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Alter M.D.,University of Pennsylvania | Kharkar R.,University of Pennsylvania | Ramsey K.E.,Translational Genomics Research Institute | Craig D.W.,Translational Genomics Research Institute | And 9 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

A causal role of mutations in multiple general transcription factors in neurodevelopmental disorders including autism suggested that alterations in global levels of gene expression regulation might also relate to disease risk in sporadic cases of autism. This premise can be tested by evaluating for changes in the overall distribution of gene expression levels. For instance, in mice, variability in hippocampal-dependent behaviors was associated with variability in the pattern of the overall distribution of gene expression levels, as assessed by variance in the distribution of gene expression levels in the hippocampus. We hypothesized that a similar change in variance might be found in children with autism. Gene expression microarrays covering greater than 47,000 unique RNA transcripts were done on RNA from peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of children with autism (n = 82) and controls (n = 64). Variance in the distribution of gene expression levels from each microarray was compared between groups of children. Also tested was whether a risk factor for autism, increased paternal age, was associated with variance. A decrease in the variance in the distribution of gene expression levels in PBL was associated with the diagnosis of autism and a risk factor for autism, increased paternal age. Traditional approaches to microarray analysis of gene expression suggested a possible mechanism for decreased variance in gene expression. Gene expression pathways involved in transcriptional regulation were down-regulated in the blood of children with autism and children of older fathers. Thus, results from global and gene specific approaches to studying microarray data were complimentary and supported the hypothesis that alterations at the global level of gene expression regulation are related to autism and increased paternal age. Global regulation of transcription, thus, represents a possible point of convergence for multiple etiologies of autism and other neurodevelopmental disorders. © 2011 Alter et al.


News Article | November 30, 2016
Site: www.prweb.com

With 1 in 68 children being diagnosed with autism in an early age, the focus of society is shifting towards advancing research and providing a lifetime of support for individuals on the spectrum and their families. And it is through the generous contributions of individuals like Mr. Lloyd M. Claycomb, founder and CEO of Westminster-based United Builders Service Inc., that non-profits, such as Southwest Autism Research and Resource Center of Phoenix are able to make great strides in the field. Mr. Claycomb has been on a personal mission for years. His professional success has enabled him to pursue his philanthropic endeavors and support many worthy causes. Over the course of the last few years, the struggle of a close family friend whose son has been diagnosed with autism, became his motivation to focus on charities that educate various professional communities to improve their capacity to serve individuals with ASD. More specifically, Lloyd and his wife are working towards spreading the word on the neurodiversity movement in an effort to have autism viewed as a variation in functioning rather than as a mental disorder to be cured. Claycomb and his wife, Karen, have raised and donated hundreds of thousands of dollars in an effort to educate and spread awareness of the autism spectrum disorder with the most recent milestone in their philanthropic endeavor including a donation to the Southwest Autism Research and Resource Center of Phoenix in honor of Autism Awareness Month, at its annual fundraising breakfast at the Arizona Biltmore. In addition to raising $20,000 last week alone, United Builders Service, Inc., made a donation to aid in fundraising efforts. The Claycombs also plan to host a private fundraising dinner for donors to raise additional funds for SARRC. This fundraiser is expected to raise more than $75,000. “All children are unique and special in their own way. We need to embrace them and work together to learn to live with the added challenges in their lives as a way to collectively become stronger and more adept at handling life,” Claycomb said. “I have built several orphanages around the world, but I don't view my philanthropic work as a way to shine in my community. It is my personal belief that we need to share in the blessings we have been fortunate to have received in our lives with those who most need it.” Established in 1997, the Southwest Autism Research & Resource Center (SARRC) is an internationally recognized nonprofit organization dedicated to autism research, education, evidence-based treatment, and community outreach.


Matthews N.L.,Southwest Autism Research and Resource Center | Matthews N.L.,University of California at Irvine | Ly A.R.,University of Delaware | Ly A.R.,University of California at Irvine | Goldberg W.A.,University of California at Irvine
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders | Year: 2014

Little is known about peer attitudes toward college students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Affective, behavioral, and cognitive attitudes toward vignette characters displaying behaviors characteristic of ASD were examined among 224 four-year university students who were randomly assigned to one of three labeling conditions for the primary vignette characters: high functioning autism (HFA), typical college student, or no label. Students in the HFA label condition reported more positive behavioral and cognitive attitudes toward the vignette characters than students in the no label condition. Male students and students with lower scores on the Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire reported more positive attitudes across study conditions. These experimental results suggest that knowledge of a diagnosis might improve attitudes toward college students with ASD. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Jahromi L.B.,Arizona State University | Meek S.E.,Arizona State University | Ober-Reynolds S.,Southwest Autism Research and Resource Center
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines | Year: 2012

