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Sun H.,Zhejiang University | Sun H.,Southwest Forestry College | Jiang Y.-J.,Zhejiang University | Yu Q.-S.,Zhejiang University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Molecular Modeling | Year: 2011

Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a kind of serine-threonine protein kinase. It places important roles in several signaling pathways and it is a key therapeutic target for a number of diseases, such as diabetes, cancer, Alzheimer's disease and chronic inflammation. Mg2+ ions which interact with ATP are conserved in GSK. They are important in phosphoryl transfer. Li+ is an inhibitor for GSK-3. It is used to treat bipolar mood disorder. This paper illustrates the effect of Li+ on GSK-3. When Mg I 2+ is replaced by Li+, the atom fluctuation of GSK-3 will rise, and the in-line phosphoryl transfer mechanism is probably demolished and the binding of pre-phosphorylated substrates may be disturbed. All the results we obtained clearly suggest that inhibition to GSK-3 is caused by the Mg I 2+ replacement with Li+. © 2010 Springer-Verlag. Source

He C.,Beijing Institute of Technology | He C.,Southwest Forestry College | Ge Y.,Beijing Institute of Technology | Tan J.,Beijing Institute of Technology | And 3 more authors.
Fuel | Year: 2010

With mutagenic and carcinogenic potential, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from mobile source exhaust have contributed to a substantial share of air toxics. In order to characterize the PAHs emissions of diesel engine fueled with diesel, biodiesel (B100) and its blend (B20), an experimental study has been carried out on a direct-injection turbocharged diesel engine. The particle-phase and gas-phase PAHs in engine exhaust were collected by fiberglass filters and "PUF/XAD-2/PUF" cartridges, respectively, then the PAHs were determined by a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS). The experimental results indicated that comparing with diesel, using B100 and B20 can greatly reduce the total PAHs emissions of diesel engine by 19.4% and 13.1%, respectively. The Benzo[a]Pyrene (BaP) equivalent of PAHs emissions were also decreased by 15.0% with the use of B100. For the three fuels, the gas-phase PAHs emissions were higher than particle-phase PAHs emissions and the most abundant PAH compounds from engine exhaust were naphthalene and phenanthrene. The analysis showed that there was a close correlation between total PAHs emissions and particulate matter (PM) emissions for three fuels. Furthermore, the correlation became more significant when using biodiesel. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Jiang L.,Beijing Institute of Technology | Ge Y.,Beijing Institute of Technology | Shah A.N.,Beijing Institute of Technology | Shah A.N.,University of Engineering and Technology Lahore | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Sciences | Year: 2010

The present work is aimed at the study of number-size distribution of particles, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and carbonyl compounds (CC) or carbonyls emitted from a 4-cylinder turbocharged diesel engine equipped with a vanadium-based urea selective catalytic reduction catalyst. The engine was run on an electric dynamometer in accordance with the European steady-state cycle. Pollutants were analyzed using an electric low pressure impactor, a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer, and a high performance liquid chromatography system for the number-size distribution of particles, VOCs, and CC emissions, respectively. Experimental results revealed that total number of particles were decreased, and their number-size distributions were moved from smaller sizes to larger sizes in the presence of the catalyst. The VOCs were greatly reduced downstream of the catalyst. There was a strong correlation between the conversion of styrene and ethyl benzene. The conversion rate of benzene increased with increase of catalyst temperature. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein and acetone were significantly reduced, resulting in a remarkable abatement in carbonyls with the use of the vanadium-based urea-SCR system. © 2010 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Source

Liu Z.Q.,Southwest Forestry College
Computer, Intelligent Computing and Education Technology - Selected Peer Reviewed Papers From 2014 International Conference on Computer, Intelligent Computing and Education Technology, CICET 2014 | Year: 2014

At western Yunnan plateau in China, the characteristics of precipitation and runoff production on slop lands can provide a foundation data for vegetation recovery research and slop management. Characteristics of precipitation and runoff production on slop land were studied with the method of runoff plots. It showed that the distribution of one year rainfall is uneven; the rain keeps on heavy in the rainy season and results in water and soil erosion. Based on the three characteristic values of rainfall: precipitation, rainfall intensity and duration, the rainfalls in the study area were classified into three regimes through K-means clustering in SPSS 15.0 software, The order of runoff coefficients induced by rainfall was regime A > regime B > regime C. However, The order of scale effect on runoff induced by rainfall was regime C > regime B > regime A. © 2014 Taylor & Francis Group. Source

Zhang X.,University of Tennessee at Knoxville | Zhao Q.,University of Tennessee at Knoxville | Wang S.,University of Tennessee at Knoxville | Trejo R.,Oak Ridge National Laboratory | And 2 more authors.
Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing | Year: 2010

As the potential of using natural wood derivatives in the fabrication of composites is explored, it is important to gain further understanding of the structure and properties of wood cells. Past research has focused on estimating and measuring mechanical properties of wood cell walls such as hardness and modulus of elasticity by means of nano-indentation tests. However, to date, the mechanical properties of wood cell walls have not been fully understood or documented in the literature. The research described in this paper focuses, for the first time, on investigating the strength and fracture behavior of wood cell walls through an innovative approach, the uniaxial micro-compression test. Specimens of Keranji (Dialium ssp.), a dense Asian hardwood, and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda), an American softwood, were chosen as hardwood and softwood representatives for the micro-compression test. After the initial preparation by microtoming, the samples were further prepared following a novel approach, in which 37 cylindrical-shaped micro-pillars were fabricated using a Focused Ion Beam (FIB) with a voltage of 30 kV, while each micropillar was milled inside a single wood cell wall. After the dimensions of each micropillar were measured by analysis of the SEM images using ImageJ software, a micro-compression test was conducted on the micropillar at a loading rate of 20 nm per second using a Nano II Indenter system. The load-displacement curves were plotted, and the yield stress and compressive strength obtained for the Keranji cell wall were 136.5 MPa and 160 MPa, respectively; the yield stress and compressive strength of the loblolly pine cell wall were 111.3 MPa and 125 MPa, respectively. The fracture behavior of the wood micro-pillars confirmed the brittleness of the wood cell walls. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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