LeConte (southwestern Idaho), Prionus imbricornis (L.) (Georgia), Prionus laticollis (Drury) (Georgia), Prionus linsleyi Hovore (north central Arizona), Prionus aztecus Casey (northern Mexico), and Prionus coriarius (L.) (East Anglia, United Kingdom). These findings demonstrate that synthetic 3,5-dimethyldodecanoic acid can be used to assess the geographic distribution and local abundance of many Prionus species and therefore may be of value for monitoring threatened and endangered species of this genus, and for managing those that are pests. © 2011 Entomological Society of America. Source

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