Background: It is well accepted that emotion regulation difficulties are a serious concern for children with ASD, yet empirical studies of this construct are limited for this population. The present study describes group differences between high functioning children with autism and their typical peers in frustration and discrete coping strategies for emotion regulation. We also use sequential analyses to test differences in the efficacy of individual coping strategies at regulating children's frustration. Methods: Subjects were 20 children with autism (M = 59 months) and 20 developmentally matched typically developing children (M = 50 months). Measures of children's frustration (negative facial expressions and behaviors, negative vocalizations, resignation) and emotion regulation coping strategies were observationally coded from structured video recordings. Results: Children with autism displayed a higher intensity and duration of resignation, and the group difference became most pronounced when children worked alone during the parent-absent segment of the locked box task. Children with autism used significantly more avoidance and venting strategies, and fewer constructive strategies than typical children. Sequential analyses revealed that social support strategies (orienting and verbalizing to the experimenter) were ineffective for children with autism, while these behaviors, vocal venting, and distraction strategies were all effective for typically developing children. Conclusions: The results go beyond the recent literature by offering a rich description of children's efforts to regulate their frustration when faced with challenge, and point to important contextual differences in the efficacy of children's coping strategies. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2012 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.


Smith I.M.,Dalhousie University | Koegel R.L.,University of California at Santa Barbara | Koegel L.K.,University of California at Santa Barbara | Openden D.A.,Southwest Autism Research and Resource Center | And 2 more authors.
American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities | Year: 2010

The Nova Scotia early intensive behavior intervention model-NS EIBI (Bryson et al., 2007) for children with autistic spectrum disorders was designed to be feasible and sustainable in community settings. It combines parent training and naturalistic one-to-one behavior intervention employing Pivotal Response Treatment-PRT (R. Koegel & Koegel, 2006). We followed 45 children (33 males, mean baseline age 5 50 months) for 12 months. Mean gains of 14.9 and 19.5 months were observed on expressive and receptive language measures, respectively, for children with an IQ of 50 or more at baseline versus 6.1 and 8.4 months for children with IQs less than 50. Behavior problems decreased significantly over the 1-year treatment for both groups, but autism symptoms decreased only for those with an IQ of 50 or more. © American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities.


Matthews N.L.,Southwest Autism Research and Resource Center | Pollard E.,Southwest Autism Research and Resource Center | Ober-Reynolds S.,Southwest Autism Research and Resource Center | Kirwan J.,Southwest Autism Research and Resource Center | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders | Year: 2014

Profiles of performance on the Stanford Binet Intelligence Scales (SB5) and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) were examined in 73 children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. SB5 cognitive profiles were observed to be similar between participants with and without early language delay, but different between participants with and without intellectual disability. With few exceptions, the distribution and cognitive profiles of participants with specific nonverbal IQ–verbal IQ and abbreviated IQ–full scale IQ discrepancy patterns paralleled previous reports. A cognitive functioning advantage over adaptive functioning was observed to be strongest in participants without intellectual disability and older participants. The previously reported VABS “autism profile” was not observed. Current findings clarify previous research and will inform the diagnostic process and treatment planning. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York.


PubMed | Southwest Autism Research and Resource Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of autism and developmental disorders | Year: 2015

Profiles of performance on the Stanford Binet Intelligence Scales (SB5) and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) were examined in 73 children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. SB5 cognitive profiles were observed to be similar between participants with and without early language delay, but different between participants with and without intellectual disability. With few exceptions, the distribution and cognitive profiles of participants with specific nonverbal IQ-verbal IQ and abbreviated IQ-full scale IQ discrepancy patterns paralleled previous reports. A cognitive functioning advantage over adaptive functioning was observed to be strongest in participants without intellectual disability and older participants. The previously reported VABS autism profile was not observed. Current findings clarify previous research and will inform the diagnostic process and treatment planning.


Trademark
Southwest Autism Research And Resource Center | Date: 2010-06-24

Coffee based beverages.


Trademark
Southwest Autism Research And Resource Center | Date: 2012-02-28

coffee beans.


PubMed | Southwest Autism Research and Resource Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of autism and developmental disorders | Year: 2015

There is a dearth of research regarding adaptive functioning during the transition to adulthood in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Profiles on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Second Edition were examined by age and intellectual ability in 75 participants with ASD (16-58 years). Results extend previous reports of a cognitive advantage over adaptive functioning in children by demonstrating a similar pattern in an older sample. Daily living skills were a relative strength compared to communication and socialization in adults, but not adolescents. In general, highest subdomain scores were observed in writing skills and lowest scores were observed in interpersonal skills. Regardless of cognitive ability, all standard scores were well below average, indicating a need for lifelong intervention that targets adaptive functioning.

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